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Ethics in a Computing Culture

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Ethics in a Computing Culture Chapter 1 Critical Reasoning and Moral Theory – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 13 August 2020
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Learn more at: http://cs340.cs.ua.edu
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Title: Ethics in a Computing Culture


1
Ethics in a Computing Culture
  • Chapter 1
  • Critical Reasoning and MoralTheory

2
Ethics
  • Ethical Doing the right thing
  • How do we define the right thing?
  • Where we place the value
  • Ethics is the study of rational choices.
  • Rational reasoned, optimized for goal or problem

3
Morality
  • Tavani describes morality as a
  • system of rules for guiding human conduct the
    principles for evaluating those rules.

4
Case Borrowing a Password (Scenario 1)
  • Did anyone do anything wrong?
  • How do you interpret the word wrong in this
    case?
  • Would it make a difference if there was a
    university policy again sharing passwords/logins?
  • If a university policy stated that providing
    passwords to others is prohibited, would the
    action be wrong?
  • This case did not specify why Joshs account was
    disabled.
  • How does this hinder your ability to decide the
    morality of this case?
  • If they were seniors?
  • Computer experience?

5
Case Borrowing a Password (Scenario 2)
  • How would you react if Alice were a software
    engineer at a software development firm?
  • Did anyone do anything wrong?
  • What if Josh is moving to Beta software? Would
    this information affect your previous decision?
  • What if Alices job has a confidentiality req.?
  • What if Alice had overlooked the confidentiality
    req.? Would her unawareness keep her action from
    being considered immoral?
  • What if Alice denies Josh the account use. Did
    anyone do anything wrong?

6
Case Borrowing a Password (scenario 3)
  • Alpha monitored Eee Alices account and saw a
    file be sent outside the co network. Alices boss
    Carol fires her.
  • Did anyone do anything wrong? How are we defining
    wrong?
  • Suppose Alpha never told Eees like Alice their
    emails were monitored? Does that change whether
    firing was wrong?
  • What if Carol had been caught doing something
    similar but was only warned? Is that wrong?
  • Suppose we agree that it was fair to firing is a
    fair option, what if we know that Josh did not
    examine any of Alices files. Is the firing fair?

7
Professional Ethics
  • Many professions hold their members to a higher
    standard of behavior.
  • Computing professionals http//iccp.org/coe
  • Physicians http//www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physic
    ian-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics.p
    age
  • Attorneys http//www.americanbar.org/groups/profe
    ssional_responsibility/publications/model_rules_of
    _professional_conduct/model_rules_of_professional_
    conduct_table_of_contents.html
  • Teachers http//www.nea.org/home/30442.htm
  • Social workers http//www.socialworkers.org/pubs/
    code/default.asp
  • Law enforcement http//www.theiacp.org/PoliceServ
    ices/ProfessionalAssistance/Ethics/ModelPolicyonSt
    andardsofConduct/tabid/196/Default.aspx

8
Case Warning or Ticket? (scenario 1)
  • Dolores ran stop sign.
  • Consider the affected parties, as well as the
    risks, involved with Dolores failure to stop at
    the stop sign.
  • What should Officer Schmidt do in this situation
    -warning, citation, or arrest?
  • What if Dolores had been an unknown 18 y o male?
  • What if Schmidt and Dolores had been romatically
    involved?
  • What if Dolores had been rude to Schmidt?
  • Other info that would help you have a clear
    opinion?

9
Case Warning or Ticket? (scenario 2)
  • Dolores ran stop sign and someone was injured.
  • What should Officer Schmidt do in this situation
    - warning, citation, or arrest?
  • Dolores hit mayor. Does that change the action
    Schmidt should take?
  • Suppose Dolores had had a warning on this exact
    behavior last week?

10
Case Warning or Ticket?
  • No harm, no foul principle that states it is
    wrong to punish someone for a simple mistake when
    no actual harm has been done

11
Morality and Ethics
  • Ethics a set of morally permissible standards
    for a group
  • Morality the standards desired by all humans at
    their rational best.
  • Standards of morality are similar to standards of
    language Rules regarding human behavior are
    complex and have many exceptions.

12
Moral Theory
  • The basic equation for defining morality
  • How do I know that X is good?
  • Why is X good?
  • An action might be unethical, yet remain morally
    permissible.

13
Moral Theory (continued)
  • Religious ethics doing the right thing usually
    is achieved by obeying the dictates of ones
    religion
  • Divine Command Theory God, and only God, decrees
    what is right and what is wrong
  • Disagreement among godly men (Aquinas Calvin,
    Luther)
  • Can a person who is not religious act morally?

14
Moral Theory (continued)
  • Cultural Relativism there is no valid, rational
    criterion for determining if the right thing to
    do exists
  • members of one culture should not judge or be
    judged by a different culture
  • Cultural Relativism goes beyond tolerance

15
Moral Theory (continued)
  • Virtue Theory concerns the nature of virtue and
    what it means to have virtue
  • Asks what would a good person do in this
    situation.
  • P. 14 examine Aristotle's virtues and vices
  • Ideal Man one who possesses the characteristics
    of a good person (virtues), including courage,
    friendliness, and modesty
  • Ideal mean represent s the half-way point
    between risk and generosity

16
Moral Theory (continued)
  • Righteous Indignation the anger we feel at
    someones undeserved good or bad fortune
  • Dolores deserves to get the ticket because she
    broke the law, and her behavior endangered others
  • Virtue Ethics agent-centered as opposed to
    action-centered

17
Ethics as a Meta-Norm
  • Weakness of these theories / search for rules
    with universal validity
  • Lasting and durable value
  • Transcends space and time
  • Intrinsic human goods and the moral choices to
    realize those goods.
  • These principles work in diverse cultures
  • Cyberethics by Spinello, p. 4

18
Ethics
  • Ethical Doing the right thing
  • How do we define the right thing?
  • Where we place the value
  • Ethics is the study of rational choices.
  • Two dominant theories
  • Deontological
  • Teleological
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