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Understanding the Adult Learning Process Using an understanding of adult learning psychology to enhance teaching and learning 2014 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding

Understanding the Adult Learning Process
Using an understanding of adult learning
psychology to enhance teaching and learning
  • What are your expectations from
  • todays session?
  • Activities
  • Butchers Paper Make a list of what you want to

ActivityCuriosity ExerciseHow do you learn?
Activity Complete Kolbs Learning Style/Learning
Preference Questionnaire Latter we will analyse
your results!!
Today Introduction GLOSS
  • Welcome every one
  • This workshop builds on your learning from the
    CIV TAE and aims to extend your knowledge of the
    application of the principles of adult learning
    and aspects of learning, learning retention and,
    the transfer of learning within the VET
  • Topics will include
  • Approaches in psychology
  • Various educational psychology theories and
  • Teaching for Retrieval
  • Memory, retention, forgetting
  • Teaching for Transfer of learning
  • Development of expertise and the acquisition of
  • Applying adult learning principles to teaching
    and learning
  • Activities will include a Learning style
    questionnaire, a Memory Test, a Retention

What will you achieve todayGLOSS
  • By the end of this session you should be able to
  • Gain a knowledge of educational psychology and
    its application to adult learning theory and
    adult learning principles
  • Understanding of psychological perspectives of
  • Characteristics of the adult learner
  • The function memory plays in learning
  • An overview of learning models
  • Knowledge to apply educational psychology to your
    planning for training and assessment

Meta cognition Effective Adult Learning
  • The goal of the Smart, Skilled and Savvy Teacher
    Preparing the learner to be a Life Long Expert
  • Motivate
  • Retain
  • Apply
  • Transfer

Educational and teachingBody
  • What is educational psychology?
  • Role of educational psychology
  • Dimensions of educational psychology
  • Role of the highly effective Sydney TAFE Teacher
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vRu7kYlpu2PQ

Educational psychologyBody
  • What is educational psychology ?
  • The study of human learning
  • Involves studying the learning and the teaching
  • Multitude of theories applicable to adult

Educational psychologyBody
  • What is the role of educational psychology ?
  • better understand individual learner differences
    in behaviour, personality, intellect, and
  • interaction between learner and facilitator and
    the learning environment
  • improvement of education outcomes

Learning Body
  • Learning is really what the educational process
    is all about!
  • Learning can be defied as changes in behaviour
    resulting from experience.
  • Two major groups of learning theories are
  • Behaviourism
  • and
  • Cognitivism

Learning domains Body
  • Learners need to be supported in developing
    knowledge, skills and changed behaviours. One way
    of considering what the training is about is
    Blooms taxonomy model. This model is in 3 parts
    or overlapping domains
  • Cognitive domain intellectual capacity,
  • i.e. knowledge, or think
  • Affective domain feelings, emotions and
  • i.e. attitude, or feel
  • Psychomotor domain manual and
  • physical skills, i.e. skills or do

Approaches in psychology Body

Approaches in learningBody
  • Cognitive - learning is an internal process
  • Behavioural - learning is the result of
  • Humanist - learning cannot take place unless both
    the cognitive and affective domains are involved
  • Constructivist learning is constructed on
    agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the
    learner, together with social and cultural
  • Activity Matching Exercise

Learning modelsBody
  • Skinner Operant learning
  • Behaviourist fixed body of knowledge reward
    and punishment
  • Ausubel - Reception learning
  • Cognitive verbal learning organised
    hierachically rote
  • Bruner - Discovery learning
  • Constructivist problem solving situations
    guided discovery
  • Kolb - Experiential Learning Model
  • Cognitive and Constructivist knowledge created
    thru the transformation of experience

