THE PROGRESSIVE ERA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – THE PROGRESSIVE ERA PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 68e58e-OTI3Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

THE PROGRESSIVE ERA

Description:

america seeks reforms in the early 20th century – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:17
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 44
Provided by: hartmannW
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: THE PROGRESSIVE ERA


1
THE PROGRESSIVE ERA
  • AMERICA SEEKS REFORMS IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

2
Origins of Progressivism
  • Middle class reformers addressed social problems
  • Issues Working conditions, rights for women and
    children, economic, political, environmental and
    social reform

3
Progressive Ideology
  • Accepted industrial capitalism
  • Faith in progress optimism
  • Belief in use of govt. to reform society
  • Use of Evangelical Protestantism
  • Faith in New Ideas and Science
  • Power of experts

4
Four Goals of Progressivism
  1. Protect Social Welfare
  2. Promote Moral Improvement
  3. Create Economic Reform
  4. Foster Efficiency

5
1. Protect Social Welfare
  • Industrialization largely unregulated
  • Employers felt little responsibility toward
    workers
  • Settlement homes churches serve community
  • YMCA, YWCA Salvation Army take service roles

6
2. Promote Moral Development
  • Social problems caused by personal behavior
  • Proposed prohibition
  • Clash of science religion

7
3. Create Economic Reform
  • Americans question the capitalist economic system
  • Workers embrace socialism
  • Eugene Debs organized the American Socialist
    Party in 1901

Debs encouraged workers to reject American
Capitalism
8
4. Fostering Efficiency
  • Political leaders start government electoral
    reforms to improve efficiency
  • Industrial leader Frederick Taylor using time
    motion studies to improve factory efficiency
  • Taylorism became an Industry fad factories
    complete tasks quickly

9
Women Lead Reforms
Social Welfare
  • Leading progressive reformers were women
  • Women reformers improve conditions at work home
  • Many women graduated from new womens colleges

Colleges like Vassar and Smith allowed women to
excel
10
Women in the Workforce
Social Welfare
  • Women w/o education did domestic work
  • 70 of women servants in 1870
  • Opportunities for women increased in the cities
  • 1900 1 out of 5 women worked
  • Garment trade, office work, department stores and
    classrooms had women

11
Strategy for Suffrage
Social Welfare
  • Suffragists tried three approaches for suffrage
  • State legislatures to adopt vote (Succeeded in
    Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Colorado)
  • Challenge the 14th Amendment
  • Push for Constitutional Amendment

12
(No Transcript)
13
Women Win Suffrage
Social Welfare
  • Native-born, educated, middle-class women grew
    more and more impatient
  • Local, state and national organizations, protests
    and World War I, women finally get the vote in
    1920

The 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote
in 1920
14
NAACP Civil Rights
Social Welfare
  • 1909 National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People founded
  • Goal full equality among the races
  • Means legal action

1964 Application
15
New Roles for Women
Social Welfare
Early 20th Century teachers
  • Many are now nurses, teachers, librarians,
    secretaries
  • Women still earned less than men kept out of
    many traditional male jobs

16
The Flapper
Social Welfare
  • New female ideal for some women the Flapper
  • Flapper an emancipated young woman who embraced
    the new fashions and urban attitudes

17
The Changing Family
Social Welfare
  • Birthrates decline for years before the 1920s
  • Birth control information widely available
  • 1921 Birth control clinics opened American
    Birth Control League founded

Margaret Sanger and other founders of the
American Birth Control League - 1921
18
Modern Family
Social Welfare
  • Marriage based on romantic love
  • Women manage household and finances
  • Children developing who need nurturing and
    education

19
Support for Prohibition
Moral Development
  • Belief that alcohol led to crime, child wife
    abuse, and accidents
  • Supporters from the rural south and west
  • Church affiliated Anti-Saloon League Womens
    Christian Temperance Union push for the 18th
    Amendment

20
Speakeasies Bootleggers
Moral Development
  • Americans did not believe drinking was a sin
  • Immigrants not willing to give up drinking
  • Drinkers went to hidden saloons - speakeasies
  • People bought liquor from bootleggers

21
Organized Crime
Moral Development
  • Prohibition contributed to the growth of
    organized crime
  • Al Capone famous bootlegger
  • Capone controls Chicago liquor business by
    killing his competition

Al Capone was finally convicted on tax evasion
charges in 1931
22
Government Control
Moral Development
  • Government doesnt budget money to enforce law
  • Enforcing Prohibition fell to 1,500 poorly paid
    federal agents --- clearly an impossible task

