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9th Grade Regents Review

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Title: 9th Grade Regents Review


1
9th Grade Regents Review
Mrs. Meaney Global 10
2
Early Peoples
  • The earliest people lived during the Old Stone
    Age, also called the Paleolithic Age, which began
    more than 2 million years ago.
  • Paleolithic peoples were nomads, who moved from
    place to place in search of food.
  • Migration A group of people moving together.
  • Migration led to cultural diffusion which means
    the exchange of ideas, customs and goods among
    cultures.

3
Neolithic Revolution
  • Neolithic Revolution Time period marked by the
    start of farming leading to the creation of
    permanent settlements.
  • The Neolithic Revolution led to the creation of
    Permanent Settlements, New Social Classes and New
    Technology.

4
The Rise of Civilization
  • What are the five characteristics of a
    civilization? (ASCAR)
  • Advanced Technology
  • Specialized Workers
  • Complex Institutions
  • Advanced Cities
  • Record Keeping

5
River Valley Civilizations
Egypt Geography Nile River, Silt (Gift of
the Nile) Predictable July overflows, October
recedes Social Structure pharaohs, priests,
nobles, merchants, peasants, slaves Notable
Accomplishments mummification, pyramids,
surgery, calendar, hieroglyphics
6
  • Mesopotamia
  • (The Fertile Crescent)
  • Geography Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Silt
  • Unpredictable Did not know when rivers would
    overflow
  • Social Structure City States were divided into
    social classes (upper, middle, lower)
  • Notable Accomplishments wheeled vehicles,
    irrigation, cuneiform, algebra and geometry,
    Hammurabis Code (ruler of Babylonian
    Empire)

7
  • Indus
  • Geography Indus and Ganges, Silt, subcontinent,
    monsoons (seasonal winds)
  • Unpredictable - Did not know when rivers would
    overflow
  • Social Structure Mostly farmers, little is
    known because we cannot translate writing
  • Notable Accomplishments Cities Harappa and
    Mohenjo Daro, Roads were laid out in a grid
    pattern, indoor plumbing

8
  • China
  • Geography Yellow and Yangtze, Silt
  • Unpredictable - Did not know when rivers would
    overflow
  • Social Structure Noble Warriors, Merchants,
    Peasants (Feudal Society)
  • Notable Accomplishments Written language
    including 10,000 characters

9
Classical Civilizations
  • China
  • Zhou Dynasty Helped establish the Mandate of
    Heaven which is the right to rule given by gods.
  • Contributions 1st books, calendar, astronomy,
    silk fabric.
  • B. Qin Dynasty Accomplishments include the Great
    Wall of China
  • C. Han Dynasty government was a civil service
    system, society was based on the teaching of
    Confucius, accomplishments include paper, wheel
    barrow, acupuncture and ivory carvings.
  • D. Three causes of the fall of the Han were that
    they were unable to control warlords, economy
    suffered due to unmaintained roadways, they were
    overthrown by warlords.

10
  • India
  • Geography India is a sub-continent, the varied
    geography made India difficult to unite.
  • Aryans The Aryans were Indo-European warriors
    who moved from Asia to Europe. The Vedas was a
    collection of sacred writings.
  • Mauryan Empire The government was a Bureaucracy
    (divided into departments and run by officials).
    Asokas Legacy was that tolerance united diverse
    people and brought peace. The accomplishments
    included a united India, spread of Buddhism,
    schools and libraries.
  • Gupta Empire Government was made up of a strong
    central government and powerful leaders. The
    caste system was a rigid social class system. The
    Untouchables were the lowest caste. Contributions
    include the decimal system, herbal medicine and
    folktales (written in sanskrit).

11
Greece
  1. Geography islands, harbors, mountainous terrain,
    land was not arable, isolation led to the
    creation of different city-states.
  2. City-State smaller than a country but larger
    than a city.
  3. Sparta Military based society, boys began
    training for a life in the military at age 7.
    During the Peloponnesian War, Sparta declared war
    on Athens and crushed the Athenian Empire.
  4. Athens Cultural center of Greece, Direct
    Democracy (males participated in govt., women and
    slaves did not participate).

