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Mexican-American War, James K. Polk, and Completing the Map of the U.S.

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Themes to look for: Discovery, Exploration, Settlement THOMAS COLE Basically, the founder of the Hudson River School and the Luminism movement. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mexican-American War, James K. Polk, and Completing the Map of the U.S.


1
Mexican-American War, James K. Polk, and
Completing the Map of the U.S.
2
The slavery debate simmers as we move westward
more on this next Unit
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James K. Polk
  • Election of 1844
  • Main opposition was Clay
  • Promised to only serve one term
  • 4 goals
  • Establish an independent treasury
  • Decrease tariffs
  • Deal with the Oregon Issue
  • Purchase neglected California from Mexico
  • Committed to Expansionism
  • More land more yeoman farmers Republican
    Virtue
  • Young Hickory or The Napoleon of the Stump

5
The Question of Oregon
  • 5440 or Fight!
  • The 49th Parallel compromise
  • Oregon, Idaho, Washington
  • parts of Montana and Wyoming

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The Lone Star Republic
  • Stephen Austin
  • American Immigration
  • The Old 300
  • Secession from Mexico, Texas Revolution
  • Remember the Alamo!
  • Battle of San Jancinto
  • Operated as an independent country 1836-1846
  • Sam Houston

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Texas Annexation - 1845
  • Jackson recognizes Texas, upsets Mexico
  • Tyler signs the bill that invites Texas into the
    Union
  • Texas is adopted into the Union, gets statehood
    the same day (no territorial phase)
  • U.S. assumes war debts (10 Million)
  • Texas can divide itself into as many as 5 states
  • Texas doesnt have to surrender lands to federal
    government
  • Side Note Any federal lands in TX today have
    been purchased by the US. Revenues from Oil help
    fund many state projects, especially colleges!

9
California..
  • Polk wanted to buy the land, sent Slidell to
    purchase from Mexico for 20-30 Million
  • Main interest is port at San Francisco Bay
  • Slidell rebuffed, Polk is offended
  • Bear Flag Revolt
  • Led by Americans living in Mexican territory
  • Will merge with Mexican-American War.

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Mexican American War
  • Texas California immigration Problems
  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
  • Overthrown in 1844, double-cross on US over CA
  • Intends to centralize control, become a
    dictator(-ish)
  • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
  • 1/3 of Mexican territory ? the US
  • Democrats wondered, why not all of it? Polk just
    ignored them. ?

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After the War
  • Wilmot Proviso
  • No slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico
  • Failure, reintroduced repeatedly
  • Leads the slow slide towards the Civil War
  • Censure of Polk in House of Representatives -
    1848
  • Whigs use the war as a unifying message against
    the Democrats, censure him for starting the war
  • War is an immoral act of aggression carried out
    through the abuse of Power of the President.
  • Even though they voted to fund the war b/c they
    were scared about what the Public would think!

13
Also in 1848 Cuba?
  • Polk sends an envoy to offer 100 Million to
    Spain for Cuba
  • (2.71 Billion in 2007)
  • Its a slave territory. Appeals to South, not
    North
  • Luckily, Spain rejects the offer so its not an
    issue.

14
Polk Out
  • Keeps his promise to only serve one term
  • Zach Tyler follows him (hero of Mex-Am War)
  • 103 days after hes done, he dies.
  • ? of cholera.
  • Overwork, over dedication to the job
  • Last words to his wife
  • I love you, Sarah. For all eternity, I love
    you..

15
Gadsden Purchase
  • 1853 we need to complete a Transcontinental
    Railroad!
  • Gadsden authorized to purchase parcels of land
    with a price fixed for each.
  • Price would include the settlement of all Indian
    damages and relieve the US from any further
    obligation to protect Mexicans.
  • 50 million would have bought Baja and a large
    portion of its northwestern Mexican states while
    15 million bought the 38,000 square miles of
    desert necessary for the railroad plans.
  • Santa Anna was put off by "Gadsdens antagonistic
    manner." Gadsden had advised Santa Anna that "the
    spirit of the age" would soon lead the northern
    states to secede so he might as well sell them
    now.
  • When Great Britain rejected Mexican requests to
    assist in the negotiations, Santa Anna opted for
    the 15 million package.

