What Constitutes a Good Animal Facility? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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What Constitutes a Good Animal Facility?

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What Constitutes a Good Animal Facility? Germain Rivard, DVM, PhD germain.rivard_at_mousecare.com gfr6_at_cornell.edu grivard_at_greenvivarium.org 1 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What Constitutes a Good Animal Facility?


1
What Constitutes a Good Animal Facility?
  • Germain Rivard, DVM, PhD
  • germain.rivard_at_mousecare.com
  • gfr6_at_cornell.edu
  • grivard_at_greenvivarium.org

1
2
2
3
22 Basic Room/Area Components
  • Animal Holding Room
  • Procedures Room
  • Surgery Area
  • Loading Docks Clean/Dirty
  • Animal Reception
  • Feed/Bedding Storage
  • Waste Storage
  • Waste Disposal
  • Washing Room
  • Sterilization Room
  • Janitorial Closet
  • Necropsy
  • Office/Reception
  • Laundry
  • Toilets
  • Break Meeting Rooms
  • Mechanical/Electrical/Plumbing
  • Corridors
  • Barriers
  • Radiation Shielded / Imaging Suite

3
4
Admin.
Animal Holding Procedures
Wash Sterile
Vet Med Care
Storage
4
5
5 Management Tools
  • Primary Barrier MicroEnvironment
  • Caging
  • Personal Protective Equipment PPE
  • BioSafety Cabinet BSC
  • Local Exhaust Device LED
  • Secondary Barrier MacroEnv.
  • Building
  • Floor
  • Area
  • Enclosure
  • HVAC
  • Air Ventilation
  • Air Pressurization
  • Air Treatment
  • Standard Operating Procedures S.O.P.

Secondary BARRIER

5
6
AUDIT
  • Self / Union
  • IACUC Inspection
  • USDA
  • OPRR
  • FDA
  • CCAC
  • AAALAC
  • Energy Audit
  • OHSA
  • EPA
  • CDC
  • ADA
  • IATA
  • ILAR
  • LEED
  • GVF

6
7
Good Animal FacilityProduction / Research /
Testing / Education
  • Institutional Animal Care Use Program
  • Health
  • Well-being / Comfort
  • Safety
  • Data Output/Outcomes
  • 3Rs
  • Flexibility
  • Green Energy-efficiency, Sustainability

4 Performance Goals
- Animal Occupational Welfare
7
8
3Rs
  • Replacement
  • Replace animals with non-sentient alternatives
  • Use sacrificed animals
  • Use non-animal models, training videos, online
    courses
  • Find alternatives to animal use

8
9
3Rs
  • Refinement
  • Reduce the stress on experimental animals
  • Provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) RoomCage
  • Improve caging, bedding, feed, water
  • Provide novel environmental enrichment
  • Use the most updated equipment
  • Bundling of activities

9
10
3Rs
  • Reduction
  • The greater the variability, the greater the
    number of animals the experimenter must use to
    detect a given biological change.
  • Careful planning of experimental design
  • Eliminate variables

10
11
Source of Variables
Fig. 1.1-1 Environmental and management factors
affecting animal homeostasis. (After Dr. William
J. White)
Handbook of Facilities Planning, Vol. 2
Laboratory Animal Facilities, Ed. by Theodorus
Ruys, AIA, 1991.
11
12
Good Animal FacilityProduction / Research /
Testing / Education
GENETIC Strains Mutants Tg, KO
HEALTH Defined Health Status
ENVIRONMENTAL Engineering Controls
3
3
12
13
Environmental Factors as Source of Variables
  • Conditions
  • Feed
  • Water
  • Light
  • Indoor Air Quality Rm, Cage
  • Air Makeup
  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Air Composition
  • Oxygen
  • Waste Gases
  • Odors
  • Particulates
  • Air Velocity
  • Air Ventilation Efficiency or Mixing
  • Air Change Rate
  • Air Pressurization
  • Stressors
  • Noise
  • Vibration
  • Population Density
  • Physical Activity
  • Social Interaction
  • Bedding
  • Nesting
  • Enrichment
  • Disturbances
  • Observations
  • Intrusions
  • Health check
  • Watering
  • Feeding
  • Cage Changing
  • Handling
  • Attitudes
  • Manipulation
  • Physical Activity

