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21st CENTURY APPROACH TO OPEN WATER DITCHING

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21st century approach to open water ditching – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 21st CENTURY APPROACH TO OPEN WATER DITCHING


1
21st CENTURY APPROACH TO OPEN WATER DITCHING
2
ARE WE TRAINING EFFECTIVELY?
  • BEFORE THE 1990s THE AIRLINE, AIR-CARGO,
    CORPORATE AND MILITARY TRAINED DITCHING AS A
    SIGNIFICANT EVENT
  • OUR CURRENT SIGNIFICANT SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS HAVE
    CROWDED OUT COMPREHENSIVE DITCHING TRAINING

3
TRAINING SHORTFALLS
  • 121.5 VS 406 MHz TRAINING (NON-RADAR)
  • SQUAWKING 7700 EMERGENCY WHILE OCEANIC
  • REAL TIME 30 MINUTES OF PREPARATION FOR THE
    DESCENT INCLUDING PRESSURIZATION, ELECTRICAL,
    COMMUNICATIONS CHALLENGES

4
AVIATION SAFETY OBSTACLES
  • FATE AND MOTHER NATURE
  • COMPLACENCY

5
FATE AND MOTHER NATURE
  • I define fate (in aviation) as bad luck or
    indeterminate outcome.
  • I define mother nature (in aviation) as weather,
    human error, and gravity.
  • The week of November 4-10, 2010 was the perfect
    storm week with three totally un-related, yet
    perfect examples of fate and mother nature
    conspiring against us.
  • The following three examples serve my point.

6
FATE AND MOTHER NATURE Example 1
  • November 4, 2010 an Airbus A-380 experienced an
    un-contained engine failure. The engine failed
    four minutes after takeoff. There were 26 A-380s
    on the line that week. The exploding engine
    caused severe damage to electrical lines,
    hydraulic lines, fuel lines and pneumatic lines.
    The crew struggled for hours with erroneous CAS
    messages, fire messages, fuel problems and many
    others.

7
Rolls Royce Trent 900 Engine Qantas FL32
(Singapore to Sydney)
8
FATE AND MOTHER NATURE Example 2
  • November 8, 2010 the 952 feet long luxury liner
    Carnival Splendor (with 4,446 people onboard) was
    200 miles south of San Diego when a fire in the
    engine room cut all phone, power, air
    conditioning and most importantly the control of
    the ship. The ship was towed to port.

9
FATE AND MOTHER NATURE Example 3
  • November 9, 2010 a Boeing 787 flying test bed
    aircraft, made an emergency landing in Laredo,
    Texas. The crew had to evacuate the aircraft via
    slides. There were four B-787s flying that week.

10
FATE AND MOTHER NATURE Summation
  • The week November 4-9, 2010
  • The cause or outcome of these incidents is not
    important.
  • What is important the very best engineers in the
    world at Airbus (France) and Boeing (USA) and
    Fincantiere Ship Company (Italy) can design, and
    the most talented production personnel in the
    world can build the most remarkable machines
    mankind has ever made, and FATE AND MOTHER NATURE
    can still wreak havoc on us.
  • This one week beautifully illustrates my point.
    FATE AND MOTHER NATURE influenced the Wright
    brothers and will influence all operators FOREVER.

11
COMPLACENCY
  • COMPLACENCY a feeling of being satisfied with
    how things are and not wanting to try to make
    them better.
  • COMPLACENCY normalization of deviance

12
SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER JAN 28, 1986
13
STS 51L Challenger Jan 28, 1986
  • Fuel Tank O-Rings Certified Down to 40
  • Temperature At Launch 28

14
SPACE SHUTTLE COLUMBIA JAN 16, 2003
15
STS 107 FEB 1, 2003
  • Foam falling off fuel tank during liftoff damaged
    heat tiles under the left wing.

16
COSTA CONCORDIA CRUISE SHIP
  • Run aground off west coast of Italy Jan 13, 2012
  • Responsibility of the 52 year old captain.

17
ASIANA 214
  • Landed short and hit sea wall at approach end of
    Runway 28R at SFO,
  • July 26, 2013.
  • Responsibility of the captain.

18
COMPLACENCY EFFECTS ON SAFETY
  • STS 51 CHALLENGER
  • STS 107 COLUMBIA
  • COSTA CONCORDIA GROUNDING
  • ASIANA FLT 214
  • ANY bets we will never have another ditching?

19
THE NEXT DITCHING
  1. On board fire which cannot be extinguished.
    Cockpit, cargo, or pax.
  2. Hail damage to engines which does not allow
    restart.
  3. Volcanic ash encounter which does not allow
    restart.
  4. Fuel exhaustion or contamination.
  5. Electrical failure (cascading?) leading to
    navigation failure.
  6. Subterfuge or terrorism.

