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World History in a Week: The Big Picture

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Title: World History in a Week: The Big Picture


1
World History in a WeekThe Big Picture
2
When did Humans arrive on the scene?
  • Age of hominids? 7 million years
  • Age of homo sapiens? 500,000 years
  • Neanderthals? 140,000-50,000 y.a.
  • Separate evolutionary line First genocide?
  • Cro-Magnon? 40,000 y.a. (fully modern anatomy)

3
Hominid Development?
4
Great Leap Forward
  • When? 50,000 b.p.
  • Emergence of
  • Fish hooks, Arrows, Bows, Needles, Engravers,
    Awls
  • Art
  • Jewelry (Beads at first)
  • Navigation/Boating? (Australia from New Guinea)
  • Proposed Causes
  • Voicebox development / language
  • Brain organization change

Lascaux Caves, France
5
Hunter-Gatherers
  • Humanitys only economic activity for at least
    90 of our existence.
  • Low population densities (small groups of 40-60
    1 person/ mi2)
  • Largely egalitarian - every person performs
    essential functions.

6
Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis
  • Large, slow, or tame animals become extinct
    shortly after hunter-gatherer arrival in New
    World, Polynesia, Australia / New Guinea.
  • Flightless birds, giant cave bear, ground sloth.

Skeleton of Giant Ground Sloth, Los Angeles
Giant Extinct Moa, New Zealand
7
Agricultural and Industrial Societies Accelerate
Extinctions
  • Flightless birds, whales, otters
  • U.S. Passenger Pigeon

Mauritius, Indian Ocean
Dodo Bird discovered in 1598, extinct by 1681.
Dodo Bird, Mauritius, Indian Ocean
8
Agricultural Revolution
  • Domestication of Plants and Animals
  • Seed Agriculture - Fertile Crescent, western
    India, northern China, Ethiopia, southern Mexico
    (10,000 b.p.)
  • Rice, wheat, and corn account for more than 50
    of world population's food calories and were
    among the first plants domesticated (along with
    millet, sorghum wheat, rye, barley).

9
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10
Neolithic Revolution
  • Domestication of Animals
  • Dog was probably first.
  • Early domesticated animals cattle, oxen, pigs,
    sheep, goats, guinea pigs, llama
  • role in agricultural production and success
  • Relationship to success of particular cultures
    Indo-European Horsemen

11
Neolithic Revolution
  • Primary effects
  • Urbanization
  • Social Stratification
  • Occupational Specialization
  • Increased population densities

Teotihuacan
12
Human Expansion and Ancient Empires
  • Urbanization and increased efficiency lead to
    population growth and increased density, which
    leads to need for more space.
  • Ancient Examples
  • Aztecs, Maya
  • Chinese Warlords / Dynasties
  • Polynesians
  • Roman Empire
  • Muslim / Ottoman Empire
  • Human and environmental costs are inevitable.

13
Human Expansion
  • Urbanization and increased efficiency lead to
    population growth, which leads to need for more
    space.

14
Human Expansion
  • Urbanization and increased efficiency lead to
    population growth, which leads to need for more
    space.

15
Age of European Discovery, Exploration, and
Colonization
  • 1492 - 1771
  • Bartholomew Dias (Portugal), 1488 - rounds Cape
    of Good Hope
  • Columbus, 1492 (Spanish/Italian) - first of four
    voyages to New World
  • Vasco De Gama (Portugal), 1498 - reaches India
  • Magellan (Portugal), 1519 - First
    Circumnavigation
  • James Cook (England), 1768-1771 - voyages in
    Pacific / Polynesia end of era of Discovery

The geographical knowledge acquired was crucial
to the expansion of European political and
economic power in the 16th Century.
16
Captain James Cook
17
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18
Industrial Revolution
  • 1733, First Cotton Mill opens in England
  • 1793, Eli Whitney invents cotton gin
  • 1800, steam engines become common (steamboats,
    locomotives)
  • 1837, Morse and two Brits, independent of Morse )
    invent telegraph
  • 1877, Bell invents telephone
  • 1908, Henry Ford delivers first Model T

Geographic Effects?
19
Global Communications and Transportation
Revolution
  • Technology
  • Containerization of Cargo (1950s)
  • Inexpensive International Air Transport (1960s -
    present)
  • Internet and earlier Arpanet (1960s)
  • Personal Computer (1980s)
  • Satellite Communications (1990s)
  • Geographic Effects?

20
Todays Technological Revolution
  • What emerging technologies will change the world?
  • Which parts of the world stand poised to
    capitalize on them?
  • Nanotechnology
  • Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Robotics and micro-robotics
  • Geographic Effects?

21
Human Population Growth
World Population Clock
22
Globalization
  • The increasing interconnectedness of different
    parts of the world through common processes of
    economic, political, and cultural change. The
    economic, cultural, and environmental effects of
    globalization are highly contested.

Panama, 1997
23
Transnational Corporations
Name Revenues Year
Name in billion US Year
USA 1,722.00 1998
Germany 977 1998
Italy 559 1998
UK 487.7 1998
Japan 407 1998
France 222 1998
Netherlands 163 1998
General Motors 161.3 1999
Daimler Chrysler 154.6 1999
Brazil 151 1998
Ford Motor 144.4 1999
Wal-Mart Stores 139.2 1999
Canada 121.3 1998
Spain 113 1998
Sweden 109.4 1998
Mitsubishi 107.1 1999
General Electrics 100.5 1999
South Korea 100.4 1998
  • These companies conduct business in many
    countries, moving products and capital rapidly
    across national borders.

Some other countries    
Argentina 56 1998
India 42.1 1998
Switzerland 32.7 1998
Saudi Arabia 32.3 1998
Sierra Leone 1 1998
Angola 0.9 1998
Haiti 0.3 1998
Armenia 0.3 1998
Toyota Motor 99.7 1999
Royal Dutch / Shell Group 93.7 1999
Australia 90.7 1998
Sumitomo 89.0 1999
IBM 81.7 1999
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