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The Crisis of Imperial Order 1900-1929


The Crisis of Imperial Order 1900-1929 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Crisis of Imperial Order 1900-1929

The Crisis of Imperial Order 1900-1929
(No Transcript)
Origins of Crisis in Europe Middle East
  • Ottoman Empire in decline
  • losing provinces closest to Europe
  • Young Turks forced constitution, advocated
    centralized rule Turkification of minorities
  • Carried out modernization

Causes of World War I
  • Military Strategy-Inflexible mobilization plans
  • Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism

(No Transcript)
The Great War Russian Revolutions
  • Tensions increasing for years
  • All entered war confident it would be over
  • German victory seemed assured, but
    faltered-formed an unbroken line of trenches (the
    Western Front) from North Sea to Switzerland
  • Troops ordered to charge across open fields-cut
    down by machine-gun fire
  • Four Year Stalemate

Home Front War Economy
  • governments imposed controls
  • Rationing recruitment of Africans, Indians,
    Chinese women into European labor force
    transformed civilian life
  • German civilians paid high price-British naval
  • British French forces overran German/African
    colonies (except Tanganyika)
  • Europeans requisitioned food, imposed heavy
    taxes, forced Africans to grow export crops
    sell at low prices, recruited African men to
    serve as soldiers porters
  • U.S. businesses grew rich by selling goods to
    Britain France

Ottoman Empire at War
  • Turks signed secret alliance w/ Germany
  • unsuccessful against Russia
  • deported Armenians (causing deaths of hundred of
    thousands), closed Dardanelles Straits
  • British tried to subvert Ottoman Empire- promised
    emir Hussein ibn Ali of Mecca a kingdom to lead
    revolt against Turks-he did in 1916
  • Balfour Declaration suggested British would
    view with favor the establishment of Jewish
    national homeland in Palestine

Double Revolution in Russia, 1917
  • By late 1916, large but weak Russian army
    experienced numerous defeats
  • civilian economy in collapse
  • cities faced shortages of fuel food
  • March 1917, Tsar Nicholas overthrown-replaced by
    Provisional Government
  • November 6, 1917 Bolsheviks staged uprising in
    Petrograd overthrew Provisional Government.

The End of War in Western Europe 19171918
  • German resumed unrestricted submarine warfare
  • US joined war-April 1917
  • Germans broke through line-pushed within 40
    miles of Paris
  • Allies counterattacked-August 1918
  • Germans retreated armistice signed-November 11

Peace Dislocation in Europe 19191929
  • 8-10 million died in war
  • Millions of refugees, many fled to France US
  • US passed immigration laws-closed doors to east
    south Europeans
  • Influenza epidemic of 19181919 spread around the
    world, killed 20 million people
  • War caused serious environmental damage

Peace Treaties
  • Three men dominated Paris Peace Conference
  • U.S. President Wilson
  • British PM David Lloyd George
  • French Premier Georges Clemenceau
  • Treaty of Versailles humiliated Germany-left
    largely intact potentially most powerful nation
    in Europe
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire fell apart
  • New countries created in lands lost by Russia,
    Germany, Austria-Hungary

Russian Civil War New Economic Policy
  • In Russia, Allied intervention/ civil war
    extended fighting for 3 years
  • By 1922, Soviet republic of Ukraine Russia
    merged- created USSR
  • In 1921, Lenins New Economic Policy helped
    restore production-relaxed government controls,
    allowed return of market economics
  • Regarded as temporary-would be superseded as
    USSR built modern, socialist, industrial economy
    by extracting resources from peasants to pay for
  • Lenin died in January 1924-power struggle ensued
    between Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin
  • Stalin filled bureaucracy with his supporters,
    expelled Trotsky-forced him to flee the country

An Ephemeral Peace
  • 1920s were decade of dissatisfaction among
    people whose hopes had been raised by rhetoric of
    war dashed by its outcome
  • In 1923, French occupation of the Ruhr severe
    inflation brought Germany to the brink of civil
  • Currency reform French withdrawal from the Ruhr
    marked the beginning of a period of peace
    economic growth beginning in 1924

China Japan Contrasting Destinies
  • China
  • rapid population growth
  • unfavorable ratio of population to arable land
  • avaricious landlords tax collectors
  • devastating floods of Yellow River
  • Chinese society divided among many groups
    landowners, wealthy merchants,
    foreigners-luxurious lives aroused resentment of
    educated, young, urban Chinese
  • Japan
  • few natural resources-little arable land
  • earthquakes, tsunamis
  • Industrialization/economic growth aggravated
    social tensions
  • Japanese prosperity depended on foreign trade
  • more vulnerable than China to swings in world