13
14
IAQ
  • Air Make-up Ventilation
  • Temperature, Humidity, Air composition
    O2,CO2,NH3,Odors
  • Fresh Air at 10-15 AC/h, Total-Cooling-Load
    Calculation Method
  • Air Pressurization (, -)
  • Air Treatment (70-90, HEPA, or ULPA Filter)
  • Air Mixing Factor or Diffusion Patterns or
    Ventilation Efficiency
  • Mixing factor ranges from 1 for perfect mixing to
    10 for poor mixing.
  • Type, Number, and Location of Air Supply and
    Exhaust Devices
  • - to minimize temperature differential and dead
    air spaces
  • - to control CO2, NH3, Allergens, Airborne
    Contaminants
  • Recirculation or Dilution-Removal Ventilation

5
14
15
  • Recommended-ACH
  • Q exhaust airflow in cubic feet per minute X 60
  • V volume in cubic feet
  • Minimal ventilation to accommodate the heat load
    expected to be generated by the largest number of
    animals to be housed plus any heat expected to be
    produced by non-animal sources and heat transfer
    through room surfaces Total-Cooling-Load
    Calculation.
  • Required-ACH
  • Recommended-ACH X Mixing Factor
  • Adequate ACH to prevent both stagnation and
    short-circuiting of air, i.e. passage of air
    directly from the air supply to the air exhaust.

15
16
  • How to Determine a Mixing Factor?
  • CFD Predict without resorting to expensive
    prototyping
  • Tracer Gas Simulations Use rate of decay to
    calculate AC/h
  • CO2
  • SF6
  • Neutrally Buoyant Helium Bubble Simulations Show
    airflow patterns
  • Mechanical Engineer
  • Smoke Release (Calculate Time for 99 Smoke
    Removal Efficiency)

Reynolds 7ppm Isosurfaces of ammonia
SageAction Clean Room
16
17
Location Equipment Heat Loads In/Out Air
Conduits/Plenums Horiz./Vert. Contaminated-Air
Recirculation
1
IAQ
Recirculation or Dilution-Removal Ventilation
Supply 120C
Exhaust 300C
15 AC/h 144 min. for 99 smoke removal
efficiency
Poor Mixing Factor 8
17
18
Location Equipment Heat Loads In/Out Air
Conduits/Plenums Horiz./Vert. Contaminated-Air
Recirculation
1
IAQ
Single-Pass or Laminar Flow Ventilation
Supply 180C
Exhaust 220C
15 ACH 7 min. for 99 smoke removal
efficiency
Good Mixing Factor 2
18
19
19
20
1
IAQ
The longer the exposure the higher the number
of potential variables!
IVC (Forced-air, Recirculation-Ventilation by Air
Balancing)
60 ACH 20 min. for 99 smoke removal efficiency
/- 0.15 m/s
Poor Mixing Factor
EVC (HVAC-assist, Single-Pass Airflow by Exhaust
Ventilation)
20 ACH 4 min. for 99 smoke removal efficiency
- 0.02 m/s
Near-Perfect Mixing Factor
20
21
1
IAQ
  • High-Velocity 0.3 0.5 m/s 40-100 fpm , 60-
    120 AC/h

/- 0.3 m/s
  • Small diameter air valve or nozzle High
    Frequency Noise
  • Turbulences, Drafts, and Dead-Air Spaces Poor
    Air Mixing
  • 20oC 68oF air moving at 0.3m/s60 fpm
    Evaporative Cooling Effect of 7oC 12.6oF

/- 0.5 m/s
  • Low-Velocity 0.02 0.15 m/s 4-30 fpm , 20-
    100 AC/h

- 0.02 m/s
  • Large vent port No Noise
  • No Drafts Fair to Near-Perfect Air Mixing
  • Low Velocity No Cooling Effect

- 0.02 m/s
/- 0.1 m/s
/- 0.15 m/s
21
22
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23
  • Noise