Kolbs Learning Cycle and Experiential Learning
Model Body
Kolbs Learning Cycle Experiential
Learning Workshop Activity Questionnaire
Teaching for Retrieval of learningAccessing long
term memoryBody
  • Learner as information storing and processor
  • Emphasising meaningfulness learned more easily
    and remembered for longer periods
  • Organisation Frames and Schemata, identify main
    ideas, summaringing tables
  • Visual material impact 90 images remebered
  • Rehersal simple repetition, highlight all
    important points in a text
  • Overlearning serves as insurance against

Information processingWhat is it?Body
  • Memory is the process in which information is
    encoded, stored and retrieved
  • Encoding allows information from the outside
    world to reach our senses
  • Storage secondary memory stage, retention of
  • Retrieval locating stored information
  • Retention Information retained long enough to be
    taken into the workplace or a real life situation

MemoryStorage - Keeping it somewhereBody
  • We have three distinct memory storage
    capabilities .
  • Sensory memory referring to the information we
    receive through the senses. This memory is very
    brief lasting only as much as a few seconds (20)
  • Short term memory takes over when the
    information in our sensory memory is transferred
    to our consciousness or our awareness (7 - 2
    discrete items)
  • Working memory the process that takes place when
    we continually focus on material for longer than
    STM alone will allow
  • Long term memory Information that passes from
    our short term to our long term memory by
    encoding and is typically that which has some
    significance attached to it.

Activity Memory
  • http//www.intelligencetest.com/stmemory/games/in
  • Memory test 1
  • http//www.intelligencetest.com/stmemory/games/tes
  • Instructions
  • You will be presented with a series of shapes,
    letters words and pictures. Each of these items
    will appear on your screen for 10 seconds. You
    will then be asked a question to test your memory
    on each item.
  • Memory test 3
  • http//www.intelligencetest.com/stmemory/games/tes
  • Instructions
  • You will be presented with a series of shapes,
    letters words and pictures. Each of these items
    will appear on your screen for 10 seconds. You
    will then be asked a question to test your memory
    on each item.

ForgettingHow not to lose itBody
  • Chunking It is easier to memorize information
    when you break it up into small chunks.
  • Recency
  • Learners remember best the content at the end of
    a session or review or freshest in their mind
  • Primacy
  • Learners remember best the things learned first
  • Activity
  • Chunking

  • Activity Chunking
  • Use the process of chunking to divide the
    following bits of information
  • 1. issheilagoingtobuythenewphone
  • 2. 1776200119951970179219402007
  • 3. canyouchunktheselettersintowords
  • 4. 510152025303540
  • 5. 300305310320330340350

The primacy and recency effects of active
memoryActivity Experiment in memory
  • CandleMapleSubwayPoisonTigerCeilingLawyerOc

SequencingActivity Following a recipe
  • Sequencing
  • refers to the identification of the components of
    a learning event, such as the beginning, middle,
    and conclusion
  • It is important that information is sequenced so
    that topics and subtopics are delivered in a
    logical order

ForgettingLosing it!Body
  • Decay
  • Repression
  • Encoding specificity
  • Retrieval Failure
  • Tips and Tricks

Memory and Retention Specific memory aids
  • Motivation
  • give a reason why they should know something
    positive feedback
  • Understanding
  • making a connection between what they are
    learning and what they have experienced
  • Sequencing
  • refers to the identification of the components of
    a learning event, such as the beginning, middle,
    and conclusion
  • Graphic Organizers https//www.teachervision.com/g
  • facilitate understanding of key concepts by
    allowing students to visually identify key points
    and ideas eg VEN , Cycle diagrams
  • Mnemonics
  • I before E except after C
  • Acronym
  • a word made up from the first letters of a list
    of words
  • Acrostics
  • The first letters of a list of words represent an
    item of information
  • Schemata/Frames Metaphores for the organisation
    of knowledge of information

Teaching for transfer of learningBody
  • Transfer of learning is the influence of
    previously learned material on new material.
  • Transfer occurs when a rule, fact or skill
    learned in one situation is applied in another
  • Types of transfer include
  • Low level - spontaneous and automatic transfer
    of highly practiced skills
  • High level application of abstract knowledge
    learned in one situation to a different
    situation and
  • Over learning practising a skill beyond the
    point of mastery.