12
Greece continued
  • E. Philosophers Socrates (Socratic
  • method, question everything), Plato (government
    should control peoples lives and social
    classes), Aristotle (people learned through
    reason).
  • F. Alexander the Great and Hellenistic Culture
    Alexander the Great (empire builder through
    military conquest, spread Greek culture
    cultural diffusion), Hellenistic Culture
    (Persian, Indian, Greek and Egyptian).
  • G. Greek and Hellenistic Contributions Plays
    (drama and comedy), Epic Poems (Homer), Parthenon
    (columns), right triangle, pi

13
Rome
  1. The geography of the Roman Empire played an
    important role in its history because it helped
    with unification due to its central location in
    the Mediterranean Sea. There were few natural
    barriers.
  2. The Roman Republic was the governing body of Rome
    with three branches (similar to the US). The
    officials are chosen by the people, most powerful
    body is the Senate.
  3. The Patricians were the upper class.
  4. The Plebeians were the lower class.
  5. The Pax Romana was 200 years of peace in Rome.

14
Roman Contributions
  • Law created stability (basis for system of
    justice today), 12 tables (written laws).
  • Art and Architecture borrowed from Greeks
    (arches, domes, pillars), Coliseum, murals,
    realism (portraits).
  • Engineering Aqueducts (carried water to the
    cities).

15
Four Causes of the Fall of Rome
  1. Invasion Huns
  2. Economy Inflation (prices went up)
  3. Military Mercenaries (armed forces)
  4. Politics movement of capital to Constantinople
    (because of location between Asia and Europe)

16
Belief Systems
  • Animism and Shintoism
  • Polytheistic (belief in more than one God)
  • No founder
  • Major Beliefs all living and non living things
    in nature have a spirit, spirits of ancestors
    could impact life in a positive or negative way.

17
  • Hinduism (India)
  • Polytheistic
  • No one founder
  • Major Beliefs Brahman (universal spirit),
    Reincarnation (soul is reborn), Karma
    (cleanliness of soul), Dharma (moral duties),
    Accepts Caste System.

18
  • Buddhism
  • No Gods
  • Founder Siddhartha Guatama Buddha
  • Major Beliefs Four Noble Truths (central
    philosophy, desires), Eightfold Path, Nirvana
    (paradise), Reincarnation, Rejects the Caste
    System.

19
  • Confucianism
  • Philosophy
  • Founder Confucius
  • Major Beliefs The Analects (book containing
    Confucius teachings), 5 Relationships (ruler and
    subject, father and son, husband and wife, older
    brother and younger brother, friend and friend),
    Filial Piety ( respect for your elders).

20
  • Daoism
  • Philosophy
  • Founder Laozi
  • Major Beliefs Live in harmony with nature, Learn
    the way of the universe, Yin-Yang.

21
  1. Monotheistic
  2. Founder Abraham
  3. Major Beliefs Torah (sacred text), Ten
    Commandments, Prophets (spiritual leaders).

22
  • Christianity
  • Monotheistic
  • Founder Jesus
  • Major Beliefs Bible (Sacred Text), Teachings of
    Jesus, Ten Commandments.

23
  • Islam
  • Monotheistic
  • Founder Muhammad
  • Major Beliefs Koran (Sacred Text), Five Pillars
    of Holiness (There is one God Allah and Muhammad
    is his prophet, pray 5 times a day facing Mecca,
    Give Charity, Fast during the holy month of
    Ramadan, and take a hajj to Mecca)

24
Tang and Song Dynasties
  1. During this time in China the social structure
    was strict (a strict social pyramid). Gentry
    (top), peasants (middle), merchants (bottom).
  2. Contributions to literature and arts
    calligraphy, pagodas and porcelain.
  3. The Chinese used Korea as a bridge to expand
    their culture into Japan.

25
Byzantine Empire and Russia
  1. The Mediterranean Sea linked the Byzantine
    Empire.
  2. The Byzantine Empire preserved the culture of the
    Greek and Roman empires.
  3. Justinian was the Byzantine Emperor from 527 to
    565.
  4. Justinians Code was the Civil Law including
    legal writings and a student handbook.
  5. The Hagia Sophia was a church in Constantinople.
  6. A mosaic is a picture or design formed by stone
    or other material.
  7. The Orthodox Christian Church was the Christian
    Church of the Byzantine Empire.
  8. A schism is a split in the church.
  9. The 1st Russian state was established in 800s
    around the city of Kiev.
  10. The Russians adopted written language, Orthodox
    Christianity, Art and Architecture from the
    Byzantine Empire.
  11. A czar is autocratic Russian leaders.