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Proclamation of 1763 Line
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So, is this funny or offensive?
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American Art and the Westward Movement
  • The Hudson River School encompasses two
    generations of painters inspired by Thomas
    Cole's, awesomely Romantic images of America's
    wilderness - in the Hudson River Valley and also
    in the newly opened West. The particular use of
    light effects, to lend an exaggerated drama to
    such elements as mist and sunsets, developed into
    a subspecialty known as Luminism. .
  • Themes to look for Discovery, Exploration,
    Settlement

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THOMAS COLE
  • Basically, the founder of the Hudson River School
    and the Luminism movement.

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Coles Voyage of Life
  • The Voyage of Life series is an allegory of the
    four stages of man childhood, youth, manhood,
    and old age. In each painting, accompanied by a
    guardian angel, the voyager rides in a boat on
    the River of Life. The landscape, corresponding
    to the seasons of the year, plays a major role in
    telling the story.
  • In childhood, the infant glides from a dark cave
    into a rich, green landscape. As a youth, the boy
    takes control of the boat and aims for a shining
    castle in the sky. The last two pictures reverse
    the boat's direction. In manhood, the adult
    relies on prayer and religious faith to sustain
    him through rough waters and a threatening
    landscape. Finally, the man becomes old and the
    angel guides him to heaven across the waters of
    eternity.

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CHILDHOOD
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Youth
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ManHOOD
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Old Age
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Frederic Edwin Church
  • He traveled and painted in North and South
    America and in Europe and excelled in panoramic
    scenes. He painted exotic and foreign landscapes
    as well as the native scenery favored by other
    members of the school. His large canvases are
    noted for the accuracy and clarity of the scenery
    portrayed, and for a crystalline rendering of
    light that links him to luminism.

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Albert Bierstadt
  • Bierstadt became internationally renowned for his
    beautiful and enormous paintings of the newly
    accessible American west, and his works found
    their way into public and private collections at
    staggeringly high prices for his time.  His
    popularity and wealth rose to tremendous heights
    only to fade as the interest in the Boston School
    and impressionism turned public taste away from
    his highly detailed landscapes suffused with
    golden light.  By 1895 he declared himself
    bankrupt.

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Two other Artists to Know Moran and Remington
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Thomas Moran
  • Thomas Moran was, at the beginning of his storied
    career, an immigrant from England recently
    settled in the United States. He and his family
    had settled in New York where Moran sought work
    as an artist. A talented illustrator and
    exquisite colorist, Moran was soon hired as an
    illustrator at Scribner's Monthly. By the close
    of the 1860's, he had been appointed chief
    illustrator of the magazine, serendipitously
    landing the position which would allow him access
    to a prosperous future as one of the premier
    painters of the American landscape.
  • As a result of the powerful images created from
    his travels with what are now known as "The Great
    Surveys"-- Yellowstone, The Grand Canyon,
    Yosemite Valley, and The Mountain of the Holy
    Cross in Colorado--Moran would earn the nickname
    "Father of the National Park System" because of
    the tremendous influence his paintings had on the
    emergence of Western tourism and on the members
    of Congress who resolved to set aside vast areas
    of the West as National Parks.
  • Stephen Tyng Mather, a Director of the Park
    Service in the 1920's, said of Moran upon the
    artist's death in 1927 that he, "more than any
    other artist has made us acquainted with the
    Great West..." He made Americans see the beauties
    of their national heritage and prove to the plain
    citizen "that he did not have to leave his native
    shores to look on something more wonderful than
    the Alps."

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Frederic Remington
  • With his dynamic representations of cowboys and
    cavalrymen, bronco busters and braves,
    19th-century artist Frederic Remington created a
    mythic image of the American West that continues
    to inspire America today. His technical ability
    to reproduce the physical beauty of the Western
    landscape made him a sought-after illustrator,
    but it was his insight into the heroic nature of
    American settlers that made him great. This
    painter, sculptor, author, and illustrator, who
    was so often identified with the American West,
    surprisingly spent most of his life in the East.
    More than anything, in fact, it was Remingtons
    connection with the eastern fantasy of the West,
    and not a true knowledge of its history and
    people, that his admirers responded to.
  • Over the course of his career, Frederic Remington
    produced more than three thousand drawings and
    paintings, twenty-two bronze sculptures, a novel,
    a Broadway play, and over one hundred articles
    and stories. With its dramatic subjects and
    striking realism, Remingtons artwork fired the
    American imagination, and his vision of the West
    was adopted by the nation.

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