Federal agents pour wine down a sewer
23
Prohibition Repealed
Moral Development
  • Mid-20s 19 of Americans supported Prohibition
  • Many felt Prohibition caused more problems than
    it solved
  • 1933 21st Amendment repeals Prohibition

24
Science Religion Clash
Moral Development
  • Battle b/w fundamentalist religious groups
    secular thinkers
  • Fundamentalists found literal truth in the bible

25
Scopes Trial
Moral Development
  • 1925, Tennessee passes a law making
    criminalizing evolution in schools
  • ACLU promises to defend any teacher who
    challenges the law John Scopes

Scopes was a biology teacher who dared to teach
his students that man derived from lower species
26
Scopes Trial
Moral Development
Darrow
  • ACLU hires Clarence Darrow, most famous trial
    lawyer of the era, for Scopes
  • Prosecution hires William Jennings Bryan, the
    3-time presidential nominee

Bryan
27
Moral Development
Scopes Trial
  • Opens on July 10,1925
  • Darrow calls Bryan as a Bible expert Should the
    bible be interpreted literally?
  • Bryan admits the Bible can be interpreted in
    different ways
  • Scopes still was found guilty and fined 100

Bryan
Darrow
28
Criticizing Big Business
Economic Efficiency
  • Muckrakers exposed corruption in business
  • Ida Tarbell exposed Standard Oil Companys
    cut-throat methods of eliminating competition
  • Michael Moore?

Ida Tarbell
Some view Michael Moore as a modern muckraker
29
The Jungle Leads to Reforms
Economic Efficiency
  • 1906 Roosevelt pushed for the Meat Inspection
    Act after reading The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
  • The Act mandates clean meatpacking plants

30
Protecting Working Children
Economic Efficiency
  • As the number of child workers rose, reformers
    worked to end child labor
  • Children more accident prone
  • Nearly every state banned child labor by 1918

31
Limiting Working Hours
Economic Efficiency
  • Supreme Court enacted or strengthened laws
    reducing worker hours
  • Progressives also won workers compensation

32
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Economic Efficiency
33
Cleaning Up Government
Political Efficiency
  • Desire to make government more efficient
    responsive to citizens
  • Some believe it also was meant to limit
    immigrants influence in local governments

34
Reform Mayors
Political Efficiency
  • Tom L. Johnson, Cleveland, OH
  • Expanded social services and brought about public
    ownership of the waterworks, gas and electric
    utilities, and public transportation
  • Samuel Golden Rule Jones, Toledo, OH
  • Provided free social services and reformed the
    police department
  • Hazen S. Pingree, Detroit, MI
  • Expanded public welfare programs, initiated
    public works programs for the unemployed, and
    fought privately owned utility monopolies.

35
Election Reforms
Political Efficiency
  • Won secret ballots, referendum votes, and the
    recall
  • Could petition and get initiatives on the ballot

36
Election Reforms
Political Efficiency
  • Each state assembly chose U.S. senators
  • Force senators to be more responsive to the
    public popular election of senators was pushed
  • 1913 17th Amendment ratified for direct election
    of Senators

37
Progressive Presidents Laws
  • Roosevelt establishes himself as a modern
    president
  • Wilson enacts his New Freedom
  • Planned to attack privilege trusts, tariffs, and
    high finance

38
1902 Coal Strike
  • PA coal miners strike for increased wages, a
    9-hour work day, and the right to unionize
  • Management refuse to bargain
  • Roosevelt settled the dispute
  • Precedent when strikes threaten public welfare
    federal government expected to step in

39
Pure Food Drug Act
  • 1906 passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Act halts sale of contaminated foods and
    medicines and called for truth in labeling

The Pure Food and Drug Act took medicines with
cocaine and other harmful ingredients off the
market
40
Clayton Antitrust Act
  • 1914 passage of the Clayton Antitrust Act
    strengthens the Sherman Act
  • Clayton Act prevents companies from buying stock
    from other companies - antimonopoly
  • Act supported unions

41
Federal Trade Commission
  • 1914 FTC serves as watchdog agency end
    unfair business practices
  • The FTC protects consumers from business fraud

Today the FTC has been working on protecting
consumers from ID theft
42
Federal Income Tax
  • 1913 16th Amendment ratified legalizing a
    graduated federal income tax

43
Progressive Movement Wanes
  • Progressive movement peaks by 1917
  • Success of the movement led to its decline
  • Advent of World War I also hurt progressive
    activism
  • Progressives themselves weary of their reform
    zeal as did the nation
About PowerShow.com