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The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution

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Title: The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution


1
The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution
2
AMERICAN GROWTH AND PROGRESS
  • Population growth
  • 1800 5.5 million to 33 million by 1861
  • 13 states to 33 states by 1861
  • Expansion of cities
  • Flow of Immigration 1830s to 1860s
  • Why? Potato famine and European problem
  • Irish
  • German 48ers
  • Hated by Nativists
  • 3. Transformation of American Industry
  • Industrial Revolution why?
  • American System
  • Sectionalism
  • Industrial pioneers

3
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4
City growth
Westward expansion Growth of cities and states
by 1850
5
The March of the Millions
  • High birthrate accounted for population growth
  • Population doubling every 25 years
  • Near 1850s, millions of Irish, German came
  • Beginning in 1830, immigration in the US soared

6
Sources of Immigration, 1820-40
7
Sources of Immigration, 1840-60
8
IMMIGRATION
  • Settlements of Immigrants
  • Irish in Northeastern cities New York and
    Boston
  • Germans would settle in Midwest

9
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • A shift from goods made by hand to factory and
    mass production
  • Technological innovations brought production from
    farmhouse to factories
  • Invented in Britain in 1750 smuggled to U.S.
  • Beginning of US Factory System
  • US slow to embrace factory system
  • Scarce labor
  • Little capital
  • Superiority of British factories

10
AMERICAN SYSTEM
american system
  • Promote nationalism was internal improvements to
    unite the US.
  • Transportation system of roads, canals,
    steamships and rivers.
  • 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms
    of transportation
  • 1860, the railroad is added

Henry Clay, Congressmen from Kentucky
John C. Calhoun, US Senator from South Carolina
  • Provide economic growth
  • Americans buying American goods
  • American self-sufficiency.
  • Protective tariff (allows US factories to grow)
  • 2nd Bank of the United States
  • 3 Sections working together to build the country

11
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES
  • NORTHEAST
  • Business and Manufacturing
  • Daniel Webster ____________
  • Wanted Tariffs
  • Backed internal improvements
  • Wanted end to cheap public land
  • Increasingly nationalistic
  • Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must
    abolish it.

Economy Leader __________ Role of Government
12
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES
  • SOUTH
  • Cotton growing
  • John C. Calhoun
  • _____________
  • Opposed tariffs and government spending on
    American System
  • Increasingly supportive of states rights
  • Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S.
    Govt. to try and abolish it.

Economy Leader __________ Role of Government
13
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES
  • WEST
  • Frontier agriculture
  • Henry Clay
  • _____________
  • Supported internal improvements
  • Wanted cheap land
  • Loyal to the U.S. Govt.
  • Against slavery but some supported letting the
    people decide the slavery issue

Economy Leader __________ Role of Government
14
AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • Population shift because of westward expansion
  • the West demanded transportation.
  • The Land Act of 1820, gave the West its wish by
    authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land
    at a minimum of 1.25 an acre in cash
  • Erie Canal started in 1817 and completed in 1825
  • NY Governor DeWitt Clinton built the Erie Canal
  • Connected New York City from Hudson River with
    the Great Lakes and the West
  • Clintons Big Ditch--------Other canals follow
  • Navigable rivers and the steamboat
  • the first steamboat on western waters was in
    1811.

15
Erie Canal System
16
Principal Canals in 1840
17
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18
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19
Highways
AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • Bad roads made transportation highly unreliable
  • The National Road begun in 1811 and completed by
    1832
  • Connected Maryland to Illinois.
  • Built by US government

20
Cumberland (National Road), 1811
21
Conestoga Covered Wagons
Conestoga Trail, 1820s
22
  • Help unite the country as well as improve the
    economy and the infant industry.
  • Because of the British blockade during the War of
    1812, it was essential for internal
    transportation improvements.

23
The Railroad Revolution,1850s
  • 1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant
    development toward national economy
  • Americans demanded transcontinental railroad to
    California.
  • Completed by 1869.