Revolution War, 19001918
  • Chinas defeat/humiliation by international force
    in Boxer affair of 1900 led many to conclude that
    China needed a revolution to overthrow Qing-
    modernize the country
  • Regional army unit mutinied in 1911-Sun Yat-sens
    Revolutionary Alliance formed assembly-elected
    Sun as president of China
  • To avoid civil war, presidency turned over to
    powerful general Yuan Shikai-rejected democracy-
    ruled as autocrat
  • Japanese joined Allied side in World War
    I-benefited from economic boom as demand for
    their products rose
  • Japan used war as opportunity to conquer German
    colonies in N. Pacific on Chinese coast-
    further extended influence into China
  • Forced Chinese government to accede to many
    conditions presented in document called the
    Twenty-One Demands

Chinese Warlords Guomindang, 19191929
  • At Paris Peace Conference, great powers allowed
    Japan to retain control over seized German
    enclaves in China, sparking protests in Beijing
    (May 4, 1919) other parts of China
  • Chinas regional generalswarlordssupported
    their armies through plunder arbitrary
    taxation-China grew poorer, only treaty ports
  • Sun Yat-sen tried to make comeback in Canton
    in1920s by reorganizing his Guomindang party
    along Leninist lines-welcomed members of newly
    created Chinese Communist Party
  • Suns successor Chiang Kai-shek crushed regional
    warlords in 1927
  • Chiang split with/decimated Communist Party-
    embarked on ambitious plan of top-down industrial
  • Chiangs government staffed by corrupt
    opportunists, not by competent administrators
    China remained mired in poverty

New Middle East Mandate System
  • Instead of independence, former German colonies
    Ottoman territories given to great powers as
  • Class C Mandates ruled as colonies, while Class B
    Mandates ruled under League of Nations
  • Arab-speaking territories of former Ottoman
    Empire were Class A Mandates-lead Arabs to
    believe they had been promised independence
  • Britain took control of Palestine, Iraq,
  • France took control of Syria Lebanon

Rise of Modern Turkey
  • At end of war, Ottoman Empire at point of
    collapse- French, British, Italian, Greek
    forces occupying Constantinople parts of
  • In 1919 Mustafa Kemal formed nationalist
    government-reconquered Anatolia area around
    Constantinople in 1922
  • He was outspoken modernizer-declared Turkey a
    secular republic introduced European laws
    replaced Arabic alphabet w/ Latin attempted to
    westernize Turkish family, roles of women, even
    Turkish clothing headgear
  • Reforms spread quickly in urban areas-encountered
    strong resistance in countryside-Islamic
    traditions remained strong

Arab Lands Question of Palestine
  • Among Arab people, the thinly disguised
    colonialism of Mandate System set off protests
    and rebellions.
  • At the same time, Middle Eastern society
    underwent significant changes population grew by
    50 from 1914-1939, major cities doubled in size,
    urban merchant class adopted western ideas,
    customs, lifestyles
  • The Maghrib (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco)
    dominated by French army by French settlers,
    who owned the best lands monopolized government
    jobs businesses
  • Arabs Berbers remained poor suffered from
  • British allowed Iraq to become independent under
    King Faisal (leader of the Arab
    revolt)-maintained a significant military
    economic influence
  • France sent thousands of troops to crush
    nationalist uprisings in Lebanon Syria.
  • Britain declared Egypt independent in 1922-
    retained control through alliance w/ King Farouk
  • In Palestine Mandate, British tried to limit
    wave of Jewish immigration that began in
    1920-only succeeded in alienating both Jews

Society, Culture, Technology in Industrialized
  • Class and Gender
  • Class distinctions faded after war-role of
    aristocracy (many of whom had died in battle)
    declined-displays of wealth came to be regarded
    as unpatriotic
  • Expanded role of government during after war
    led to increase in numbers of white-collar
  • Working class did not expand-new machinery new
    ways of organizing work made it possible to
    increase production without expanding labor force
  • In 1920s, women enjoyed more personal freedoms
    than ever before
  • Women won right to vote in some countries between

Revolution in Sciences
  • The discovery of subatomic particles, quanta,
    Einsteins theory of relativity, discovery that
    light is made up of either waves or particles
    undermined the certainties of Newtonian physics
    offered potential of unlocking new dangerous
    sources of energy
  • Innovations in social sciences challenged
    Victorian morality, middle-class values,
    notions of western superiority.
  • The psychology of Sigmund Freud sociology of
    Emile Durkheim introduced notions of cultural
  • After the experiences of war, called into
    question the Wests faith in reason progress

