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International Workshop on Skill Development : Policy learning


International Workshop on Skill Development : Policy learning & Exchange 6 May 2010 Mythili Ravi IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Ltd. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: International Workshop on Skill Development : Policy learning

International Workshop on Skill Development
Policy learning Exchange
  • 6 May 2010
  • Mythili Ravi
  • ILFS Cluster Development Initiative Ltd.

TVET - Rationale
  • Globalisation leading to
  • Greater opportunities in world trade better
    technology, larger markets
  • Competition more players relocation of global
    brands to low-cost production destinations
  • Competitiveness vital for survival
  • through productivity improvement (capital and
  • Actualise Growth Potential
  • Inclusive Growth Agenda

Constraints in Agriculture sector for livelihoods
  • 54 of population dependent on agriculture, but.
  • Contribution of agriculture to economy reduced
    from 32 in 1990-91 to 18.5 in 2004-05

Jobs generation in secondary and tertiary sector
  • Formal sector employed
  • 55million in 1999-2000 (NSSO 55th round)
  • 63 million in 2004-05 (NSSO 61st round)
  • That is 8 mn jobs in 5 years, or 1.6 mn. annually
  • Some estimates of skill needs / employment
    projections in select sectors
  • Textile, Garment Apparel 26.20 million by
  • Leather Leather Products 4.64 million by
  • Construction 47.30 million by 2022
  • Logistics 4.00 million by 2022
  • Auto Auto Components 11.70 million by 2022
  • Organised Retail 17,34 million by 2022
  • Banking, FS, Insurance 4.22 million by 2022
  • Tourism Hospitality 4.46 million by 2022
  • General Engineering 3.00 5.00 million by 2012
    (conservative est.)
  • 500 mn additional jobs by 2022, or 42 mn jobs
    every year
  • At the same level of 7 from organised sector,
    3.3 mn. Jobs every year in organised sector alone

Source General Engineering and Logistics, NSDC
report ILFS Analysis
Ongoing Transformation
  • Farm to non-farm
  • Rural to urban
  • Unorganised to organised
  • Subsistence self employment to decent wage
  • India Labour Report, 2008

Employment and Vocational training- Status
  • Informal workers 92-93 of the work force.
  • Of this, 86 (393 million) work in informal
    sector and 6-7 in formal sector
  • Unorganised sector contributes 60 of GDP
  • Characterised by low skills, poor productivity
    poor income
  • 2.5 12.5 of the informal workers are exposed
    to formal informal vocational training
  • One-third illiterate and fall below poverty line
  • Another one-third have primary middle school
  • Only 15.7 of Rural persons (10.2 of women)
    above 15 yrs of age have educational attainment
    of at least secondary school level
  • Only 2 have technical skills
  • Source NCEUS, 2009

Key Issues In Background Paper
  • Increased enrolment for VE
  • LMIS how to collaborate with industry
  • Mechanism for vertical and horizontal mobility of
    VE for skill enhancement
  • Need if any, for differences between rural and
    urban school curriculum for VE
  • Funding aspects

Why poor enrolment
  • After VE in 12th no clear road ahead? Point of
    no return?
  • Is it possible to enter labour market directly ?
  • Is there a career path in the VE stream ahead
    (diploma, graduate, PG, etc. in VE) ?
  • Is there an equivalence? Can the person get into
    formal higher education?
  • VE at 11th standard level excludes a big section
  • School drop outs at primary level and secondary
  • Persons in informal sector (engaged in
    traditional crafts, trades, etc. )
  • Do they have any avenues?
  • Do they find value in the courses offered ?
  • Do they have the time or money to spare (you need
    to woo them!)

Why poor enrolment
  • It is unimaginative and has poor relation to
    needs, clear goals and outcomes

Target Group What it offers
For School students Cannot get a job after VE in Class XI XII _at_
Unorganised Sector No clear relation to their current /most likely occupations _at_
No structured approach to career advancement
  • _at_Though 104 courses are listed, course material
    developed only for a quarter of those. Chosen six
    disciplines are
  • agriculture (eg. Vet pharmacist / technician
    watershed management)
  • Business Commerce (eg. Taxation practice,
  • Humanities (eg. Classical dance
  • Engg Tech 9eg. Lineman, cost effective bldg
  • Home Sciences 9eg. Textile design, gerentology)
  • Health paramedical skills (eg. X-ray
    technicial, health / sanitary inspector)

