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Title: Phrases, Clauses and Sentences


1
Phrases, Clauses and Sentences
PREPARED BY SENGHOR LAY
2
What is a phrase?
  • Definition
  • A phrase is a small group of words that adds
    meaning to a word.
  • A phrase is not a sentence because it is not
    a complete idea with a subject and a predicate.

3
KINDS OF PHRASE
NOUN PHRASE
PRE. PHRASE
9
INFINITIVE PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
ADJECTIVE PHRASE
GERUND PHRASE
ADVERB PHRASE
PRESENT PARTICIPLE PHRASE
PAST PARTICIPLE PHRASE
4
What is a noun phrase?
  • Definition
  • A noun phrase is a group of words that does
    the work of noun.
  • A noun phrase is either a pronoun or any
    group of words that can be replaced by a pronoun.

5
STRUCTURES OF NOUN PHRASE
  • Noun pre-modifier
  • Modifiers before the noun are called
    pre-modifiers.
  • ( modify means to limit, restrict,
    characterize, or otherwise focus meaning )
  • All of pre-modifiers that are present and
    noun together form

A NOUN PHRASE.
6
  • Noun post-modifier
  • Modifiers coming after a noun are called
    post-modifiers.
  • Ex- white house, the three old democratic
    legislators

NOUN PHRASE
PRE-MODIFIER NOUN
7
  • The most common post- modifier is
  • Ex- The glass on the table, the boy in the
    store.

NOUN PHRASE
NOUN POST-MODIFIER
Prepositional phrase
8
  • Ex- The boy on the top of the house.
  • The overhead projector on the ceiling
  • The teacher next to the window

NOUN PHRASE
Pre-modifier noun post-modifier
9
EXPENSION OF NOUN PHRASE
NOUN PHRASE
PRONOUN
NOUN
DETERMINER NOUN
PERSONAL PERSON
DET ADJ PRESENT .P N
DETERMINER ADJ N
DET NOUN PRE.P
DET ADJ N PRE.P
DET ADJ PRESENT .P N PRE.P
10
What is a determiner?
  • Definition
  • Determiner is a word that is used to clarify
    the noun.

To define something or someone
To state the amount of people, things or other
nouns
To state possessive
To state something or someone is specific
To state how things or people are distributed
To state the difference between noun
To state someone or something is not specific
11
DETERMINER

DETERMINER
ARTICLES ( a, an, the)
DEMONSTRATIVES
POSSESSIVE ( my, your)
QUANTIFIERS ( few, much)
ORDINALS ( first, second.)
NUMBERS ( one, two...)
12
KINDS OF DETERMINER
3
CENTRAL DETER-
PRE-DETERMINER
POST-DETERMINER
13
What is a pre-determiner?
  • Definition
  • A pre-determiner is a word that is used to
    put in front of other determiners in noun phrase.
  • Pre-determiner can be
  • Ex- all the children, both the boys, half the
    children

The subset ( all, both, half..)
14
  • Ex- once a day, twice a day, thrice a day
  • Ex- one-tenth the speed, two-third the time..

Multipliers that consisting of ( once, twice,
thrice )
Fraction other than half ( one-tenth, two-third)
15
  • Ex- They now earn double their previous salary.
  • Ex- ten times the fatalities, three times a day
  • four times each month..

The subset ( double, treble, quadruple)
Multiplying expression headed by times
16
  • Ex- what a day, what a happy occasion, such a
    friend

Exclamation ( what which ) can precede the
indefinite article
17
What is a central determiner?
  • Definition
  • A central determiner is a word that is used
    to put after pre-determiner ( not all).
  • Ex- four time a day, two- third the time..

18
CENTRAL DETERMINERS
  • CENTRAL DETERMINERS ARE

ARTICLES
DEMONSTRATIVES
INTERROGATIVE DETERMINERS
POSSESSIVE DETERMINERS
NOMINAL RELATIVE DETERMINERS ( WHICH)
RELATIVE DETERMINERS
INDEFINITE DETERMINER ( some, any)
WH-CONDITIONAL DETERMINER ( WHAT)
19
What is a post-determiner?
  • Definition
  • A post-determiner is a word that is used to
    put after pre-determiner and central determiner.
  • Ex- all my six children, all my two brothers.

