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The Byzantine Empire Heirs of Rome

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THE MIDDLE AGES The Byzantine Empire Heirs of Rome Submitted to Gloucester Township Public School by Mr. C. Stephen Ingraham – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Byzantine Empire Heirs of Rome


1
The Byzantine EmpireHeirs of Rome
THE MIDDLE AGES
  • Submitted to Gloucester Township Public School by
  • Mr. C. Stephen Ingraham

2
The Middle Ages Song Part 1 by C. Stephen
Ingraham
Rome is gone, in the East its Byzantinum In the
West it has fallen apart Fighting over icons the
church divides into two parts. In Constantinople
Justinian, the emperor, tries to recreate Roman
glory His wife, Theodora, champions women and the
poor. Muhammad worships the one god
Allah Founding Islam submitting to gods
will Smashing statues in Mecca. The Muslims
worship there still. With more than one
successor Whose caliph? no ones quite sure. It
doesnt matter to the Sunni the Shiites follow
the fourth caliph. Charlemagne and the Franks in
France try to recreate the empires western
part, but it becomes small kingdoms as Europe
breaks apart. The serfs live on a manor Tenant
farmers of a noble, who was the vassal of a king,
thats the feudal system thing.
Sung to the Theme of Gilligans Island
CSI08
3
The Middle Ages Song Part 2 by C. Stephen Ingraham
The crusaders are off to the Holy Lands. Fleas on
rats bring the bubonic plague. Small kingdoms
form Nation-States, The Magna Carta limits the
kings power, More individual freedoms, No one
above the law, Thats the Middle Ages.
Sung to the Theme of Gilligans Island
CSI08
4
  • Social Studies Block __ Name
    ______________________________________
  • Ms. Holmes Mr. Ingraham Date
    __________________
  • Middle Ages Table of Contents
  • Middle Ages Song
  • Justinian I Looks to the Past
  • The Christian Church Divides
  • Herders and Townspeople

5
The Essential Questions Middle Ages
  • What was life like during the Middle Ages?
  • What changes in life during this period result in
    the rise of the middle class?
  • How did Christianity spread during this period?
  • How do established religions react when
    threatened?
  • Why do religions splinter and what effect does
    that have on society?
  • How do political, economic, social, and cultural
    institutions and events shape peoples way of
    thinking and lead to an evolving society?
  • What were the effects of the Crusades on life in
    Europe?
  • How does the social structure of the Middle Ages
    compare to urban and rural life in the present?
  • How do primary and secondary sources inform us
    about the development and practices of society
    and government?