2
Human Mice
0.02 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
100 kHz
Ultrasound Echolocation, Alarm calls, Pup
distress calls, Social/Sexual interactions Ultra
sonic Songs of Male Mice http//tinyurl.com/7s3te
Timothy E.H. and Zhongsheng G., Depart. of
Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University
School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. PLOS
Biology, Vol 3, Issue 12, 2005. Between
32 and 62 kHz Repulsive to Rodents ( PestChaser
induces auditory stress)
Recommended Maximum Noise Level for Human
BELOW 85 dB Rodent BELOW 50 dB Noise exceeding
83 dB may reduce fertility of rodents
High-Frequency
Low-Frequency
Noise Level
  1. IVC Fan
  2. Cage Changing Station
  3. Air supplied through Small Valves
  4. Room Air Diffuser

v v 55 dB
v v 84 dB
v 60 dB
v 75 dB
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24
2. Environmental Factors
  • Noise
  • Vibration

2
  • Vibration

2
Human Mice
Blowers on wall brackets fail to stop vibration
in the cages as it is probably due to the
high-velocity and small volume of air conduits on
the rack.
24
25
Effect of Caging System on a MHV-model of
Experimental Infection 2004, JC Gourdon, DVM, LE
Guanzini, LATg, JD Baines, DVM, PhD, MM Bailey,
DVM, DACLAM, Cornell University. CARE. Ithaca, NY
14853
Static SMI Ventilated
(Forced-Air) IVC Ventilated (Exhaust-Air) EVC
  • EVC cages did not exacerbate the
    symptomatology of MHV compared to SMI and IVC
  • Clinical signs, severity of symptoms, and
    survival are affected by the caging system
  • Caution should be applied when extrapolating data
    from different caging systems

25
26
  • Enrichment

3
Joe Garner, PhD, Purdue U., Lafayette, IN 2003,
Can we trust research done with lab mice?
Discover 24(7) 64-71 2002, Animal models - Can
a mouse be standardized? Science, 298 2001,
Animal data jeopardized by life behind bars.
Nature, 412 Barbering (stereotypy not related
to dominance but overcrowding) Schizophrenia
  • Burying / Tussling / Biting enrichment devices
    are aversive and aggressive responses, not play!
  • Defensible enrichment devices (shelters) cause
    territoriality, aggression, and stereotypy
  • Enrichment structures or nest building
    material paper towel that can be shared
  • avoid agonistic behaviors and variables

26
27
Good Animal FacilityProduction / Research /
Testing / Education
Eliminate variables to allowing the production of
valid data. Reduce the number of animals needed
for statistical significance.
  • Prevent the alteration of biological, behavioral,
    or health status. 
  • Provide similar room conditions in the cage.
  • Prevent evaporative cooling effect/avoiding
    eddys, drafts, dead air spaces.
  • Avoid noise and vibration in the cage.
  • Eliminate recirculation of heat loads, moisture,
    waste gases, and particulates at the room and
    cage levels.
  • Preclude expression of stereotypic behaviors
    (barbering, cannibalism) using nesting materials,
    enrichment structures and IAQ.
  • Fail to exacerbate the symptomatology of
    metabolic changes.

27
28
Flexibility
  • Conventional
  • In/Out
  • Barrier
  • I
  • II
  • III
  • IV
  • Containment
  • ABSL 1
  • ABSL 2
  • ABSL 3
  • ABSL 4
  • Mouse
  • Rodents
  • Rabbits
  • Dogs
  • Non-Human Primates
  • Multi-Species
  • Farm Animal
  • Others

Multi-Point Exhaust Ventilation
28
29
Environmentally-Responsible
  • Sustainable / Green

29
30
Energy Conservation, Water and Waste
ReductionRecognize Green Initiatives that
Encourage Sustainable Use of Space, Materials,
Resources Water,Electricity.A Resource for
Green Design Planning, Reduce Energy and
Water Consumption, Decrease Waste Disposal,
Increase Indoor Air Quality.   
Green Vivarium Foundation
30
31
Green Practices in Vivaria
  • Evidence-Based Information
  • Concept including Theory and History
  • Data for Metrics
  • Electricity Gas Water Waste - Others
  • Occupational Health and Safety
  • CO2 NH3 Airborne Contaminants - RODAC
  • Animal Care and Use
  • CO2- NH3 Airborne Contaminants Breeding
    Performances Population Density - Sentinel
  • Cost Analysis with Payback
  • Case Study