Cardinals
20
  • Ex- her twenty-first birthday..
  • Ex- both her other daughter..
  • Ex- all your few suggestions

Primary ordinals
General ordinals
Primary quantifiers
21
What is a modifier?
  • Definition
  • A modifier is a word or sentence element that
    is used to limit or qualify another word, a
    phrase or a clause.
  • FORMS OF MODIFIER

ADJECTIVE
ADVERB
22
KINDS OF MODIFIER

MODIFIER
POST-MODIFIER
PRE-MODIFIER
23
What is a pre-modifier of noun?
  • Definition
  • A pre-modifier of noun is a word that is used
    to put before noun and modify noun.
  • PRE-MODIFIER OF NOUN CAN BE
  • Ex- one single blood-pressure measurement

ADJECTIVE OR ADJECTIVE PHRASE
24
  • Ex- It is a hundred and fifty pound job
  • Ex- the coming weeks..
  • Ex- wasted natural resources

NOUN OR NOUN PHRASE
-ING PARTICIPLE
-ED PARTICIPLE
25
  • Ex- the old soldiers way
  • Ex- six essays
  • Ex- the then managing editor..

GENITIVE NOUN PHRASE
NUMERAL
ADVERB
26
  • Ex- behind- the- scenes negotiation..
  • Ex- It is required to allow updating and track
    entries
  • by data from several sensors using a read
    and lock
  • procedure call.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
CLAUSE
27
What is a post-modifier of noun?
  • Definition
  • A post-modifier of noun is a word that is
    used to put after noun.
  • Post-modifier of noun can be
  • Ex- It is just a question of which is the more
    efficient
  • approach.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
28
  • Ex- We dont have a constitution which stops
  • government from legislating certain
    things.
  • Ex- The air mass bringing the coldest
    temperatures is
  • the polar continental mass which comes in
    from
  • the Soviet Union.

FINITE RELATIVE CLAUSE
RELATIVE -ING PARTICIPLE CLAUSE
29
  • Ex- It is a school project planned for mine.
  • Ex- And again Fred when is the time to do it.

RELATIVE -ED PARTICIPLE CLAUSE
RELATIVE INFINITIVE CLAUSE
30
  • Ex- It is really shorthand for the view that
    well-being
  • depends on more than the absence of the
    disease.
  • Ex- .so you arrived the day before did you.

APPOSITIVE FINITE CLAUSE
ADVERB
31
  • Ex- Ohm let me fine you something ethnic.
  • Ex- He is in his address this morning.

ADJECTIVE
NOUN PHRASE
32
FUNCTION OF NOUN PHRASE
  • NOUN PHRASE CAN BE USED
  • Ex- My old laptop is not working now.

1- SUBJECT
33
  • Ex- ..sign your name there.
  • Ex- I always tell people the truth when I was
    young.

2- DIRECTIVE OBJECT
3- INDIRECT OBJECT
34
  • Ex- Uh faith has been a gift for you.
  • Ex- I called this little talk a survey of global
    economic
  • crisis.

4- SUBJECTIVE PREDICATE
5- OBJECTIVE PREDICATE
35
  • Ex- Ohm but why isnt it in French.
  • Ex- Simon is on this revision course.

6- COMPLEMENT OF PREPOSITION
7- PRE-MODIFIER OF A NOUN OR NOUN PHRASE
36
  • Ex- You are a teacher of English, Dad.
  • Ex- The flag goes up far side.

8- VOCATIVE
9- ADVERBIAL
37
  • Ex- The plane was 4 hours late.
  • Ex- He revealed Washington had informed Pakistan
  • an hour before the start of assault.

10- PRE-MODIFIER OF ADJECTIVE
11- PRE- MODIFIER OF PREPOSITION
38
  • Ex- Now Mercedes have always been good at
    insulting
  • their car but they are gone a stage
    further with this.
  • Ex- Women may suffer from lack of acceptable
    because
  • too many of men their ages are dead.

12- PRE-MODIFIER OF ADVERB
13- POST-MODIFIER OF NOUN
39
  • Ex- We are short fifteen dollars.
  • Ex- Students are short two hundred dollars.

14- POST-MODIFIER OF ADJECTIVE
40
What is an adjective?
  • Definition
  • An adjective is a word that is used to modify
    or to describe a noun or pronoun.
  • ADJECTIVE ANSWERS

How many..?
Which..?
What kind?
41
What is an adjective phrase?
  • Definition
  • An adjective phrase is a group of words that
    does the work of an adjective.
  • The adjective phrase has its head as an
    adjective, which may preceded by pre-modifiers
    and followed by post-modifiers.
  • Sometimes only one adjective is also an
    adjective phrase.

