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Geographic Toolbox


Geographic Toolbox Types of Geography Physical Geography: regards the natural environment, such as Human Geography: regards the environment as – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geographic Toolbox

Geographic Toolbox
  • Types of Geography
  • Physical Geography
  • regards the natural environment, such as
  • Human Geography
  • regards the environment as
  • it pertains to human
  • uses such as
  • Geo Connections WS

Types of Projections
  • ALL map projects are distorted views of the
    earths surface!!!
  • A globe is the only accurate method to
    represent the earth because it is a sphere just
    like the earth
  • The Mercator Projection is one particular map
    which is very distorted
  • To make a flat map from a round globe,
    cartographers unwrapped the globe and stretched
    the northern (and southern) regions to make them
  • All lines of latitude and longitude are seen as
    straight lines
  • Created by the British as accurate naval
    navigation charts

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Types of Projections
  • Mercator cont.
  • The problem is that any northern nation then
    looks stretched and larger than it really is
  • i.e. Canada, Greenland, Europe look BIG, while
    Africa, South America and other equatorial
    regions look smaller

Types of Projections
  • The Winkel Tripel (1998) projection attempts to
    correct the distortions seen on maps
  • Curved lines of latitude and longitude show less
    distortion in the size of the northern regions
  • Gives us a less ethnocentric view of the world
  • Workbook examples

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An odd map???
Map Projections
  • Large Scale maps
  • Show a great amount of detail about a small area
  • Used for residential planning, hiking maps
  • Examine Figure 5 (page 6)

Map Projections
  • Small Scale maps
  • Show a small amount of detail of a large area
  • Used for political maps, physical maps, world
  • Examine figure 3.11 (page 60)
  • Examine figure 11.9 (page 195)

Map Projections
  • Small Scale examples

Types of Maps
  • General Purpose Maps
  • Provide many different types of information on
    one map
  • i.e. roads, hospitals, rivers, cities, forests
  • Examine figure 11 (page 11)
  • Thematic Maps
  • Provide information on one specific
    characteristic or topic
  • I.e. elevation, vegetation, population density
  • Examine figure 16 (page 18), Figure 3.10 (page 59
  • Types of Maps WS

General Purpose Map
  • Ottawa Road
  • map

Thematic Map Poverty Rates
Compass Points and Bearings
  • Compass points are used to show general direction
  • North is always identified on any map created
  • Cardinal Points N, E, S, W
  • Ordinal Points NNE, NE, ENE, ESE, SE

Compass Points and Bearings
  • Bearing Points are given in exact degrees
    measuring angles
  • Compass Points WS

Types of Mapping Symbols
  • Point Symbols
  • Show a specific item or location on a map
  • I.e. city, hospital, museum

Types of Mapping Symbols
  • Linear Symbols
  • Show items on maps that connect and travel long
  • Usually variations of lines are used to show the
    location of longitudinal items
  • I.e. roads, highways, rail ways, rivers

Types of Mapping Symbols
  • Region Symbols
  • Show items or locations that make up self
    enclosed areas on a map
  • Usually take up large areas of a map, so regions
    are outlined or shaded to identify them
  • I.e. provincial parks, provinces, lakes, marshes
  • Map Symbols WS

Grid Systems
  • Alphanumeric Grids
  • Uses letters and numbers to identify squares in
    a grid pattern
  • letters and numbers always refer to either a row
    or column of squares
  • i.e. A12, K5, Q18
  • Examine figure 11 (page 11)
  • Alpha Numeric WS

Grid Systems
  • Military Grids
  • Use 6 digit numbers to identify specific
    locations on map grids
  • Numbers are used as Eastings and Northings to
    locate items on a map
  • Numbers refer to the grid lines that appear on
    the map
  • Always read towards the east first, then up
    towards the north
  • Each grid number is also broken down into tenths
  • I.e. 834095
  • Military Grid WS

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Latitude and Longitude
  • No matter where you are on the face of the earth,
    your location can be identified by your latitude
    and longitude coordinate (address)
  • Read the vertical axis N or S (latitude) first,
    then horizontal axis E or W (longitude) second

Latitude and Longitude
  • Latitude lines measure how far north or south a
    place is
  • The equator is the starting point for all lines
    of latitude
  • All latitude lines run east-west around the globe
  • Ottawa is located 45 degrees north of the equator

Latitude and Longitude
  • Longitude lines measure how far east or west a
    place is
  • The Prime Meridian is the starting point for all
    the lines of longitude
  • All longitude lines run north-south around the
    globe until they meet on the reverse side at 180
  • Ottawa is located 75 degrees west of the prime
  • Examine figure 14 (page 16)
  • Lat. Long WS

S c a l e s
Distance Scales
  • Direct Statement Scale
  • Use words to describe the relationship between a
    distance on a map and a distance on the earths
  • I.e. 1cm to 10 km means every 1 cm you measure
    on the map is 10 km in real life
  • Examine figure 10 (page 10)

Distance Scales
  • Line Scale
  • Uses a bar or a line to show/ describe scale
  • Easiest to use dont even need a ruler!
  • Examine figure 11 (page 11)

Distance Scales
  • Representative Fraction Scale
  • Uses numbers in a ratio to explain scale
  • 1 50 000 means 1cm on the map 50 000 cm on the
  • 1 100,000 the magic !!!
  • 100,000cm in a km
  • Good because they can be used by anyone in the
    world, using any unit of measure!!!
  • 1 1000 small scale VS. 1 5,000,000 large
  • Scale WS