20
STATISTICS AND ODDS MAKING (RISKS)
  • North Atlantic crossings at 1300/day or
    474,500/year.
  • North Pacific crossings at 625/day or
    228,000/year.
  • Polar crossings at 48/day or 17,520/year. And
    this number increases each month.
  • Add in the flights of the South Atlantic, South
    Pacific, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, Artic
    Ocean and all the island to island flights, and
    flights across gulfs, bays and great lakes and we
    conservatively estimate 1 million a year or
    2,700/day.

21
WE ARE FAILING OUR AIRCREWS
  • Inadequate training for the scenario
  • No simulator scenarios
  • No exposure to emergency planning documents
  • Little aircraft system knowledge for the disaster
  • No teaching of modern ELT operations

22
SAR SATTELITE OVERVIEW
23
SARSAT OVERVIEW 406 MHz LOCATOR RECEIVERS
  • GEO Geosynchronous satellites (3) are in fixed
    orbit approximately 22,000 miles above the earth,
    with each watching a specific geographic area.
    Coverage centers on 70N to 70S. These satellites
    are directly above the equator.
  • LEO Low Earth Orbit satellites are orbiting the
    earth every 100 minutes searching for any 406
    transmission. They are between 100 to 1,200 miles
    above the earth. They are circling the earth at
    approximately 17,000 miles per hour.
  • The GEO general derived location combined with
    the LEO continuously movement produces doppler
    derived positioning fixes to within 3NM box. If
    the 406 MHz transmitter has lat/long input from
    GPS/FMS/IRS the search box narrows to a 10 foot
    box.
  • All satellites transmit to 77 LUTS (local user
    terminals) which then talk to mission control
    centers in 25 countries.
  • 406 transmitters also emit a burst for the
    first five seconds of every minute on 121.5 to
    allow homing devices to locate them. Search
    aircraft and handheld receivers home in on the
    121.5 transmissions.

24
MARITIME ROLE IN SAR
  • The aviation website www.flightaware.com presents
    aircraft on IFR flight plans.
  • Websites marinetraffic.com/ais and sailwx.com and
    AMVER present oceanic traffic on the world map.
  • Rescue coordination centers around the world use
    the maritime websites to coordinate for at sea
    assistance and rescues.
  • Ships are obligated under maritime law to help
    other distressed vessels.
  • Ships are required to maintain visual watch in
    accordance with Maritime Law. So in theory there
    is always someone looking out ahead. Just in case
    you ever have to do a low altitude fly by (or
    glide by).

25
MARITIME WORLDWIDE PICTURE
26
DITCHING SELF STUDY (home or in the simulator)
  • Study your airframe
  • Driftdown speeds and do they change in the
    descent.
  • Driftdown distance and how will winds at altitude
    affect your ground distance.
  • Driftdown time. Crew and passengers and aircraft
    within radio range ALL need to know your
    approximate landing time.
  • Configuration for glide. Would you use flaps,
    slats, or any other device.
  • What altitude block do you put down flaps and how
    do flaps change glide.
  • What systems produce power and what will be
    powered.
  • TCAS/ AUTOPILOT/ HF RADIO/ VHF RADIO/PHONE/INTERCO
    M
  • How will you communicate in and out of the
    airframe.
  • How will you exploit aircraft systems to your
    advantage (trim for glide, use autopilot if
    powered).
  • How long will battery power only last.
  • Altitude for start of APU/HMG/RAT and exactly
    what busses are powered.
  • Chair fly an approach and touchdown on
    symmetrical swells and one for mixed chop.
  • Chair fly (glide) a pattern to prepare for a ship
    on the water.

27
PRE-FLIGHT TASKS (like you dont already have
enough to do)
  • Onboard equipment review.
  • Review SAR asset locations.
  • Segmented chart for First Turn Headings.
  • SAR center phone numbers.
  • Review with crew importance of not opening any
    exit until after the aircraft float posture is
    established and OPEN commands are given. Make
    sure everyone knows what float posture means.
  • Navy website data for ditching headings, swell
    heights, baro settings (see charts below).

28
ENROUTE CONCERNS AND TASKINGS
  • A heading bug on charted ditching heading, and a
    standby altimeter set to charted QNH will give
    the crew the best guess data in the event of a
    descent at night or in IMC.
  • Hourly update heading bug to ditch headings taken
    off the charts.
  • Hourly update standby altimeter to baro setting.
  • Hourly update First Turn Heading (constant
    changing diversion field) using segmented map of
    flight route.