42
STRUCTURES OF ADJECTIVE PHRASE
  • ADJECTIVE PHRASES ARE

PRE-MODIFIER ADJECTIVE
PRE-MODIFIER ADJECTIVE POST-MODIFIER
ADJECTIVE
43
What is a pre-modifier of adjective?
  • Definition
  • A pre-modifier of adjective is a word that is
    used to put before an adjective.
  • Generally, the pre-modifier is an
    intensifier.
  • Ex- This is a perfectly good conversation as
  • far as I am concerned.
  • Ex- That is a bit premature, isnt it.

44
What is a post-modifier of adjective?
  • Definition
  • A post-modifier of adjective is a word that
    is used to put after an adjective.
  • Adjectives are typically post-modified by
    prepositional phrases and various kinds of clause.

45
POST-MODIFIERS ARE
  • Ex- I was afraid of him, didnt really know him.
  • Ex- I expect you are glad you are not a
    vegetarian.

1-PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
2-THAT- CLAUSE
46
  • Ex- Yes, you have to be careful what is available
    in
  • what color.
  • Ex- If you have any questions then I would be
    happy to
  • hear from you, but would you please allow
    me
  • until 7 May.

3- WH -CLAUSE
4- TO INFINITIVE CLAUSE
47
  • Ex- But police were busy handling out letters
    about
  • operation to residents and Bush was happy
    with
  • the result.
  • Ex- No I am sure it is easier than they say.

5- ING- PARTICIPLE CLAUSE
6- COMPARATIVE CLAUSE
48
  • Ex- It certainly tasted strong enough.

7- ADVERB
49
FUNCTIONS OF ADJECTIVE PHRASE
  • ADJECTIVE PHRASE CAN BE USED
  • Ex- Well, it is a much less popular route.
  • Ex- No I mean Palin was extraordinary ugly.

1- PRE-MODIFIER OF A NOUN
2- SUBJECTIVE PREDICATE
50
  • Ex- He is opening his mouth very wide just now.
  • Ex- There would still be eyes watching and
    wondering
  • from a distance but, briefly there was no
    one close.

3- OBJECTIVE PREDICATE
4- POST-MODIFIER OF A PRONOUN
51
  • Ex- To outsider London seems one of the most
    vibrant
  • culture capitals of the world, a city
    bright with
  • theaters ballet galleries.

5- POST-MODIFIER OF NOUN
52
  • Ex- Tonight I hope you will not mind if I eschew
    the
  • academic.
  • Ex- Kaye doesnt finish till late.

6- NOMINAL ADJECTIVE
7- COMPLEMENT OF A PREPOSITION
53
What is an adverb?
  • Definition
  • An adverb is a word that is used to modify or
    describe a verb, an adjective or another adverbs.
  • ADVERB ANSWERS

WHEN.?
HOW MUCH..?
HOW..?
WHERE?
TO WHAT DEGREE?
54
What is an adverb phrase?
  • Definition
  • An adverb phrase is a group of words that
    does the work as an adverb.
  • An adverb phrase has its head an adverb,
    which may be preceded by pre-modifier and
    sometimes followed by post- modifier.

55
What is a pre-modifier of adverb?
  • Definition
  • A pre-modifier of adverb is a word that is
    used to put before adverb.
  • The most common pre-modifier is ( very ).
  • Ex- I wear this occasionally but very rarely.

56
What is a post-modifier of adverb?
  • Definition
  • A post-modifier of adverb is a word that is
    used to put after adverb.
  • Two adverb intensifiers- enough and indeed are
    commonly post-modified adverb.
  • Ex- It was quoted often enough in the recent
  • debate in the other place.

57
STRUCTURES OF ADVERB PHRASE
ADVERB PHRASE
PRE-MODIFIER ADVERB
PRE-MODIFIER ADVERB POST-MODIFIER
58
FUNCTIONS OF ADVERB PHRASE
  • Ex- We are far too close to it.
  • Ex- I am going to give you a prescription to
    clear up
  • the infection, then you need to have your
    teeth
  • extremely cleaned, as soon as possible.

1- PRE-MODIFIER OF AN ADJECTIVE
2- PRE-MODIFIER OF AN ADVERB
59
  • Ex- Refunds of fee are not normally available.
  • Ex- I thought he was here.