26
Islamic Civilization
  • A caliph is the successor to Muhammad.
  • Islam spread to Middle East, North Africa, India,
    Spain, Sicily and Southeast Asia.

Art Non religious subjects Domes and Arches Literature Koran is most important
Learning Algebra Astronomy Translate Greek writings Medicine Creation of hospitals and emergency rooms Study Diseases Require testing for doctors
27
Medieval Europe/Middle Ages/Dark Ages
  1. The geography of Europe influenced the time
    period because of vast natural resources,
    location which led to spreading of Christianity
    and Roman ideas.
  2. The Franks were successful, powerful tribe in
    France.
  3. Charlemagne, a Frankish King built an empire that
    stretched across modern-day France, Germany and
    part of Italy.
  4. Feudalism is a political system of loyalty and
    social classes in Europe.
  5. Chivalry is a code of behavior for knights.

28
  • 6. The basis for medieval economy was
    manorialism, an economic system structured around
    a lords estate.
  • 7. Most peasants who lived on the manor were
    serfs.
  • 8. The church was the only unifying force during
    medieval life. It also preserved learning.
  • 9. Secular means separated from the church.
  • 10. People who became nuns or monks and devoted
    themselves to Christianity entered monasteries.
  • 11. Jews were persecuted, Anti-Semitism grew.
  • 12. Gothic Style of architecture used pointed
    arches, flying buttresses, stone supports, and
    stained glass.
  • 13. The bubonic plague, also called the Black
    Plague, was a highly contagious disease spread by
    rats that spread during the Middle Ages.

29
The Crusades
  1. Causes increase the Popes power, sins forgiven,
    gain wealth, travel and excitement, escape
    oppression (serfs).
  2. Effects increased trade (cultural diffusion),
    encouraged learning, Pope ultimately lost some
    influence, Feudalism weakened.

30
Japan
  • Geography mountainous, difficult to farm,
    islands led to isolation/ sometimes acted as
    protection.
  • Writing adopted the Chinese system
  • Buddhism- Zen Buddhism (peace, nature)
  • Confucianism family loyalty
  • Customs Tea ceremonies, gardening

31
  • 3. The feudalism of Japan was similar to
    feudalism in Medieval Europe.
  • 4. A shogun is the highest military commander.
  • 5. Daimyo are landlords (vassals).
  • 6. Samurai are warriors.
  • 7. Bushido is the code of behavior of a samurai.
  • 8. The Tokugawa Shogunate was known for bringing
    peace and stability to Japan for almost 300
    years.

32
The Mongols
  • 1. Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes in
    central Asia in the steppe.
  • 2. The Mongols invaded Eastern Europe and even
    reached the Byzantine Empire.
  • 3. Kublai Khan, conquered China. He founded the
    Yuan dynasty.
  • 4. The Mughal Dynasty ruled India from 1526
    1857.
  • 5. Akbar the Great was the greatest Mughal
    leader.
  • 6. Pax Mongolia is the period of stability for
    the Mongols.
  • 7. The Mongols declined because the land was too
    large and diverse, and had little experience
    governing.

33
The Renaissance
  • 1. Renaissance means rebirth. It was a golden
    age in the arts, literature and science.
  • 2. Humanism is a movement in which thinkers
    studied classical texts and focused on human
    potential.
  • 4. (skip to 4) The printing press was such an
    important development because literacy increased,
    books are cheaper and available and ideas spread
    quickly.

34
Michelangelo Italian Artist, architect, David, Pieta, Sistine Chapel Donatello Italian Artist, David at Bargello (bronze statue) William Shakespeare English author, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet
Leonardo da Vinci Italian Artist, scientist, Vitruvian Man Dante Italian author, The Divine Comedy Niccolo Machiavelli Italian philosopher, father of political science, wrote the Prince
Raphael Santi Italian artist, School of Athens Miguel Cervantes Spanish author Geoffrey Chaucer English author, Canterbury Tales
Johann Gutenberg German inventor of the printing press Galileo Galilei Italian inventor of the telescope Nicolas Copernicus Polish scientist
35
Vitruvian Man
Sistine Chapel
36
The Protestant Reformation
  • 1. Causes Renaissance, problems with the church
    (corruption)
  • 2. Martin Luther was a German monk who led the
    reformation, founded Lutheranism.
  • 3. The 95 Theses were Luthers list of
    complaints/problems with the church.
  • 4. John Calvin was a French reformer who founded
    Calvinism.
  • 5. The Counter Reformation was the movement
    that took place within the Catholic Church to
    answer the Reformation.
  • 6. The Council of Trent was a meeting called by
    Pope Paul III to guide the reform movement.
  • 7. Ignatius Loyola was the founder of the
    Jesuits.
  • 8. Effects religious and political divisions,
    religious wars, Holy Roman Emperor was weakened.