29
DITCHING HEADINGS
30
SWELL HEIGHTS
31
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE
32
MEETING THE CATASTROPHIE AFTER ENGINE FAILURE TO
1000 AGL
  • FLY the airframe. Initiate first turn toward
    rescue.
  • How do you handle loss of pressurization with
    engines loss at altitude. You have two choices
    slow drift down with everyone on oxygen, or
    emergency descent to an altitude where everyone
    can breathe.
  • Re-start assignments.
  • Communication assignments. SAR center. Other
    aircraft. ATC. MOM.
  • APU/ RAT/ HMG
  • ELT ON -- Because you want MCCs looking at you
    a) at altitude, b) in the descent, c) during the
    water landing.
  • Squawk 7700 -- Because all naval assets from
    all countries monitor it.
  • Cockpit/ cabin prep.
  • Any ships on water? Assign lookout task to crew
    and pax.
  • How long does alternate extension of flaps take.

33
THE LAST 100 FEET
  • Lessen glide ground speed by into wind if it fits
    with water conditions.
  • Wings level. Wings level. Especially if you have
    under wing engines as today they are not engines,
    but water brakes.
  • Not too fast or you risk greater damage to the
    hull or skip.
  • Not too slow as you risk loss of elevator or
    rudder and thus control.
  • Top or back of swell is the best landing zone
    followed by the trough.
  • Prepare for brutalness of contact with any
    padding you can place around knees and torso.
  • Don O2 mask and goggles.
  • Seats moved rearward (back) and belts locked.

34
DEEP WATER DITCHING SURVIVAL
  • Stay together if at all possible for a magnitude
    of reasons.
  • Signaling starts with you mirrors, flares, sea
    dye marker, laser pointers, smoke canisters,
    whistles.
  • Communication starts with you aircraft radios on
    VHF, HF, data. Satellite phones, handheld radios,
    cell phones.
  • Assignments to crew and pax bailing,
    maintenance, water production and allocation,
    food allocation, first aid, equipment, spiritual,
    entertainment.

35
WORLD WIDE SAR PHONES
RCC Area of SAR Coordination Responsibility Phone Number
Atlantic Coordinator North Atlantic Ocean out to 40 west 1 757 398-6700
Pacific Coordinator Areas covered by Seattle, Honolulu and Juneau. 1 510 437-3700
RCC Miami Caribbean Sea. 1 305 415-6800
RCC Honolulu (operated as JRCC with DOD) Hawaii, U.S. Pacific Islands and waters of Central Pacific Ocean 1 808 535-3333
Sector Guam (under RCC Honolulu) Western Pacific Ocean 1 671 355-4824
RCC Juneau North Pacific Ocean 1 907 463-2000
RCC Argentina Buenos Aires Ushuaia 54 1144 8024 86 54 2901 4310 98
RCC Australia Canberra 61 262 306811
RCC Chili Santiago Punta Arenas 56 25305 941 56 61202 161
RCC Fiji Suva 679 331 5380
RCC Mexico Mazatlan 52 669 985 3078
RCC New Zealand Lower Hutt 64 4577 8030
RCC South Africa Cape Town 27 2193 83300
RCC Tahiti Papeete 689 4624 32
RCC United Kingdom Falmouth 44 1326 317 575
     
36
VITAL READING AND WATCHING
  • Personal survival gear www.equipped.org
  • Testimonial by Capt. Al Haynes
    http//clear-prop-org/aviation/haynes.html
  • Movie Castaway with Tom Hanks (watch it with a
    survivalists eye)
  • Movie The Life Of Pi
  • AF447 CVR/FDR www.popularmechanics.com/technology
    /aviation/crashes/what-really-happened-aboard-air-
    france-447-6611877
  • Our Last Chance
  • Greatest Survival Stories Ever Told

37
SIMULATOR SCENARIOS 1
  • 1 Is a Quick Ditch with an onboard fire.
  • Aircraft at maximum cruise altitude at 50N/ 30W
    on an Atlantic crossing or at 25N/ 140W on a
    Pacific crossing or 80N/ 40W for a polar
    crossing or 10S/ 80E for an Indian Ocean
    crossing. Day or night, IMC/VMC at operator's
    discretion.
  •  These scenarios are tailored for large aircraft
    but obviously can be tailored for any size
    operation. 
  •  Players required are SO - simulator operator.
    CAPT - captain, FO - first officer, LFA - lead
    flight attendant or purser, OAV - other aircraft
    in vicinity, ATC -air traffic controller, PM -
    phone monitor who also sends/responds to data
    messages.

38
FINAL THOUGHTS
  • Success or failure is determined by the pilot
    actions leading up to the last 30 seconds.
  • Pilot actions are determined by preparation.
  • NOT PLANNING IS PLANNING TO FAIL
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