3- ADVERBIAL
4- SUBJECTIVE PREDICATE
60
  • Ex-But I have a feeling they might be right by
    the door.
  • Ex- When I look around my friends, virtually all
    of
  • them seem to have got job careers.

5- PRE-MODIFIER OF A PREPOSITION
6- PRE-MODIFIER OF A PRONOUN
61
  • Ex- Everybody knows that the results in fact have
  • absolutely no meaning and can be
    interpreted
  • any way you like.
  • Ex- The chap around forty is called Obama.

7- PRE-MODIFIER OF A DETERMINER
8- PRE-MODIFIER OF A NUMERAL
62
  • Ex- This is really quite a problem I imagine.
  • Ex- Your friend here speaks English well.

9- PRE-MODIFIER OF A NOUN PHRASE
10- POST-MODIFIER OF A NOUN PHRASE
63
  • Ex- Well right that is fair enough then.
  • Ex- Shall I move these way?

11- POST-MODIFIER OF AN ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB
12- OBJECTIVE PREDICATE
64
  • Ex- At least we are outside.
  • Ex- Oh I should have thought he have had before
    now.

13- SUBJECTIVE PREDICATE
14- COMPLEMENT OF PREPOSITION
65
(No Transcript)
66
What is a preposition?
  • Definition
  • A preposition is a part of speech that shows
    a relationship between two things.
  • PREPOSITION CAN BE ABOUT

LOCATION (ON, UNDER, IN..)
TIMING (BEFORE, AFTER, DURING..)
DIRECTION (FROM, TOWARD, TO..)
67
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68
What is a prepositional phrase?
  • Definition
  • A prepositional phrase is a group of words
    that consists of a preposition and followed by
    noun phrase that serves as the object of the
    preposition.
  • A prepositional phrase is composed of the
    preposition and a following noun phrase.

69
FORMS OF PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
PREPOSITION NOUN ( PHRASE)
PREPOSITION DETERMINER NOUN ( PHRASE )
70
  • Prepositional phrases are used either adjectively
    to modify noun or adverbially to modify verbs,
    adjectives, or clause.
  • Ex- The man in the house rented it.
  • Ex- He went in the arena.
  • Ex- Obama was happy about the goal.
  • Ex- On reflection, I believe that Palin was a
  • good nominee to be named.

71
FUNCTIONS OF PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
  • Ex- Everybody questions the significance of the
    result.
  • Ex- He was happy with his results.

1- POST-MODIFIER OF NOUN
2- POST-MODIFIER OF AN ADJECTIVE
72
  • Ex- Yesterday, the sun was just as it is in
    India.
  • Ex- From the time I bought her out of hospital
  • she never slept.

3- SUBJECTIVE PREDICATE
4- OBJECTIVE PREDICATE
73
(No Transcript)
74
What is a verb?
  • Definition
  • A verb is a word that expresses action or
    otherwise helps to make a statement.

75
(No Transcript)
76
What is a verb phrase?
  • Definition
  • A verb phrase is composed of the verb of the
    sentence and any modifiers of verb, including
    adverb, prepositional phrase or object.
  • A verb phrase is a group of verbs that
    consists of one or two helping verb (s) and one
    main verb.

77
What is a helping verb?
  • Definition
  • A helping verb is a kind of verbs that is
    used to help other verbs make negative,
    interrogative sentence and make tenses or
    aspects.
  • Definition
  • A main verb is a kind of verbs that is used to
    state the action of subject.
  • ( Main verb cant be omitted )

78
FORMS OF VERB PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
MAIN VERB
HELPING VERB MAIN VERB
AUX AUX MAIN VERB
79
What is an infinitive?
  • Definition
  • An infinitive is the name of certain verb
    forms that exists in many language.
  • In the usual description of English, the
    infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or
    without the particle ( to) therefore, do and to
    do, be and to be and so on are infinitives.

80
FORMS OF INFINITIVE VERB
INFINITIVE VERB CAN BE
VERB
TO VERB
TO ADVERB VERB
81
KINDS OF INFINITIVE VERB
INFINITIVE
BARE INFINITIVE
FULL INFINITIVE
CLEFT INFINITIVE
82
HOW TO USE BARE INFINITIVE
  • Ex- Obama will give an official speech to his
    great
  • citizens after he is nominated.

Bare infinitive is used as the main verb after
dummy auxiliary verb ( do or most modal auxiliary
verbs ( will, can.)
83
  • Ex- I heard Cambodian prime minister speak in the
  • conference yesterday.
  • Ex- Sarah Palin watches her speech be broadcast
    on
  • CNN.