6
Performance Assessment The Middle Ages
Medieval Newspaper Students will research and
present a newspaper which illustrates the major
contributions of the Middle Ages as well as the
key events that changed the outcome of Medieval
Europe. Topics to research include, but are not
limited to Medieval Castles, Medieval methods
of Torture, the Crusades, the Black Death, the
Magna Carta, Religion Christianity, Heraldry,
Feudalism, and the life of Medieval Men Women.
Students may have opportunities to research in
class as well as create, revise, edit, and
publish the newspaper articles. This project can
be enriched or modified as needed for various
learners in the class. An Option may be to
include on topic in newspaper or research two or
more topics and develop the newspaper.
7
Vocabulary of the Middle Ages
Justinian Code The Roman laws made simpler and
more understandable by Byzantine Emperor
Justinian. monopoly- complete control of the
means of production. mosaics paintings and
pictures using bits and pieces of colored glass
or stone. orthodox officially accepted
Christainity of the Byzantine Empire and
centered in Constantinople. icons Holy pictures
of Jesus and the saints. patriarchs Byzantine
church leaders. catholic a word meaning
universal or all embracing. Middle Ages The
time of medieval Europe from 500 CE. - 1,500
CE. pope the leader of the Christian church
based in Rome. Christendom the idea that all
the Christians of every kingdom formed a
community. crusaders Christian volunteers who
fought to free the holy land from the Seljuk
Turks who were Muslim.
8
Feudal Vocabulary of the Middle Ages
manor a large block of land made up of forests,
meadows, a church, a village, and the castle
of the noble who owned it all. serfs peasant
farmers who worked the nobles land. They were
tied to the land of a Noble. tenant someone who
pays rent to the landowner. vassal a noble who
agrees to perform service for the king in time
of war in exchange for use of the land. contract
a written agreement (with the king
vassal). feudal system A system of trading
protection for loyalty. bubonic plague a
sickness caused by bites from fleas on rats
(also known as Black Death). nation-state a
government with a strong central government,
laws, single ruler, language, customs,
standing army.
9
Muslim Vocabulary of the Middle Ages
steppes semi-dry plains of grass land. Quran
The holy book of Islam. Muslim the religion
of the followers of Muhammads teaching and
Islam. Islam means submitting to Gods will or
following the Quran. caliph A Muslim
religious leader and successor to
Muhammad. Shiite Muslims who remain loyal to
the descendants of the fourth caliph. Sunni
Muslims who accept the changing dynasties of
caliphs or successors to Muhammad. mosques
Muslim houses of worship. minarets towers on
mosques where Muslims are called to worship
five times a day.
10
The Byzantine Empire
  • I. A. Justinian I Looks to the Past
  • 1.Constantines Roman capital of
    ____________ is located in the Byzantine
  • Empire which lasted almost 1000
    years after the fall of Rome
  • 2. The people of the Byzantine empire
    thought of themselves as Romans.
  • 3.By 565 Emperor Justinian I reconquered
    much of the old Roman Empire.
  • 4. Improvements to the Empire
  • a) Justinian made a new set of laws called
    ____________________________ which
    simplified and updated the Roman Twelve Tables
  • b) He had silkworm eggs and mulberry trees
    smuggled out of China to end their
  • complete control, or
    ________________ , of the silk trade.
  • c) He started a building program of new
    churches, roads, bridges, and aqueducts.
  • d) He had artists make magnificent paintings and
    _____________,
  • or pictures of bits of colored stone or
    glass.
  • B. Theodora, Bringer of Change
  • 1. Justinians wife __________________
    encouraged him to make laws that were
  • more fair to women. (property could
    be left to daughters)
  • 2. She thought that people should be given jobs
    __________________________,
  • not because they were born into a
    high social class.
  • 3. Unlike Justinian, she worked to protect
    people who followed other forms of
  • Christianity and not just the
    __________________, or offically accepted.

11
The Roman Empire
Constantinople
Rome
The Mediterranean Sea
12
The Byzantine Empire
  • I. C. The Christian Church Divides
  • 1. Religion caused much disagreement and many
    bitter arguments.
  • 2. One argument centered around _______________
    , or holy
  • pictures of Jesus and the saints.
  • a) In the eastern part of the Byzantine Empire
    people felt that icons
  • were like worshiping _______________, which
    is forbidden in
  • the Ten Commandments.
  • b) In the western part of the Empire most the
    people could not read
  • or write. So icons were thought of a good
    way to teach
  • Christianity.
  • 3. The Byzantine church leaders, or
    ________________ did not want
  • people to use Icons. Byzantine emperor Leo
    order them destroyed.
  • 4. In 1054, the Christian Church split.
  • a) The church of Rome became the Roman
    Catholic, or _________
  • ____________________
  • b) The church of Constantinople became the
    Eastern Orthodox Church.
  • 5. In 1453 a weaken government ended the
    Byzantine Empire.

13
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14
The Muslim Empire
  • A. Herders and Townspeople
  • 1. The Arabian peninsula is two-thirds desert
    and the rest semi-dry, grassy plains called
    ___________________.
  • 2. Herders in tribes live as______________
    raising camels, sheep, goats.
  • 3. These tribes of Arab people were led by a
    _________.
  • 4. Towns formed on fertile spots with an
    underground water supply.
  • 5. Mecca was the largest town to become a
    city.
  • a) There was no agriculture in the city, but it
    was a caravan stop over.
  • b) It had a religious cube-shaped building
    called the _____________,
  • which contained statues of the Arab
    gods.
  • B. Muhammad and Islam
  • 1. About 570 A.D. ________________ was born
    in a poor family in Mecca.
  • 2. He became unhappy about his tribes
    ______________ worship.
  • 3. In a vision an angel told him that he was
    a messenger to humankind.
  • 4. The message was there is no god but God,
    or ________.
  • 5. Over the next 23 years there were more
    messages which were put together in a holy book
    called the ______.
  • 6. A _______________ is a follower of
    Muhammad and believes the Quran is gods word.
  • 7. This religion is _____________ which
    meanssubmitting to Gods Will.
  • 8. In 622 A.D. Muhammad leaves Mecca, but
    returns with other Arab tribes nine years later
    and destroyed all the idols in the Kaba.

