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Open Access: the Discipline of Public Knowledge


Leslie Carr 8/12/09 Steve Hitchcock With contributions from Alma Swan ECS, Southampton – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Open Access: the Discipline of Public Knowledge

Open Access the Discipline of Public Knowledge
  • Leslie Carr
  • 8/12/09 Steve Hitchcock
  • With contributions from Alma Swan
  • ECS, Southampton

Open Access
  • Open Access (OA) is free, immediate, permanent
    online access to the full text of research
    articles for anyone, Web wide
  • Access to the peer-reviewed literature (and data)
  • Target 100 of peer-reviewed papers to be OA
  • Moving scholarly communication into the Web age

Open access statements Budapest (Dec.
2001) Bethesda (June 2003) Berlin (Oct.
2003) Search for gratis, libre OA
Excitement of New Technology
  • New century brings the maturity of a new
    technology for the storage and dissemination of
  • Scholars and scientists debating the potential
    for collections of all the worlds knowledge
    reproduced and made available for individual

but weve been here before
  • Twentieth century
  • Microphotography
  • Television

Paul Otlet, 1868-1944
  • Belgian lawyer
  • Introduced US 3"x5" library card to Europe
  • Traité de Documentation (1934)
  • the systematic organisation of all knowledge and

Mundanaeum 15 million index card bibliographic
index, 1 million documents and images, classified
and searchable. Use of item became part of the
bibliographic record. Content interlinked.
H. G. Wells, World Brain The Idea of a Permanent
World Encyclopaedia, Encyclopédie Française,
August, 1937
  • Encyclopaedias of the past sufficed for the needs
    of a cultivated minority
  • universal education was unthought of
  • gigantic increase in recorded knowledge
  • more gigantic growth in the numbers of human
    beings requiring accurate and easily accessible

Vannevar Bush, As We May ThinkAtlantic Monthly,
July 1945
  • Director of the Office of Scientific Research and
    Development in USA, coordinating 6,000 American
    scientists during WW2
  • Make our bewildering store of knowledge more
  • For many years inventions have extended mans
    physical powers rather than the powers of his

The Memex
  • The Memex (never built) was tobe a mechanised
    device to allow a library user to
  • consult all kinds of written material
  • organize it in any way the user wanted
  • add private comments and link documents together
    at will
  • A personal library station which held all written
    articles and journals on microfilm.
  • system of levers allowed users to add links
  • create trails

Otlet, Wells, Bush, Berners-Lee
  • An historic theme of organising and disseminating
    the worlds knowledge through innovation and
  • Otlet a manually curated repository
  • Wells a centralised, managed global knowledge
    repository to combat fragmenting academic
  • Bush a cross-disciplinary scholarly paradigm to
    combat fragmenting scientific knowledge.
  • Berners-Lee a distributed communications system
    to enable international collaboration

The Literature As We Imagine
  • Integrated
  • Available

Why Open Access?
  • Greater impact from scientific endeavour
  • More rapid and more efficient progress of
  • Novel information-creation using new and
    advanced technologies
  • Better assessment, better monitoring, better
    management of research
Harnads subversive proposal
  • The scholarly author wants only to PUBLISH (their
    words), that is, to reach the eyes and minds of
    peers, fellow esoteric scientists and scholars
    the world over, so that they can build on one
    another's contributions in that cumulative,
    collaborative enterprise called learned inquiry.

Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads A
Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing,
June 27, 1994 http//
Open Access Impact Advantage
  • OA increases citations, impact
  • Full bibliography, seehttp//

The early bird
Contributors to the OA Advantage EA QA UA
(CA) (QB)
  • EA Early Advantage Self-archiving preprints
    before publication hastens and increases usage
    and citations (higher-quality articles benefit
    more top 20 of articles receive 80 of
  • QA Quality Advantage Self-archiving postprints
    immediately upon publication hastens and
    increases usage and citations (higher-quality
    articles benefit more)
  • UA Usage Advantage Self-archiving increases
    downloads (higher-quality articles benefit more)
  • (CA Competitive Advantage) OA/non-OA
    advantage (CA disappears at 100OA, but very
    important today!)
  • (QB Quality Bias) Higher-quality articles are
    self-selectively self-archived more (QB
    disappears at 100OA)

The Twin Peaks Problem
  • 24,000 journals with 2,500,000 articles/yr

The Literature As It Is
  • Inaccessible
  • Disjoint

Possible Culprit
  • 1960s Robbins Report / expansion of higher
    education expansion of science budget
  • After the war Robert Maxwell decided to publish
    scientific journals and set up Pergamon Press
    which was quickly and hugely profitable. (BBC
  • Up to this point, journal publishing was done by
    university presses and scholarly societies
  • The New Demand made for a very profitable system
    - with an increasing number of commercial
    publishers moving into STM.