Bare infinitive is used after several verbs of
perception ( see, watch, hear, and sense take a
direct object and a bare infinitive).
84
  • Ex- She always makes me cry everyday.
  • Ex- Hillary lets Mc cain give a speech to his
    supporters
  • in the white house.

Bare infinitive is used after several verbs of
permission or causation including ( make, bid,
let, and have)
85
  • Ex- PAD always demands Thai prime minister be
  • punished after he declined to solve
    economic
  • downturn for his nations.

Bare infinitive is used as present subjunctive
form and imperative form
86
HOW TO USE FULL INFINITTIVE
  • Ex- To speak is very difficult for people who do
    not
  • want to speak.
  • Ex- To study seems uncomfortable.

Full infinitive is used like a noun phrase to be
a subject of a verb.
87
  • Ex- Obama is the man to talk to in the meeting.
  • Ex- Clinton is the former president to be named.

Full infinitive is used like an adjective or
adverb, expressing purpose or intent.
88
  • Ex- She wants to speak English with Palin.
  • Ex- I asked her to make his case on his behalf.

Full infinitive is used as an object of a verb.
Full infinitive is used after the direct object
of many transitive verbs.
89
  • Ex- I arranged for him to accompany me or I
    waited
  • for summer to arrive.

Full infinitive is used after an intransitive
verb, together with a subject using the
preposition ( for ).
90
HOW TO USE CLEFT INFINITIVE
  • Ex- He wants me to strongly shout.
  • Ex- Hillary wants Obama to strictly reform the
    USA
  • after election.

Cleft infinitive is used to emphasize subject.
91
What is an infinitive phrase?
  • Definition
  • An infinitive phrase is composed of an
    infinitive verb and any modifying adverbs or
    prepositional phrase.
  • The infinitive phrase has three functions

ADVERB
NOUN
ADJECTIVE
92
EXAMPLES
  • Ex- My duty as a coach is to teach skills.
  • Ex- My sister wanted a cat to love.
  • Ex- Bill is eager to work on his skating.

93
What is a gerund?
  • Definition
  • A gerund is a verbal that ends in ing and
    functions in a sentence as a noun.

VERB ING
94
HOW TO USE GERUND
  • Ex- Travelling might satisfy your desire for new
  • new experiences.
  • Ex- They do not appreciate singing at concert.

1- GERUND AS SUBJECT
2- GERUND AS DIRECT OBJECT
95
  • Ex- My cats favorite activity is sleeping.
  • Ex- The police arrested him for kissing an
    80-year old
  • woman in the garden during water festival.

3- GERUND AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
4- GERUND AS OBJECT OF PREPOSITION
96
5- GERUND AFTER VERB PATTERN
admit
avoid
Carry on
consider
delay
deny
enjoy
dislike
finish
imagine
involve
practise
97
6- GERUND AFTER SPECIAL PHRASE
To be busy
Couldnt help
Dont mind
How about
It is no good
There is no
What about
Spend on time
It is no use
There is no point
Worth
Feel like
98
  • Ex- After having a shower, I waited for Palin.
  • Ex- I have three shirts that need washing.
  • ( need, require, want..)

7- GERUND AFTER PREPOSITION
8-GERUND IN PASSIVE
99
What is a gerund phrase?
  • Definition
  • A gerund phrase is a group of words that
    consists of a gerund and the modifiers ( pronoun,
    noun phrase, prepositional phrase, to infinitive
    phrase (adverb).
  • GERUND PHRASE

GERUND DIRECT OBJECT
GER D.O PRE.P
GER D.O TO INFI.P
100
HOW TO USE GERUND PHRASE
  • Ex- Finding a good teacher needs time.
  • Ex- I hope that you appreciate my offering you
    this
  • opportunity.

1- GERUND PHRASE AS SUBJECT
2- GERUND PHRASE AS DIRECT OBJECT
101
  • Ex- Obamas strategy has been lying to his
    supporters.
  • Ex- You might get in trouble for taking an
    illness to
  • avoid work.

3- GERUND PHRASE AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
4- GERUND PHRASE AS OBJECT OF PREPOSITION ( FOR)
102
What is a present participle?
  • Definition
  • A present participle verb is a kind of verbs
    that ends in ing form and functions as verb and
    as attributive verb.