15
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16
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17
The Muslim Empire
  • C. The Muslim Empire Grows
  • 1. Muhammad spread Islam through his
    teaching and personal example.
  • 2. After his death Muslim leaders chose a
    _____________,or successor to Muhammad.
  • 3. The first caliphs united ________________
    under Muslim rule.
  • 4. They lead armies into Mesopotamia, Syria,
    and Egypt
  • 5. The Muslim invaders were welcomed because
    of the heavy taxes and religious persecution of
    the Persian and Byzantine rulers.
  • 6. By 750 A.D. the Muslim Empire reached
    from ____________ and North Africa through Arabia
    and _________________ into parts of China and the
    ___________________ River Valley.
  • 7. Only the Byzantine Empire stood between
    the Muslim lands and Eastern ___________________.
  • E. Divisions Within the Muslim Empire
  • 1. The ________________ family moved the
    Muslim capital from Medina to Damascus, Syria..
  • 2. The __________ family moved the capital in
    750 CE. To Baghdad.
  • 3. Descendants of Muhammads daughter set up
    another capital in _______ .
  • 4. The Muslim community split into several
    groups
  • a) The _______________ accepted the changing
    dynasties.
  • b) The _______________ not wanting either the
    Umayyad or Abbasid families as rulers, remained
    loyal to Ali the four caliphs descendants.

18
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19
Islam Beliefs
Christianity Beliefs
pp. 285-6 Divisions
Divisions pp. 278-9
Shiite
Sunni
Orthodox
Catholic
20
Europe in the Middle Ages
  • III. A. Charlemagne Builds an Empire
  • 1. ___________ _____ is the years from
    500-1500 CE.
  • 2. During the last days of the Roman Empire the
  • ___________ _________ came to control
    much of
  • Western Europe.
  • 3. The most powerful tribe was the
    _______________ and
  • their leader was ____________________________.
  • a) He conquered large parts of Italy, Germany,
    central
  • Europe, and Northern Spain.
  • b) He had close ties with the ___________, the
    leader of
  • the Christian church. (He defended the city
    of Rome)
  • c) He set up a school to teach the Nobles
    children how
  • to rule responsibly.
  • 4. After his death in 814 CE. Viking attacked
    from the North,
  • Slavs Magyars from the East, and Muslims from
    the
  • South.

21
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22
Europe in the Middle Ages
  • B. Life in the Middle Ages
  • 1. Most Europeans lived in small villages
    which were part of a __________, or a large block
    of land (made up of forests, meadows, farmland,
    the
  • village, a church, and the house or castle of
    the noble).
  • 2. Peasants, or ____________ , farmed the
    land and lived in the village.
  • 3. They were ____________, or people who pays
    rent to the noble in the form of services and
    goods.
  • 4. The Noble himself was a tenant of the King
    called a ____________, who had agreed to perform
    services for the king in return for being given
    use of the land. In a written contract he agreed
    to
  • a) fight in the Kings Army b) collect taxes.
  • 5. This system of trading protection for
    loyalty became known as the ______
  • C. The Church and the Crusades
  • 1. The idea that all of Europes separate
    kingdoms were united in a Christian Community is
    known as ___________________________.
  • 2. In 1095 Pope Urban II called on all
    Christians to help seize control of the holy city
    of Jerusalem back from the Seljuk Turks.
  • 3. Whole families volunteered to become
    ______________ marched across Europe, but many
    died of hunger before reaching the holy land.
  • 4. In eight attempts thousands of Christians
    and Muslims
  • died, but the Christian never gained control
    of Jerusalem.

23
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24
Europe in the Middle Ages
  • D. Disaster and Change
  • 1. European cities became _________________
    and
  • _____________ places.
  • 2. Streets were full of people, animal, and
    garbage..
  • 3. In the 1340s a deadly sickness called the
    Black death or the _______________
    ______________ hit Europe, caused by the bites of
    fleas on rats.
  • 4. One fourth of the people died.
  • 5. The Europeans who survived blamed their
    kings and the
  • popes for not being able to stop the plague.
  • E. The Rise of Nation-States
  • 1. Kings begin to take authority away from
    the nobles and church leaders.
  • 2. __________-________, or strong central
    government with a single king, began to form in
    many parts of Europe.
  • 3.Each of these governments had
  • a) their own laws b) leaders
  • c) full-time army d) language
  • e) culture and customs

25
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26
The Magna Carta
  • In 1215 the Nobles presented King John of
    England with a list of 63 demands. In forcing the
    monarch to sign this contract he now had to
    accept responsibility for his actions and he had
    to obey the laws like everyone else. The king was
    also required to have the general consent of the
    realm before ordering new taxes. The nobles
    while trying to protect themselves also protected
    the freedoms of everyone in England. For example
    the Magna Carta gave the people the right to a
    trial by jury. This right is guaranteed to
    Americans today in the United States
    Constitution.