New Technologies of Modernity
  • European American public fascinated with new
    technologies like the airplane and lionized the
    early aviators Amelia Earhart, Richard Byrd,
    especially Charles Lindbergh.
  • Electricity began to transform home
    life-commercial radio stations brought news,
    sports, soap operas, and advertising to homes
    throughout North America.
  • Film spread explosively in the 1920s. The early
    film industry of the silent film era was marked
    by diversity, with films being made in Japan,
    India, Turkey, Egypt, and Hollywood in the 1920s.
    The introduction of the talking picture in the
    United States in 1921, combined with the
    tremendous size of the American market, marked
    the beginning of the era of Hollywoods
    domination of film and its role in the diffusion
    of American culture.
  • Health and hygiene were also part of the cult of
    modernity. Advances in medicine, sewage treatment
    systems, indoor plumbing, and the increased use
    of soap and home appliances contributed to
    declines in infant mortality and improvements in
    health and life expectancy.

Technology and the Environment
  • The skyscraper and the automobile transformed the
    urban environment. Skyscrapers with load-bearing
    steel frames and passenger elevators were built
    in American cities. European cities restricted
    the height of buildings, but European architects
    led the way in designing simple, easily
    constructed, inexpensive, functional buildings in
    what came to be known as the International Style.
  • Mass-produced automobiles replaced horses in the
    city streets and led to the construction of
    far-flung suburban areas like those of Los
    Angeles. On farms, gasoline-powered tractors
    began replacing horses in the 1920s, while dams
    and canals were used to generate electricity and
    to irrigate dry land.

  • Postwar Realignments
  • France and Britain emerged from the war
    economically weakened. Russia was left in civil
    war and revolution. The Austro-Hungarian and
    Ottoman Empires were divided into smaller, weaker
  • Japan and the United States came out of the war
    in a more strengthened position than before.

  • Postwar Promise
  • The fall of the Ottoman Empire generated hope
    among Turks, Arabs, and Jewish immigrants of
    sovereign nation status.
  • French and British mandates thwarted those

  • Postwar Society
  • Women remained in the workforce and demanded
    voting rights while governments took on more
    responsibility for citizens health and
  • Science and technology brought entertainment,
    electricity, better health, and faster
    transportation to western nations.

Impact Social
  • Families altered by the departure of so many men
  • With the death or absence of the primary wage
    earner women were forced into the workforce in
    unprecedented numbers
  • Industry needed to replace the lost laborers sent
    to war aided the struggle for voting rights for

Impact Social
  • One of the distinguishing features of the war was
    its totality
  • All aspects of the societies fighting were
    affected by the conflict, even countries not in
    war zone

Impact Political
  • Expansion of government power responsibilities
    in Britain, France, the United States, and the
    Dominions of the British Empire
  • New government ministries powers created
  • New taxes levied, laws enacted, all designed to
    bolster war effort, many have lasted to today

Demographic Impact
  • more dead wounded
  • more physical destruction
  • millions of refugees many fled to France United
  • immigration laws closed doors to eastern
    southern Europeans
  • Influenza epidemic, killed 30 million people
  • serious damage to the environment hastened
    build-up of mines, factories, railroads

Geographic Impact Territorial Changes
  • tremendous changes to eastern Europe
  • Empires shattered new nations established
  • Dangerous power vacuum created between Germany
    Soviet Russia

Global Impact
  • Destroyed/reduced some empires diminished
    strength of others
  • New nations emerged
  • Shifted economic resources cultural influences
    away from Europe
  • Reduced European global influence encouraged
    nations, notably the United States, to challenge
    Europe's international leadership

Global Impact
  • Bolsheviks seized power in 1917
  • Ottoman Austro-Hungarian Empires disintegrated
  • Germany replaced Kaiser's government with Weimar
  • New nations such as Poland, Czechoslovakia,
    Yugoslavia emerged
  • European Allies owed over 11 billion to U.S.
  • U.S. transformed from net debtor to net creditor
  • New York replaced London as world's financial
  • Allies faced increasing demands for self-rule
    from their colonies
  • They no longer controlled sufficient military
    economic resources to shape world affairs as

Global Legacy
  • Wilsonianism
  • Emphasized national self-determination
  • League of Nations meant to curb nationalist
    excesses and aggression
  • Collective security would enable nations to
    participate in new world order of peace
  • influenced statecraft of future generations
  • continued to shape the international history of
    twentieth century

Global Legacy
  • League of Nations failed to maintain peace when
    aggressive nationsnotably Communist Russia,
    Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and Imperial
    Japanlater challenged the Versailles peace
  • These revisionist powers rejected democracy and
    capitalism and challenged the status quo