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Constitutional Underpinnings of the United States Government

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Constitutional Underpinnings of the United States Government ... No way to return John Locke Second Treatise on Government Published anonymously in 1689 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Constitutional Underpinnings of the United States Government


1
Constitutional Underpinnings of the United States
Government
2
Key Questions
  • What elements, historical and functional, serve
    as the basis for the United States Constitution
    and the overall function of American
    government?How does federalism affect how
    government in America operates?How does the
    separation of powers manifest itself in the
    United States government today?

3
Roots of the American System
4
The Enlightenment
  • The Age of Reason
  • A cultural movement of intellectuals, a
    philosophical revolution centered in France and
    spreading throughout Europe and the colonies
    during the 1600s and 1700s.
  • Advances in scientific discovery and
    understanding (Scientific Revolution) led to a
    transformation of thought and interpretation of
    the world.

5
Enlightenment Thinkers
6
Core Renaissance Ideas
  • rather than emotion should guide
    decision making leads to absence of intolerance
    and can help solve social problems
  • regulate human
    society
  • Social is inevitable
  • is the natural state of mankind
    attempts to limit liberty are violations of
    natural law
  • Emphasis on , opposed
    superstition and bigotry argued for full
    religious tolerance

7
John Locke
8
Charles-Louise de Secondat, baron de La Brede et
de Montesquieu
9
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
10
The Birth of the Constitution
11
Natural Rights Philosophy
  • State of nature
  • What is human nature?
  • What should be the purpose of government?
  • How do the people running a government get the
    right to govern?
  • How should a government be organized?
  • What kinds of government should be respected and
    supported?
  • What kinds of government should be resisted and
    fought?

The natural rights philosophers answers to these
questions provided the Founders with ideas for
ideal government
12
State of Nature
13
Human Nature
http//www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id50151800n
14
Being a Political Philosopher
  • All New Providence students transported to a new
    place
  • Enough natural resources for you to live well
  • Nobody had lived there before
  • No means of communicating with the rest of the
    world
  • No way to return

15
John Locke
  • Second Treatise on Government
  • Published anonymously in 1689

16
Upon arrival would there be any government or
laws to control how you lived, what rights or
freedoms you exercised, or what property you had?
Why?
1
17
Would anyone have the right to govern you? Would
you have the right to govern anyone else? Why?
2
18
Would you have any rights? What would they be?
3
19
What might people who were stronger or smarter
than others try to do? Why?
4
20
What might the weaker or less sophisticated
people try to do? Why?
5
21
What might life be like for everyone?
6
22
Being a Political Philosopher
  • All New Providence students transported to a new
    place
  • Enough natural resources for you to live well
  • Nobody had lived there before
  • No means of communicating with the rest of the
    world
  • No way to return
  • Compare your answers to Lockes beliefs

23
John Locke
Not all people are rational or good, there always
will be people who try to violate the rights of
others
  • Problem How to protect each persons natural
    rights

Solution
24
Declaration of Independence
  • IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
  • The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united
    States of America,
  • When in the Course of human events, it becomes
    necessary for one people to dissolve the
    political bands which have connected them with
    another, and to assume among the powers of the
    earth, the separate and equal station to which
    the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle
    them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind
    requires that they should declare the causes
    which impel them to the separation.
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
    men are created equal, that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
    that among these are Life, Liberty and the
    pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these
    rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
    deriving their just powers from the consent of
    the governed, --That whenever any Form of
    Government becomes destructive of these ends, it
    is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish
    it, and to institute new Government,
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