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Psychology:

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Psychology: An Introduction Psychoanalytic Approach By analyzing these impulses, we gain an understanding of them as well as insight into how to control them ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology:


1
Psychology
  • An Introduction

2
Psychology Defined
  • The scientific study of mental processes and
    behavior in both animals humans.

3
Psychology uses a scientific approach
  • Psychological theories are general frameworks for
    the scientific study of human animal behavior

4
Psychological Theories
  • Theories are used to develop testable assumptions
    or ideas about human behavior
  • Theories in psychology can become confusing
    because human behavior is difficult to explain

5
Psychological Theories
  • There are many possible causes for a particular
    behavior
  • Often, psychological theories contradict each
    other

6
Areas of Specialization in Psychology
  • Research
  • Pharmacology
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Military
  • Experimental
  • Clinical
  • Teaching
  • Psychotherapy
  • Industrial

7
Types of Psychologists
  • Research psychologists those who study the
    origin, cause,or results of certain behaviors
  • Applied psychologists those who make direct use
    of the research findings of research
    psychologists by dealing directly with patients

8
Historical Psychologists Their Theories
9
Wilhelm Wundt (pronounced Voont)
The work which I here present to the public is
an attempt to mark out a new domain of science.
10
Wundts Accomplishments
  • Started the first laboratory for studying humans
  • Known as the Father of Psychology

11
Wundts Theories
  • Wundt sought to understand the basics that go
    into making up our thoughts feelings
  • Wundt tried to train people to accurately
    describe the sensations that they experienced
    when touching certain objects
  • Wundt found that human sensation and experiences
    were too complex to be generally classified

12
Wundts Theories
  • Developed the process known as introspection
  • Introspection means looking within yourself and
    explaining what is there
  • Wundt demonstrated that some aspects of human
    behavior and thought processes can be observed
    scientifically

13
Sigmund Freud
A man like me cannot live without a dominating
passionIt is psychology.
14
Freuds Accomplishments
  • Austrian Physician
  • Developed one of the first comprehensive theories
    of personality
  • Developed psychoanalysis which examines the base
    human desires and impulses to determine the cause
    for psychological problems

15
Freuds Theories
  • Problems that appear in adolescence or adulthood
    can be traced to things that happened in the
    first five or six years of life
  • His primary theory is based on how unconscious
    conflicts affect personality

16
Freuds Theories
  • People are influenced by their early childhood
    experiences
  • Freud had many other theories which will be
    discussed later in this course

17
William James
Psychology is the science of mental life.
18
James Accomplisments
  • Philosopher and Harvard professor
  • One of the founders of American psychology

19
James Theories
  • Interested in how humans adapt to their
    environment
  • He preferred to examine human experiences in
    their entirety rather than breaking them down

20
James Theories
  • Tried to understand thinking as a stream of
    ideas
  • Kept the needs of the individual in mind while
    studying human thinking processes

21
John B. Watson
No one today knows enough to raise a child.
22
Watsons Accomplishments
  • Studied the impact of learning on human emotion
  • He is associated with behaviorism due to his
    concentration on human learning

23
Watsons Theories
  • He believed associations with either positive or
    negative experiences shape our emotions and
    behavior
  • He believed psychological problems could be
    prevented through good parenting

24
Six Main Psychological Approaches
  • Neurobiological
  • Behavioral
  • Humanistic
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Cognitive
  • Sociocultural

25
Neurobiological Approach
The Brain
Antidepressants
Prozac Paxil Zoloft Celexa Wellbutrin
Serotonin Acetylcholine Norepinephrine Dopamine En
dorphins
neurotransmitters
26
Neurobiological
  • Behavior is viewed in terms of biological response

27
Neurobiological
  • For example
  • Low levels of the neurotransmitter
  • serotonin in the brain causes
  • depression

28
Neurobiological
  • Research on depression has demonstrated that the
    brains chemistry changes dramatically during
    depressive states
  • This research has led to the development of
    powerful antidepressants known as SSRIs.
  • SSRI stands for selective serotonin reuptake
    inhibitors

29
Behavioral Approach
  • Behavior is viewed as a product of learned
    responses

30
Behavioral Approach
  • Humans become who they are through a process of
    learning and associations with things that have
    been learned

31
People act as they do because of the rewards
they have received for previous behavior
Behavioral Approach
32
Humanistic Approach
  • Humans are basically good
  • If allowed to develop to their fullest potential,
    then humans will reach their goals

33
Psychoanalytic Approach
  • Sexual and aggressive impulses experienced in
    early childhood continue to affect our behavior
    throughout adolescence and adulthood
  • We are not aware of these impulses but they
    affect our behavior nonetheless

34
Psychoanalytic Approach
  • By analyzing these impulses, we gain an
    understanding of them as well as insight into how
    to control them

35
Cognitive Approach
Rodins The Thinker
  • Behavior is viewed as a product of various
    internal sentences or thoughts

36
Sociocultural Approach
  • Society greatly influences our behavior
  • Behavior is viewed as strongly influenced by the
    rules and expectations of our society and culture

Calista Flockhart Is her body-size Normal?
37
by Scott Jones
38
Bye, Bye !
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