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Political Philosophy Plato

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Political Philosophy Plato – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political Philosophy Plato


1
Political PhilosophyPlato
2
Common Good
  • Plato believed that people were at their best
    when they acted in the common good or all in
    society.
  • The goal of people should be virtuous.
  • The quest of people should be to grow and attain
    a supreme morality.

3
Common Good
  • Argued material possessions provide a distraction
    from people achieving a higher state.
  • When all the members of a society strive to
    become virtuous they will put the needs of others
    and society first.
  • This will create a better society for the person
    to live in and will result in a happier life.

4
  • When people put themselves first it causes
    conflict within society.
  • They compete and stop caring about the common
    good.
  • This leads to the downfall of society.

5
Who should Lead?
  • Plato believed that society should be split into
    three classes.
  • Philosopher Rulers, Guardians, and Producers
    (artisans)
  • The quality of human life can be improved if
    people learn to be rational and understand that
    their real interests lie in harmonious
    cooperation with one another, and not in war or
    partisan strife.

6
Who Should Lead
  • Philosopher rulers should be the leaders of
    society.
  • Normal people are corrupt and self serving and
    only better themselves to gain more power.
  • Philosophers get power from searching for the
    truth and bettering themselves morally and
    educationally.
  • Riches do not matter to them.

7
  • They would be identified in schools and removed
    from their families.
  • Would not have families or Land as these would
    cause them to care more about personal issues
    rather than the state.
  • Philosophers enjoy respect and leisure.

8
Guardian Class
  • This group is the protectors of the state.
  • They enjoy the physical aspects of life.
  • Get honour and worth from protecting the city and
    other military honours.
  • They have little interest in leisure or wealth,
    they want status and reputation.

9
  • Producers are artists, business people.
  • They enjoy wealth and producing goods.
  • They have families, and possessions but have no
    desire to rule or attain honour or knowledge
    unless it benefits their business.

10
  • The three groups work for the mutually benefit of
    each other in harmony.
  • Each class is working in the things they are best
    at.
  • All interests will be served.
  • Society is organized for the common good.

11
Aristotle
  • 364-362 BCE
  • Student of Platos Academy
  • Agreed with Platos theory that the most just
    rulers rule for the common good of all.
  • Sent his students all over the world to discover
    the types of governments used.

12
Aristotle
  • Defined three categories of governments
  • Rule by the one, Rule by the few, Rule by the
    many.
  • Correct regimes rule for the benefit of all,
    corrupt regimes rule for the benefit of
    themselves.

13
  • Deviations of the correct regimes.
  • Correct regimes are Monarchy (ruled by the one),
    Aristocracy (rule by the few), Polity (rule by
    the many).
  • Corrupt are Tyranny (rule by one), Oligarchy
    (rule by the few), Democracy (rule by the many).

14
Why Democracy was Corrupt
  • Aristotle also ranked the regime
  • Monarchy was the best, Aristocracy, Polity,
    Democracy, Oligarchy, Tyranny (the worst)
  • During this time women, slaves, and Manual
    labourers were not considered citizens.

15
Why Democracy was Corrupt
  • They existed for the common good of the citizens
    so they could have a privileged life.
  • In places with democracy there are two groups
  • The few rich and the many poor.
  • These two groups are always in conflict.

16
Why Democracy was Corrupt
  • Because of this conflict people who are not
    virtuous are free to take power.
  • There are more people in Platos producer class
    and therefore they will get more votes.
  • The producers will always outnumber the most
    virtuous groups.

17
Machiavelli
  • Author of The Prince
  • First to separate politics and ethics
  • Believed good politics is politics that succeeds.
  • Good or bad does not matter as long as you win.

18
Machiavelli
  • He argued that it didnt matter if a ruler was
    ethical or good as long as the people believed he
    was good.
  • Leaders should wear a mask and create an image to
    convince or fool the public.
  • They should do whatever it takes to gain power
    including lie.

19
Machiavelli
  • Machiavelli stated that it would be best to be
    both loved and feared. But since the two rarely
    come together, anyone compelled to choose will
    find greater security in being feared than in
    being loved.

20
Divisions of Government
  • Modern Governments consist of three branches of
    government.
  • Executive
  • Legislative
  • Judicial

21
Executive
  • Executive is composed of elected individuals and
    chosen by the Leader to act as their advisors.
  • In Canada this would be the PM and all of the
    Ministers i.e minister of Education, Health,
    Defence etc.

22
Legislative
  • Voted into power during elections and usually
    belong to a political Party.
  • This branch makes and approves laws and bills.
  • In democracies they approve actions created by
    the leader of the executive.
  • These are the Members of Parliament in Canada.

23
Judicial Branch
  • Composed of Courts
  • Usually appointed by executive
  • Ensures the constitution is followed
  • This includes Charter of Rights and Freedoms
    cases.

24
Types of Government Authority
  • Traditional Leaders are chosen by hereditary.
    Family usually associated with being divine.
  • Usually Monarchy

25
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26
Legal Authority
  • Governments are also formed but have to abide by
    rules or a constitution.
  • They must follow previously established rules
    such as term lengths, elections.
  • The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
    limits government powers.
  • Agreement between the Government and the people.

27
Autocratic Authority
  • This is a government achieved by the use of
    force.
  • Ideological or religious beliefs form the basis
    of support.
  • Usually have to be supported through military and
    the elite.
  • Laws are imposed from above.

28
Autocratic Authority
29
Political Leadership and Change
  • There are many ways leadership changes in
    society.
  • Elections
  • Hereditary and Designated Succession
  • Coups dEtat

30
Elections
  • Most orderly way of having leadership change.
  • Most modern systems have one person one vote.
  • Uses the party system
  • Everyone that is a citizen may run for office

31
Fraud in Elections
  • Throughout history there have been limits to true
    democracy.
  • Literacy tests used as a way to keep African
    Americans from voting. (it was illegal for them
    to be taught to read)
  • Women were not given the vote in Can until 1919.
  • Threats at the polls

32
  • 2000 U.S Elections between Gore and G W Bush so
    close
  • had to be determined by the supreme court
  • Came down to state of Florida where Bushs
    Brother was governor.
  • Led to many protests

33
Hereditary and Designated Succession
  • Used in Monarchical Systems tradition or cultural
    rule determines next leader.
  • Rulers are believed to be gods or chosen by god
  • Leadership usually given to oldest son.

34
Hereditary and Designated Succession
  • Autocratic authority governments designate
    successors
  • Fidel Castro handed over power of his country to
    his brother Raul
  • Kim Il Sung gave power to his son Kim Jong-Il.
    North Korea had to mourn the fathers death for
    three years.

35
Coup DEtat
  • Means blow against the state
  • Overthrows an existing government to establish an
    autocratic government
  • Usually involves violence.

36
Coup DEtat
  • Takes place quickly supported by a military.
  • Fidel Castro and Che Guevara in Cuba.
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