CSI08
27
The Ancient Civilizations Song by C. Stephen
Ingraham
Early Egypt Song Sung to Mary has a little
Lamb The Nile River gives Egypt life Water for
the crops And fertile silt King Narmer unites us
all Upper and lower Egypt Our pharaoh is the son
of Ra Pharaoh Zoser asked Imhotep To build a
pyramid For his tomb and decorate it
with Hieroglyphics and gold. Amenemhet becomes
the pharaoh He conquers Nubia and Kush is
tamed. Merchants and craftworkers Form the middle
class. Pharaoh Thutmose crushed the
Hyksos. Egypt extends to the Fertile
Crescent But Amenhotep and Nefertiti Want all to
worship the one god, Aton, But the boy King Tut
changes that (and thats a chapter three fact.)
By Mr. Ingraham
CSI08
28
The Ancient Civilizations Song by C. Stephen
Ingraham
You take the Minoans / On the island of
Crete They were seafaring traders / They were
peaceful and sweet They traded olive oil, wool,
and pottery. Thats what theyre all about!
(clap). Chorus Tragedies are
serious Comedies are humorous, Democracy is
for us, Greek culture is all about us! -(Clap,
Clap). You take the Mycenaeans / On the
mountainous pelopennesus They were a warlike
people / Their wealth was a weapon census. They
borrowed writing, customs, and religious
beliefs. When they invaded Crete. (clap). They
tell of Homers epic poem / about the beautiful
Helen, Who was kidnapped to Troy / all the Greeks
started yelling. They fought for ten years, then
tried the Trojan horse trick Thats the only way
they could win. (clap).
CSI08
29
The Ancient Civilizations Song by C. Stephen
Ingraham
The city-state of Sparta / was afraid of their
slaves. So at seven boys girls / left for camp
with many a waves To live and die with honor was
the Spartan way Obedience is what its all about.
(clap). Chorus Tragedies are
serious Comedies are humorous, Democracy is
for us, Greek culture is all about us! -(Clap,
Clap). In the city-state of Athens / 20 year old
males could vote, But no women or slaves. / They
could only carry and tote. Democracy, majority
rule, Pericles, and Herodotus. Hippocrates says
illness is all about us. (clap).
CSI08
30
The Ancient Civilizations Song by C. Stephen
Ingraham
Let me tell you of a civilization Sung
to the tune of The Brady Bunch Sumer, Sumer
was its name It was between the Tigris and
Euphrates, but it was not alone. There came
along a mighty king, Sargon, the Akkadian was the
name. He united all who feared him. You join or
youre insane. Still later came King
Hammurabi With his mighty long code of laws. Even
later came the Assyrian Army Led by Sennacherib
the destroyer, Who crushed and killed And stole
until the Persian came along and conquered
him. The Persians set out / to conquer
everything in sight, But the Greeks wouldnt give
up / and united for a fight. Both Darius and son,
Xerxes both did try. Many Persians had to die.
(clap). Alexanders father died / so Macedonia
wasnt so great. To conquer the known world /
would be Alexanders fate. Around the
Mediterranean he never lost a battle. Spreading
Greek culture all about. (clap)
Chorus Tragedies are serious Comedies are
humorous, Democracy is for us, Greek culture is
all about us!
CSI08
31
The Ancient Civilizations Song by C. Stephen
Ingraham
The Patricians founded Rome along the Tiber
river on the Italian peninsula. They elected
senators Who elected two consuls And in case of
emergency And appointed a dictator for everyone
to see. Chorus Oh Roman artists copy
Greek Philosophy, writing, and art The Greek
and the Roman gods you cant tell them
apart. Gladiators fight to the death while
all the Romans cheer. Aqueducts will bring in
water if no waters near. The Patrician
excluded the Plebeians, but after they threaten
to leave, the Plebeians elected ten tribunes, who
had the veto power. Julius Caesar tried to help
the poor, but the Senate stabbed him in the
back. Even his best friend, Oh what do you think
of that?
CSI08
32
The Ancient Civilizations Song by C. Stephen
Ingraham
Octavian and Mark Antony Divide up the Roman
empire, but Cleopatra loved Mark Antony and they
decided to set up their own kingdom. Octavian
became Augustus after defeating them. He was
Romes first Emperor, but the citizens still
thought they had a Republic. Chorus Oh Roman
artists copy Greek Philosophy, writing, and
art The Greek and the Roman gods you cant
tell them apart. Gladiators fight to the
death while all the Romans cheer. Aqueducts
will bring in water if no waters near. Some
Hebrews thought that Jesus was the messiah. He
said he was Gods son His kingdom it would
come. The twelve apostles and St. Paul spread the
good news He had to say. Constantine painted
crosses on his shields and Christianity saved the
day!!!
CSI08
33
The Middle Ages Song Part 1 by C. Stephen
Ingraham
Rome is gone, in the East its Byzantinum In the
West it has fallen apart Fighting over icons the
church divides into two parts. In Constantinople
Justinian, the emperor, tries to recreate Roman
glory His wife, Theodora, champions women and the
poor. Muhammad worships the one god
Allah Founding Islam submitting to gods
will Smashing statues in Mecca. The Muslims
worship there still. With more than one
successor Whose caliph? no ones quite sure. It
doesnt matter to the Sunni the Shiites follow
the fourth caliph. Charlemagne and the Franks in
France try to recreate the empires western
part, but it becomes small kingdoms as Europe
breaks apart. The serfs live on a manor Tenant
farmers of a noble, who was the vassal of a king,
thats the feudal system thing.
Sung to the Theme of Gilligans Island
CSI08
34
The Middle Ages Song Part 2 by C. Stephen Ingraham
The crusaders are off to the Holy Lands. Fleas on
rats bring the bubonic plague. Small kingdoms
form Nation-States, The Magna Carta limits the
kings power, More individual freedoms, No one
above the law, Thats the Middle Ages.
Sung to the Theme of Gilligans Island
CSI08
35
(No Transcript)
36
The Muslim Empire
  • II. B. Muhammad and Islam
  • 1. In about 570 A.D. ________________________
    was
  • born in a poor, but important family
    in Mecca.
  • 2. He became unhappy about his tribes
    ______________
  • worship.
  • 3. In a vision the angel _________________ told
    him that
  • he was a messenger to humankind.
  • 4. The message was there is no god but God, or
    ________.
  • 5. Over the next 23 years there were more
    messages
  • which were put together in a holy book
    called the ______.
  • 6. A _______________ is a follower of Muhammad
    and
  • believes the Quran is gods word.
  • 7. This religion becomes _______________ which
    means
  • submitting to Gods Will.
  • 8. In 622 A.D. Muhammad leaves Mecca, but
    returns with
  • other Arab tribes nine years later and
    destroyed all the
  • idols in the Kaba.