Teaching for skill developmentBody
  • expertness, practised ability, facility in
    doing something dexterity Oxford dictionary
  • Nine defining characteristics
  • Skill is learned
  • Skill involves motivation, purpose and goals
  • Schemas are required
  • Skills are context specific
  • Skills involve problem solving relevant to the
  • Skills involve relative judgements with
    individual differences in skilled performance
  • Standards of excellence are integral to
    judgements about the existence of skill and
    degree of excellence
  • Considerable periods of time are required to
    achieve high levels of skill
  • (Cornford 1999)

Knowles adult learning principleshttp//www.yout
  • Knowles identified the six principles of adult
    learning outlined below.
  • Adults are internally motivated and self-directed
  • Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to
    learning experiences
  • Adults are goal oriented
  • Adults are relevancy oriented
  • Adults are practical
  • Adult learners like to be respected

Malcolm Knowles - Andragogy Six principles of
adult learning
Activity Adult Learning in Under 3
Minutes http//www.youtube.com/watch?v8lvkJhXnEZk

Adult learner characteristicsBody
  • Existing knowledge skills and experience
  • Special needs such as child care, language,
    reasonable adjustment
  • Work/home/community environment
  • Preferred learning style

Adult learning stylesBody
  • Learning through the senses (Kolb Visual,
    Aural, Reading, Kinesthetic, Olfactory, Haptic)
  • Holistic learning
  • Personality traits
  • Focused (why and how approach)
  • Personal (who and why approach)
  • Active (want to be doing)
  • Practical (what if)

Quality TeachingBody
Planning Effective Adult Learning Formal
teaching steps Adult learning principles
Jane Vella's 12 Principles for Planning
Effective Adult Learning
  • 1. Needs Assessment Participation of the learner
    in naming what is to be learned.
  • 2. Safety in the environment between teacher and
    learner for learning and development.
  • 3. A sound relationship between teacher and
    learner for learning and development.
  • 4. Careful attention to sequence of content and
  • 5. Praxis Action with reflection or learning by
  • 6. Respect for learners as subjects of their own
  • 7.Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects
    ideas, feelings, actions.
  • 8. Immediacy of the learning.
  • 9. Clear roles and role development.
  • 10. Teamwork Using small groups.
  • 11. Engagement of the learners in what they are
  • 12. Accountability How do they know they know?

Herbarts 5 formal teaching stepsBody
  • 1. Review material that has already been learned
    by the teacher
  • 2. Prepare the student for new material by giving
    them an overview of what they are learning next
  • 3. Present the new material
  • 4. Relate the new material to the old material
    that has already been learned
  • 5. Show how the student can apply the new
    material and show the material they will learn

Putting it all togetherApplying principles of
adult learning
  • R Recency things that are learned last are best
  • A Appropriateness all training and resources
    must be appropriate to the learners needs
  • M Motivation learners must want to learn
  • P Primacy - things that are learned first are
    usually learned best
  • 2 2 way communication communication with
    learners not at them
  • F Feedback both need information from each
  • A Active learning learners learn from doing
  • M Multi-sense learning use all five senses,
    multi media
  • E Exercise things that are practiced are best

Good teachers apply educational psychology and
key adult learning principles to their practice
RAMP2FAME Learning Planning Model Kroehnert, G
., Basic Training for trainers, McGraw Hill 1993.
  • Sydney TAFE
  • Smart Skilled and Savvy Teacher Program
  • Understanding the adult learning process
  • Using an understanding of adult learning
    psychology to enhance teaching and learning
  • FacilitatorsJohn ZervosHead Teacher,
    Electronic Trades
  • Sydney TAFE
  • And
  • Gerard Kell
  • Manager Workforce Services
  • Sydney TAFE
  • April 2014
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