37
West African Civilizations
Civilization Years Religion Contributions
Ghana 800 1000 Animism Gold and Salt trade
Mali 1200 1450 Islam Gold and Salt trade, Timbuktu becomes center of learning and trading
Songhai 1450 - 1600 Islam Gold and Salt trade, Largest W. African state
38
Mesoamerican Civilizations
Civilization Years Contributions Decline
Mayas 300 900 Farming, pyramid temples, 365-day calendar Mayas abandoned cities for no known reason
Aztecs 1200 1500 Aqueducts, medicine, dentistry, floating gardens Cortes and the Spanish
Incas 1400 - 1500 Record keeping, 12,000 miles of roads (tunnels and bridges), Temple of Sun Pizzaro and the Spanish
39
Ming Dynasty
  1. China traditionally thought of itself as the
    Middle Kingdom.
  2. Ming rulers brought back the civil service system
    to reform the government. Confucian learning
    became important once again.
  3. Zeng He, a Chinese admiral, established trade
    links in Asia in the 1400s.
  4. Art and Architecture landscape paintings,
    porcelain jars, Confucian poetry.
  5. How did China influence Korea? celadon glaze for
    porcelain.

40
The Ottoman Empire
  1. The Ottomans were able to expand into Eastern
    Europe due to effective military strategies and
    well armed forces.
  2. The Byzantine capital of Constantinople was
    changed to Istanbul.
  3. Sulieman the Magnificent ruled the empire from
    1520 to 1566 and used the title Sultan.
  4. Millets are religious communities of non-Muslims.
  5. Janissaries are members of an elite force in the
    Ottoman Empire.
  6. Muslims houses of worship are called Mosques.
  7. Reasons for the decline of the Ottoman Empire
    Internal disorder, European advances.

41
Age of Exploration
  • Printing Press Information spread more quickly.
  • Gunpowder Helped the Europeans win control of
    various regions.
  • Maps Aid further exploration.
  • Astrolabe determines direction
  • 3. (skip the chart for now) Conquistador
    Spanish explorer and conqueror.
  • 4. Effects of slave trade 11 million Africans
    sent to America, local African wars.
  • 5. Encomienda System Spanish social class system
    in Latin America.
  • 6. Columbian Exchange global exchange of people,
    plants, animals, ideas and technology.
  • 7. European nations adopted the new economic
    policy of mercantilism.

42
Prince Henry Portugal Vasco da Gama Portugal, traveled to India Bartholomew Dias Portugal, Sailed to Cape of Good Hope (Africa)
Christopher Columbus Spain, Discovered the Americas Ferdinand Magellan Spain, circumnavigated the globe Henry Hudson Dutch, Northwest Passage
Hernando Cortes Spain, conquered Aztecs Francisco Pizzaro Spain, conquered the Incas Amerigo Vespucci Italy, cartographer and explored S. America
43
Absolutism
Leader Country Policies/Accomplishments
Akbar the Great India Expanded empire, promoted diversity, modernized the army, encouraged trade
Ivan the Terrible Russia Harsh ruler, slaughtered rebellious nobles, extreme absolutist
Peter the Great Russia Centralized Russian royal power, westernized Russia
Philip II Spain Divine Right, god given right to rule
Frederick I Prussia Holy Roman Emperor, united empire, enlightened despot (dictator)
Maria Theresa Austria Improved the tax system by using Enlightenment ideas, established primary education
Louis XIV France The Sun King, built palace of Versailles, disciplined army, persecuted Protestants
44
  1. Oliver Cromwell was a military commander who
    established English Commonwealth.
  2. The restoration was when Charles II was invited
    to take the throne.
  3. The Glorious Revolution was non-violent overthrow
    of British King James II by William and Mary.
  4. The English Bill of Rights is a set of laws that
    gives Parliament superiority over the King/Queen.

45
Scientific Revolution
  1. Geocentric means the sun revolves around the
    earth (earth is the center).
  2. Heliocentric means sun is the center.
  3. The scientific method was created by Descartes
    and Bacon and focused on experimentation and
    observation rather than on past authorities.
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