37
The Muslim Empire
  • II. E. Divisions Within the Muslim Empire
  • 1. After his death Muslim leaders chose a
    _____________,
  • or successor to Muhammad.
  • 2. The ________________ family moved the Muslim
    capital
  • from Medina to Damascus, Syria..
  • 3. The __________ family moved the capital in
    750 CE. To
  • Baghdad.
  • 4. Descendants of Muhammads daughter set up
    another
  • capital in _________________, ____________.
  • 5. The Muslim community split into several
    groups
  • a) The _______________ accepted the changing
  • dynasties.
  • b) The _______________ not wanting either the
  • Umayyad or Abbasid families as rulers,
    remained loyal
  • to Ali the four caliphs descendants.

38
Europe in the Middle Ages
  • E. The Rise of Nation-States
  • 1. Kings begin to take authority away from the
  • nobles and church leaders.
  • 2. __________-________, or strong central
  • government with a single king, began to form
    in
  • many parts of Europe.
  • 3.Each of these governments had
  • a) their own laws
  • b) leaders
  • c) full-time army
  • d) language
  • e) culture and customs

39
Europe in the Middle Ages
  • C. The Church and the Crusades
  • 1. The idea that all of Europes separate
    kingdoms were
  • united in a Christian Community is known as
  • ___________________________.
  • 2. In 1095 Pope Urban II called on all
    Christians to help
  • seize control of the holy city of Jerusalem
    back from the
  • Seljuk Turks.
  • 3. Whole families volunteered to become
    ______________
  • marched across Europe, but many died of
    hunger before
  • reaching the holy land.
  • 4. In eight attempts thousands of Christians and
    Muslims
  • died, but the Christian never gained control
    of Jerusalem.
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