VERB ING
103
HOW TO USE PRESENT PARTICIPLE VERB
  • Ex- Susanna is learning English at CUE now.
  • Ex- The watering can that is used by Obama is
    mine.

1- PRESENT PARTICIPLE VERB is used to form the
present action or present progressive.
2- PRESENT PARTICIPLE is used as adjective to
modify noun.
104
  • Ex- Broadly speaking, the project was successful.
  • Ex- Running for office, the senator tried to
    ignore the
  • fact he took bribes.

3- PRESENT PARTICIPLE is used to modify verb or
sentence.
105
What is a past participle verb?
  • Definition
  • A past participle verb is a kind of verbs
    that is finished by ( -ed ) or changed to the
    other form that depends on verbs.

VERB ED
106
HOW TO USE PAST PARTICIPLE
  • Ex- He has studied English since he was 12.
  • Ex- The chicken was eaten after cook.

1- PAST PARTICIPLE is used to form the present
perfect aspect.
2- PAST PARTICIPLE is used to form passive voice.
107
  • Ex- Our fallen comrades will suffer at night.
  • Ex-Our arrested hero will speak to his supporters
    at 12.

3- PAST PARTICIPLE is used to modify a noun,
active sense.
4- PAST PARTICIPLE is used to modify a noun ,
passive sense.
108
  • Ex- Given a wonderful handkerchief, Serey Mon
    smiles
  • and says thank you to his audience.

4- PAST PARTICIPLE is used to modify a verb or
sentence.
109
What is a clause?
  • Definition
  • A clause is a unit containing a lexical verb.
  • A clause is a unit that consists of a subject
    and followed by a predicate.

110
KINDS OF CLAUSE
CLAUSE
UPSTAIRS CLAUSE
DOWNSTAIRS CLAUSE
111
What is an upstairs clause?
  • Definition
  • An upstairs clause is a group of words that
    contains a subject and a predicate and expresses
    a complete thought.

SUBJECT PREDICATE (COMPLETE IDEA )
112
What is a downstairs clause?
  • Definition
  • A downstairs clause is a group of words that
    contains a subject and a predicate, but doesnt
    express a complete thought.
  • A downstairs clause is often marked by a
    dependent marker word.

113
KINDS OF DOWNSTAIRS CLAUSE
DOWNSTAIRS CLAUSE
NOUN CLAUSE
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
ADVERB CLAUSE
114
What is a noun clause?
  • Definition
  • A noun clause is a downstairs clause that
    functions as a noun within upstairs clause.

NOUN CLAUSE USUALLY BEGINES WITH
How , Why, What, Where, When, Who, That, Which,
Whose, Whether.
115
KINDS OF NOUN CLAUSE
NOUN CLAUSE
THAT - CLAUSE
WH- CLAUSE
INFINITIVE -CLAUSE
ING- CLAUSE
116
EXAMPLES
  • Ex- Everyone believes that Koy is the most
    handsome
  • in Phnom Penh.
  • Ex- What Obama believes is not very important.
  • Ex- My plan is to marry Brad Pitt.
  • Ex- I am scared of losing Brad I dont move to
  • Hollywood.

117
FUNCTIONS OF NOUN CLAUSE
  • Ex- That Bush left early surprised us.
  • Ex-The problem is that Cambodia is not a rich
    country.

1- NOUN CLAUSE is used as subject.
2- NOUN CLAUSE is used as complements
118
  • Ex- We didnt realize that Obama can resolve
    problem.
  • Ex- Finding out that Sok cried makes us bored.

3- NOUN CLAUSE is used as an object of a verb.
4- NOUN LAUSE is used as an object of a gerund.
119
  • Ex- He needs to know that she was arrested
    yesterday.
  • Ex- The gossip was about why was arrested
    yesterday.

5- NOUN CLAUSE is used as an object of an
infinitive.
6- NOUN CLAUSE is used as an object of a
preposition.
120
  • Ex- Realizing that she was killed, we ran to
    Paris.
  • Ex- Are you sure that she was accused of killing?

7- NOUN CLAUSE is used as an object of a
participle.
8- NOUN CLAUSE is used as a complement of an
adjective.
121
What is an adjective clause?
  • Definition
  • An adjective clause, also called relative
    clause, is a group of words that contains a
    subject and a predicate of its own and does the
    work of an adjective.
  • An adjective clause is a downstairs clause
    that does the work as an adjective.

