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3.1 Understanding Maps

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What is a map? A map is a graphic representation, on a flat surface,of what a part of the Earth s surface looks like from above. Lines of latitude (parallels) Lines ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 3.1 Understanding Maps


1
Unit 3 Understanding Maps
2
What is a map?
  • A map is a graphic representation,
  • on a flat surface,of what a part of the Earths
    surface looks like from above.

3
Geographys foremost tool is the map. - Why are
maps so valuable?
4
Basic elements of maps Title Grid Lines (latitude
and longitude) Directional Indicator Symbols Legen
d Names of Features Scale- large vs. small
scale
5
Lines of latitude (parallels)
  • Lines that are drawn around the globe parallel to
    the Equator.

6
Lines of latitude
7
Lines of longitude (meridians)
  • Lines that are drawn around the globe through the
    poles.
  • Prime Meridian 0- Greenwich, England

8
Absolute Location vs. Relative Location
  • Absolute location- exact position on the globe,
    use latitude and longitude
  • Relative Location- The position to a place in
    relation to another place

9
  • Using an atlas, give the absolute location for
    the following cities
  • Houston
  • Los Angeles
  • Washington, D.C.
  • Boston
  • Chicago
  • Miami

10
Large vs. Small Scale Maps
  • The larger the area represented on a flat piece
    of paper , the smaller the scale of the map and
    the less detail it can display.
  • Why? Because scale refers to the ratio of a
    distance on a map to the actual distance it
    represents.

11
What is the scale?
12
What is the scale?
13
Summary
  • Why are maps valuable?
  • What are the features of a map?
  • What are the major lines of latitude?
  • How do you determine absolute location?
  • What is the difference between large and small
    scale maps?

14
How to Lie With Maps by Mark Monmonier
  • The image on a map is drawn by human hands,
    controlled by operations in a human mind John
    Kirkland Wright 1942
  • Basically, maps are not infallible.

15
States Visited
16
Cities Visited
What is the problem with the previous map?
17
How do maps lie?
  • Through
  • Selection
  • Simplification
  • Displacement
  • Smoothing
  • Enhancement
  • Aggregation

18
Bias in maps
  • Consider this. A gas station company produced
    maps of Russia and only named cities where their
    gas stations were located. The only problem was
    that there were no gas stations in Moscow and St.
    Petersburg, so they were left off the map.
  • What was the bias of this map?
  • Where do most people buy maps? Is this a problem?

19
The Bottom Line
  • Lies on a map are not always bad.
  • Analyze maps like you would any other document.

20
Remember This!
  • All maps are distorted!
  • The Earth is a 3D sphere maps are 2D and flat.
  • There can never be an actual representation of
    the Earth on a map.
  • A globe is the closest representation that can be
    analyzed about the Earth.
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