Fast Forward to Open Access
  • The Optimal and Inevitable for Researchers.
  • The entire full-text refereed corpus online
  • On every researchers desktop, everywhere
  • 24 hours a day
  • All papers citation-interlinked
  • Fully searchable, navigable, retrievable
  • For free, for all, forever

Stevan Harnad, Les CarrOpCit International DLI
Project Proposal (1999)
Repositories Green OA
  • Open Archiving Initiative - October 1999
  • Agreed OAI-PMH for metadata sharing
  • (2008 OAI-ORE for data exchange)
  • Among the participants
  • Paul Ginsparg (arXiv)
  • Carl Lagoze (NCSTRL)
  • Stevan Harnad (Cogprints)
  • Thomas Krichel (RePEc)
  • EPrints
  • proposed as a build your own repository
  • enable institutions and groups to participate in
    OAI metadata sharing initiative

Ginsparg preprint pioneer heads east
  • Paul Ginsparg, who founded the server now known
    as arXiv 10 years ago, is leaving the Los
    Alamos National Laboratory to take up a faculty
    position at Cornell, and the server will move
    with him
  • for Ginsparg, the last straw was his recent
    salary review, which, he says, described him as
    "a strictly average performer by overall lab
    standards with no particular computer skills
    contributing to lab programs easily replaced,
    and moreover overpaid, according to an external
    market survey".
  • Peter Lepage, chair of Cornells physics
    department, notes wryly of the LANL assessment
    "Evidently their form didn't have a box for
    'completely transformed the nature and reach of
    scientific information in physics and other
  • Nature, July 2001

Open Access repositories
  • Digital collections
  • 1999 mostly centralised (subject-based)
  • Now most usually institutional
  • Interoperable
  • Form a network across the world
  • Create a global database of openly-accessible

Search / retrieve
Other value adding
Aggregate / display
Count / assess
Peer review
REPOSITORIES and other open content
Ingest layer services
Key Perspectives Ltd
The Budapest Open Access Initiative
  • Old tradition of scholarly publishingNew
    technology of the Internet
  • Public good free and unrestricted access to
    peer-reviewed journal literature

Open access statements Budapest (Dec.
2001) Bethesda (June 2003) Berlin (Oct. 2003)
Open Access Strategies
  • Green Self-Archiving
  • Journal processes continue as normal
  • Authors deposit a copy of their papers into an
    open access repository
  • Public copy is a supplement to the publishers
    official article for those who cant afford a
  • Also an institutional record of its work for
    sharing, reuse, marketing etc
  • Gold Publishing
  • Journal changesbusiness model
  • Readers no longerpay to read
  • Instead, authorspay to publish
  • or their funders

Impact cycle begins Research is done
Researchers write pre-refereeing Pre-Print
Submitted to Journal
12-18 Months
Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts Peer-Review
Pre-Print revised by articles Authors
Refereed Post-Print Accepted, Certified,
Published by Journal
Researchers can access the Post-Print if their
university has a subscription to the Journal
Impact cycle begins Research is done
Researchers write pre-refereeing Pre-Print
GREEN Open Access
Submitted to Journal
12-18 Months
Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts Peer-Review
Pre-Print revised by articles Authors
Refereed Post-Print Accepted, Certified,
Published by Journal
Researchers can access the Post-Print if their
university has a subscription to the Journal
New impact cycles New research builds on
existing research
Will publishers support green OA?
  • Current Journal Tally 95 Green! Why?

Example Repository
http// A repository for
a school of Electronics and Computer Science. It
achieves 80-100 full text self-deposit Green OA
Growth in numbers
Key Perspectives Ltd
What they contain
Key Perspectives Ltd
Problems with Green OA
  • ECS repository, 11,000 records, 4,000 full text,
    80-100 open access to our research output.
  • cf Average repository, 300 items, 200 full text,
    negligible research output
  • Estimated 15 of published papers are green OA
  • Recent NIH request for OA achieved 4 compliance

Open scholarship
  • Immediate visibility benefits
  • Immediate impact benefits
  • Aligns with a universitys core missions
  • Provides the raw material for measurement and
  • Provides the shop window to enable collaborations
    and partnerships

Key Perspectives Ltd
Open Access policies
Open Access publishers Gold OA
  • Public Library of Science small number of high
    impact journals, e.g. PLoS Medicine
  • BioMed Central (now owned by Springer) larger
    number of biomedical journals
  • Hindawi, OA STM journals
  • Directory of Open Access Journals
  • 4473 journals in the directory (7/12/09)
  • Hybrid OA publishers subscription journals,
    authors pay to make papers OA
  • Green OA publishers

Problems with Gold OA
  • Relies on publishers changing their business
  • Scientific publishing is very lucrative (18
  • Gold publishers making slow advances
  • Estimated 5 of papers published as gold OA

Influence of
  • When any work can be exposed publicly and located
    instantly, what should be the basis for
  • Research requires skills in managing information.
    In the emerging electronic information
    environment, in which access to research papers
    will become easier, researchers will need to mine
    vast data sources, faster, more extensively, more
    forensically, seeking previously unidentified

Open Access Who benefits?
  • Benefits to researchers themselves
  • Benefits to institutions
  • Benefits to national economies
  • Benefits to science and society

Key Perspectives Ltd
Summary Open Access progress
  • Motivations for researchers collaborative
    enquiry, increased impact
  • Web infrastructure in place
  • Two routes for OA green and gold
  • 95 of journal publishers are green
  • But still only providing approx. 15 (green)and
    5 (gold) of target OA content published papers
  • Will we achieve 100 OA? How?

Retaking Responsibility
  • Result is that universities further abdicated on
    their Wellsian responsibilities
  • Knowledge dissemination outsourced
  • Ownership of research materials given away
  • Scholarly communications now largely in the hands
    of commercial concerns

? Is this a bad thing? What are the economic
models for long-term management of knowledge? Was
Wells hopelessly utopian? OA vs anti-capitalism?
Role of the Repository
  • Who takes responsibility for curating the
    knowledge of the world?
  • Back to OA repositories - we do!
  • The Institutional repository is a place where the
    members of an institution can curate their
    intellectual outputs / knowledge capital
  • Share
  • Use
  • Reuse
  • The real Web revolution of ubiquitous knowledge
    will arrive.