122
  • Adjective clause or relative clause always
    begins with relative pronouns.

Who
Which
Where
That
Whom
Whose
When
123
  • We use adjective clause, also called relative
    clause, to identify or give additional
    information about nouns (people, places, or
    things.).

124
  • Are used only for person or people. (Who) is
    the subject of the clause.
  • After ( who) you should see a verb.
  • ( whom) is the object of the clause.
  • After ( whom) you should see a subject (noun,
    pronoun).

Who and Whom
125
  • Can be seen as combination of two sentences.
  • I have a friend. She loves to shop.
  • Ex- I have a friend who loves to shop.

Sentence with adjective clause
126
  • The man is playing baseball.
  • The man is holding a bat.
  • Ex- The man who is holding a bat is playing
    baseball.

who
127
  • I see the doctor in the room.
  • The doctor is my father.
  • Ex- The doctor whom you see in the room is my
    father.

Whom
128
  • Is used only for things which can be both
    subject and object of the clause.
  • The telephone is in your room.
  • The telephone is ringing.
  • Ex- The telephone which is in your room is
    ringing.

Which
129
  • Is used for both people and things ( less
    formal than whom and which )
  • That can be both subject and object of the
    clause.
  • I see the flowers.
  • The flowers are in the pond.
  • Ex- The flowers that you see are in the pond.

That
130
  • Is the possessive and is used for both people
    and things and must be followed by a noun.
  • can
    be subject or obj.

Whose
Whose noun
131
  • Ex- I heard the scientist whose work is
  • attracting interesting.
  • Ex- I met the scientist whose work I admire.
  • The girl is crying. Her cat is sick.
  • Ex- The girl whose cat is sick is crying.

Whose
132
  • The verb in the adjective clause is singular if
    the subject relative clause refers to a singular
    noun. It is plural if it refers to a plural noun.
  • Ex- Ben is my friend who lives in Boston.
  • Ex- John and Alex are my friends who live in
  • Paris.

133
  • Can be the subject of the preposition in its
    clause. If the preposition is at the beginning of
    the clause, whom or which must be used.

Who, whom, which, that, (o)
134
  • In formal English, we put the preposition at the
    beginning of the clause. Also, we use only whom
    not who or that to refer to people, and which not
    that to refer to things.
  • Ex- He is the writer who I work for.
  • He is the writer for whom I work.

135
  • Modifies the noun place ( country, city,
    building, house, room, street, and so on ).
  • Ex- I want to know the name of city where you
  • you were born.

Where
136
  • Modifies the noun time ( century, year, ).
  • Ex- Obama wants to know the date when you
  • were born.
  • Ex- I will tell her the time when I am free.

When
137
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
NON-RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
138
  • Identify the noun or pronoun modified. It
    gives information needed in order to know who or
    what the pronoun refers to.
  • Ex- The car that has broken headlights
  • belongs to my teacher of English.

RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
139
  • Give extra information about the noun or
    pronoun but is not needed to identify it.
  • Ex- The Eiffel Tower has an elevator, which I
  • rode to the top.

NON-RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
140
  • Use

NON-RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
Who, which, whom, whose, where, when
141
  • Do not use the relative pronoun ( that).
  • Do not omit the objective relative pronoun.
  • Always put commas around a non- restrictive
    adjective clause.

IN NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE
142
  • If an adjective clause is a restrictive adjective
    clause, the adjective phrase is a restrictive
    adjective phrase.
  • If an adjective clause is a non- restrictive
    adjective clause, the adjective phrase is a
    non-restrictive adjective phrase.

143
What is an adverb clause?
  • Definition
  • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that
    functions as an adverb within main clause.

144
KINDS OF ADVERB CLAUSE
ADVERB CLAUSE OF
2- REASON
1- TIME
4- CONTRAST
3- CONCESSION
6- PURPOSE
5- RESULT
7- PLACE
8- MANNER
145
What is an adverb of time?
  • Definition
  • An adverb clause of time is an adverb clause
    that is introduced by

When, whenever, while, as, before, after, till,
until, since, and as soon as.
146
EXAMPLES
  • When he arrives, he will tell us the truth.
  • Mary was dancing while Bush was singing.
  • The train left as we arrived.

147
What is an adverb clause of reason?
  • Definition
  • An adverb clause of reason is an adverb
    clause that is introduced by

Because, since, for, and as .
148
EXAMPLES
  • I was late because I could not catch the bus.
  • The manager dismissed Mary for she was very lazy.
  • As the weather was bad, we cancelled the picnic.