24
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25
Pioneer Railroad Promoters
  • 1800 to 1850 Roads, canals, navigable rivers
    with steamboats were the main modes of
    transportation.
  • 1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant
    development toward national economy
  • Competition between Railroads and Canals
  • Obstacles
  • opposition from canal backers
  • danger of fire
  • poor brakes
  • difference in track gauge meant changing trains

26
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27
Map rr
28
Effects of the Transportation Revolution
  • 1860-61, Pony Express connected East-West
  • Telegraph instantly sent messages across US
  • Attraction of many large capital investments and
    encouraged risk taking in the US economy
  • People moved faster and country expanded
  • Unifying spirit among fellow country men
  • A need for a transcontinental railroad that
    connected east to west

29
Trails
TRAILS WESTWARD
30
US FACTORY SYSTEM
  • Built first textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket,
    Rhode Island.
  • Born in England on June 9, 1768 and worked in
    British factories.
  • Slater came to US to make his fortune in the
    textile industry.
  • Slatersville Mill was the largest and most modern
    industrial cotton mill of its day

Samuel Slater was the "Father of the American
Factory System."
31
Early Textile Loom
32
The Lowell Mills
US FACTORY SYSTEM
  • Americans beat the British at their own game,
    made better factories
  • Francis C Lowell (a British traitor) came over
    here to build British factories met up with
    Boston mechanic, Paul Moody
  • Together they improved the mill and invented a
    power loom that revolutionized textile
    manufacturing

33
The Lowell System Lowell, Massachusetts, 1832
  • Young New England farm girls
  • Supervised on and off the job
  • Worked 6 days a week, 13 hours a day
  • Escorted to church on Sunday

34
Women the Economy
US FACTORY SYSTEM
  • 1850 10 of white women working for pay outside
    home
  • Vast majority of working women were single
  • Left paying jobs upon marriage
  • Cult of domesticity
  • Cultural idea that glorifies homemaker
  • Empowers married women
  • Increased power independence of women in home
    led to decline in family size

35
Workers Wage Slaves
  • With industrial revolution, large impersonal
    factories surrounded by slums full of wage
    slaves developed
  • Long hours, low wages, unsanitary conditions,
    lack of heat, etc.
  • Labor unions illegal
  • 1820 1/2 of industrial workers were children
    under 10

36
Workers Wage Slaves
  • 1820s 1830s right to vote for laborers
  • Loyalty to Democratic party led to improved
    conditions
  • Fought for 10-hour day, higher wages, better
    conditions
  • 1830s 1840s Dozens of strikes for higher wages
    or 10-hour day
  • 1837 depression hurt union membership
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt
  • Supreme Court ruled unions not illegal
    conspiracies as long as they were peaceful

37
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38
New Inventions "Yankee Ingenuity"
39
Resourcefulness Experimentation
  • Americans were willing to try anything.
  • They were first copiers, then innovators.

1800 ? 41 patents were approved. 1860 ? 4,357

40
ELI WHITNEY
The invention which changed the South, cotton and
slavery.
  • Eli Whitneys cotton gin revolutionized the
    cotton industry.
  • He is also noted for the concept of mass
    production and interchangeable parts by creating
    dyes for pistols and rifles.
  • Very important early pioneer in Americas
    industrial revolution.

Cotton Production
41
Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine
  • Cotton gin invented in 1793
  • 50 times more effective than hand picking
  • Raising cotton more profitable
  • South needs slavery more than ever for King
    Cotton
  • New England factories flourish with Southern
    cotton

42
ROBERT FULTON
  • 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first
    commercially successful and reliable
    steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water
    travel.
  • The steamboat was often the only mechanical means
    of river travel and freight transportation from
    1808 through 1930.

43
John Deere the Steel Plow
44
Cyrus McCormick the Mechanical Reaper
45
Samuel F. B. Morse
1840 Telegraph
WHAT GOD HATH WROUGHT
46
Cyrus Field the Transatlantic Cable, 1858
47
Elias Howe Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine
Perfected by Singer Gave boost to northern
industry Became foundation for ready-made
clothing industry Led many women into factories
48
From left to right Eli Whitney (cotton gin,
interchangeable parts), Robert Fulton (steam
boat), Thomas Edison (light bulb), Cyrus
McCormick (reaper), Richard Hoe (automatic
printing press)
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