31
32
The Green Vivarium Foundation 1st Annual
Awards-2008
  • Best Individual Initiative
  • Carrie Grace, National Jewish Health Biological
    Resource Center, Denver, CO
  • Initiated a recycling and energy, water, and
    waste reduction program
  • Non-secure paper products and water bag optimize
    changing periods
  • Best Facility
  • NIH Mouse Imaging Facility
  • Converted to a recyclable cage system that saves
    energy and space
  • Best Product or Service
  • Innovive, San Diego, CA www.disposablecages.com
  • Innocage and Innorack disposable technology
    eliminates the need for on-site
    washing/sterilizing
  • Save energy, water, and space

32
33
The Green Vivarium Foundation 2nd Annual
Awards-2009
  • Best Individual Initiative
  • Professor Dr. Joerg Schmidt, Helmholtz Center
    Munich, Germany
  • Initiated a Waste Separation Program for Plastics
  • Prevented 69,000 Kg of CO2 production related to
    transport, shredding, recycling
  • Best Facility
  • Pfizer, St. Louis
  • Low environmental burden at the landfill during
    construction
  • Tri-level HVAC mode Occupied 15 Ach, 1212,
    Unoccupied 3 Ach, OFF, Decontamination 0 Ach,
    OFF
  • Best Product or Service
  • Beta Star Life Science Equipment, Honey Brook,
    PA www.rvii.com
  • Enviro Vac Water Conservation Vacuum system
  • Circulate and re-use water in a condenser tank to
    save up to 80 of water per cycle

33
34
  • Energy-Efficient NYSERDA Grant
  • 3 Green Strategies to Save 70 Energy
  • Reduce Animal Space to Air Condition
  • Shift from Dilution-Removal to Single-Pass
    Ventilation
  • Recover Energy from Exhausted Conditioned Air

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  • Reduce Animal Space to Air Condition
  • 6,000 cages 3,750 sf 1.6 1,800 sf
    5.7
  • Reclaim Space 2,700 sf or 72
  • ? Architectural Engineering 76
  • ? Maintenance 65


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  • Shift from Dilution-Removal to
  • Multi-Point Exhaust Single-Pass Ventilation
  • 12,000 cfm 19 AC/h 3,200 cfm 9
    AC/h
  • Local Exhaust Devices 6,004
  • Exhaust Ventilated Caging System (EVC)
  • Downdraft Workstation
  • Low-Pressure-Drop System
  • 3 Fabric Air Distribution Ducting Diffusers
  • 64 Manifolded Local Exhaust Devices

  • Recover Energy from
  • Exhausted Conditioned Air
  • Heat Pump Heat Recovery
  • 3,200 cfm/6,004 LED 12 kW 65 Recovery

36
37
Costs and Benefits of Green Technologies
6,000 Cages Traditional IVC EVC LPD, HR
First Cost Savings () 728,250 175,650 552,600 (76)
HVAC Plug Load kWh 356,800 98,800 (72)
Carbon Footprint CO2 - Savings 271 tons 75 tons 196 tons
Annual Energy Cost - Savings () 88,500 11,652 76,848 (87)
Annual Maintenance Cost - Savings () 22,200 7,800 14,400 (65)
Annual Husbandry Costs - Savings () 660,000 576,000 84,000 (12)
perDiem/cage Cost - Savings () 0.387 0.281 0.106 (26)
232,140/yr
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Reduce the flow of air, water, and waste to help
fight global warming Eliminate plastic use to
curb oil dependency
Sustainable Laboratory Rodent Housing
PEV
  • Stack-driven

Recycled Fiber
Wood
Molding
Molding
Convection
  • Lighting

Processing
?? Cage
Bedding
  • Air Conditioning
  • Plug-in

ELECTRICITY
HEAT
PPE
Gas
BioWaste
Turbine-Generator
W2E
Gasification
38
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