149
What is an adverb of concession?
  • Definition
  • An adverb of concession is an adverb clause
    that is introduced by

Though, although, even though, no matter how, no
matter what, and as,..
150
EXAMPLES
  • Although he is small, he is very strong.
  • No matter how smart they are, they are required
    to do the revision.
  • No matter what the doctor did, the girl was dead.

151
What is an adverb clause of contrast?
  • Definition
  • An adverb clause of contrast is an adverb
    clause that is introduced by

Whereas, and while
152
EXAMPLES
  • We took the train whereas Peter drove.
  • While Obama is a good math student, we do well in
    English.

153
What is an adverb clause of result?
  • Definition
  • An adverb clause of result is an adverb
    clause that always linked with

So that, so adjective/ adverb that and such
a noun that,..
154
EXAMPLES
  • Tom was so weak that he could not run.
  • It was such a strange story that no one believe
    it.

155
What is an adverb clause of purpose?
  • Definition
  • An adverb clause of purpose is an adverb
    clause that always linked with

So that, in order that, for fear that, in case,.
156
EXAMPLES
  • He arrived earlier so that he would not late.
  • They brought a lot of food for fear that they
    would be hungry during the trip.
  • She brought the credit card in case she did not
    have enough cash.

157
What is an adverb clause of place?
  • Definition
  • An adverb clause of place is an adverb clause
    that is introduced by
  • Ex- Nobody knows where he has been.
  • Ex- He travels wherever he like.

Where, and wherever
158
What is an adverb clause of manner?
  • Definition
  • An adverb clause of manner is an adverb
    clause that is introduced by

As, as if, and as though.
159
EXAMPLES
  • Please do as I have told you.
  • He cries as if he were mad.
  • He speaks as though he were the boss.

note
The subjunctive is used after as if, as though.
160
COMPLETE IDEA
PREDICATE
SUBJECT
161
What is a sentence?
  • Definition
  • A sentence is a group of words that beginning
    with a capital letter and ending with a full
    stop, exclamation, or question mark . In written
    language, containing a main verb.
  • A sentence is a group of words that usually
    contains a subject and a predicate and expresses
    a complete idea.

162
What is a sentence?
  • Definition
  • A sentence is a group of words that expresses
    a complete thought.
  • Sentence has two parts

SUBJECT
PREDICATE
163
KINDS OF SENTENCE
SENTENCE
1- SIMPLE SENTENCE
2- COMPOUND SENTENCE
3- COMPLEX SENTENCE
4- COMPOUND COMPLEX SENTENCE
164
What is a simple sentence?
  • Definition
  • A simple sentence, also called as an
    independent clause, is a group of words that
    contains a subject and a predicate. It expresses
    a complete thought.
  • Ex- My teacher is a Cambodian.

165
What is a compound sentence?
  • Definition
  • A compound sentence is a sentence that
    contains two independent clauses joined by
    coordinators.
  • Coordinators are also called

FANBOYS
166
What is a complex sentence?
  • Definition
  • A complex sentence is a sentence that has one
    independent clause and joined by one or more
    dependent clause (s).
  • Ex- Palin will work with Obama
  • after she is nominated.

167
What is a compound complex sentence?
  • Definition
  • A compound complex sentence is a sentence
    that is composed of two independent clauses and
    one or more dependent clause (s).
  • Ex- She wants to be an educator, but Susanna
  • doesnt want to do after she graduates.

168
SOME ADDITIONAL SENTENCES
  • Definition
  • A cleft sentence is a sentence formed by a
    main clause and a subordinate clause, which
    together express a meaning that could be
    expressed by a simple sentence.
  • Ex- It was from John that she heard the news.

CLEFT SEENTENCE
169
What is a universal sentence?
  • Definition
  • A universal sentence is the sentence in the
    present tense sometime refers to a state which
    holds at all times or at every time in the
    existence of the referent of the subject.
  • Ex- The sun rises in the east.
  • Ex- The earth is round.

170
What is an imperative sentence?
  • Definition
  • An imperative sentence is a kind of sentences
    that is used to give a command.
  • An imperative sentence sometime subject is
    understood.
  • Ex- Please, have a look at handsome man.

171
What is a matrix sentence?
  • Definition
  • A matrix sentence is a sentence that has been
    embedded as a constituent.
  • Ex- After eating the raw fish, the cat died.
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