Suggestions improve enrolment
  • For youth that continue and complete school
  • Vocational education in schools should be aimed
    to build basic knowledge underpinnings, which
    will be the base for vocational education and
    training during post secondary school studies
  • Seamless integration between VE in academic
    institutions and Vocational training in
    technical institutes
  • Enabling Two-way movement between Academics and
  • For early school drop-outs, Persons engaged in
    traditional crafts, trades, etc.
  • Create a parallel stream for TVET. Can we have
    policy and other enablers to earn a formal
    graduate / PG/ PhD in trades / crafts?
  • Can we have methods to certify / license a
    tradesman or artisan?
  • Can we move away from ineffective EDP programs,
    and towards formal subjects that cover various
    aspects of owning running an enterprise?
  • Schools have the greatest reach in remote
    locations. Leverage this by making available the
    infrastructure resources to ANYONE intending to
    deliver skill dev program
  • Need to reduce school drop-outs before we can
    provide VE for it is these drop-outs who are
    likely to benefit from VE courses
  • School to facilitate needs of adults
    semi-literates, semi-skilled non-skilled workers

Suggestions LMIS how to collaborate with
  • Define inputs and outputs to skill needs in
    chosen occupations demand driven
  • Engage industry make them partners
  • Engage them in development of course curriculum
  • Engage them in certification process
  • Ask them to sponsor / adopt students
  • Try for the best fit Entry gate assessments
  • Technical partners including international

Suggestions vertical horizontal mobility
  • Policy Planning
  • Perfect coordination or convergence of authority
    among different policy agents
  • Integrated national framework for basic knowledge
    (academics) Skills development
  • Clarity in roles responsibilities
  • Clear and focused plan to include the
    illiterates, early school drop-outs, traditional
    artisans, etc. eg. casual lab to entry in
    factory traditional weaver to be given
    opportunity for being educated to move from
    mere weaver ?designer ?merchandiser ? exporter

Suggestions Funding issues
  • Rationalisation and clarity on cost recovery
  • WB estimates of per trainee public expenditure
    Rs.3,863 for VE and Rs.20,747 for VT 90-95 of
    which is in salaries
  • MORD provides Rs.14,132 per trainee for its
    Placement linked program under SGSY-Sp Projects
  • MES Rs. 15 per person per hour works out to
    Rs. 3,600 for a 30 working day-8 hr daily
  • DIPP
  • Rs. 10,000 per person trained and placed (new
  • Rs.2,500 per worker for skill upgrdation

Need for changing the broad brush approach to
costs of training, which varies significantly
depending upon outcomes, inputs, nature of
vocation, geographical locations and target
More Suggestions.
The Story of a Young Girl
Thank you?
School drop-outs
  • Primary school enrollment is approx. 125 million
  • Which drops to 25 million in class IX-X and
  • Further to 13.4 million in class XI-XII
  • A whopping 89 million do not enter higher
    secondary where VE is introduced

VE for the informal sector
  • Only relevant courses possibly are those under
    MES, NOS, etc.
  • But are they conceived keeping in mind the needs
    of this segment?
  • Perhaps not..
  • Because of poor relation to their existential
  • Entry barriers
  • Sheer lack of knowledge
  • Cost of taking up the course and its poor
    relation to benefits
  • No structured approach to offer a career
    improvement plan

Mobilization of the excluded
In attracting the poor, school drop outs to
TVET Deal with high opportunity cost Deal with
lack of clear career path for these people Deal
with entry barriers Effectiveness of the training
in terms of outcomes (job offer) Migration
issues Poor income status (cost recovery)
  • Partners to reach them
  • DRDA Local Panchayat
  • NGOs
  • Local Government bodies
  • Awareness of our program
  • Counselling
  • Career goals progression
  • Industry participation is also encouraged.

Mobilisation - methods and tools
Other Partners NGOs, PRI Individuals Reference
Rozgar Rath
Informal Sector
1993-94 2004-05

Own account employers 32 33
Unpaid Family workers 23 24
Regular salaried wage workers 14 15
Casual workers 32 28

100 100
Only 59 mn are regular wage workers. A whopping
334 mn. Are either self-employed or casual
workers or unpaid family workers
Trainee Selection Process
  • Trainer Calculating the
  • Peg-Board Score

Trainer checking the Colour Blindness of a
Training goals methods
  • Placement as goal
  • Content exactly as per industry needs
  • Delivery in local language
  • Delivered in Multimedia
  • format

Defining outcomes -Factory Simulated Training Room
Industry Simulated Workshop
Technical Partners
Certification by industry bodies other accepted
technical institutions
Assessment Certification
  • 3rd party Assessment by the Expert Agencies