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Dialect and Messages of Negro Spirituals

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Dialect and Messages of Negro Spirituals Presented by Clarence Jones NEGRO SPIRITUALS EMANATED From the hearts of the Ante-Bellum Slaves The House/Field Negros ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dialect and Messages of Negro Spirituals


1
Dialect and Messages of Negro Spirituals
  • Presented by
  • Clarence Jones

2
NEGRO SPIRITUALS EMANATED
  • From the hearts of the Ante-Bellum Slaves
  • The House/Field Negros
  • Religious Passion Overflowing
  • Faith in God
  • Oral Tradition One Generation to Another
  • The Invisible Church

3
THE PRE-LITERATE ERA OF SLAVERY
  • Preaching Inspired These Songs
  • Singing Sacred Songs
  • Jubilees Great Day the Righteous Marching
  • Folk Songs Study War No More
  • Shout Songs Every Time I Feel the Spirit
  • Sorrow Songs Sometimes I Feel Like A
    Motherless Child
  • Slave Songs Nobody Knows the Trouble Ive
    Seen
  • Minstrel Songs Cotton Pickin Songs
  • Religious Songs Were You There When They
    Crucified My Lord
  • Negro Spirituals Steal Away

4
CONDITIONS THAT INFLUENCE NEGRO SPIRITUALS
  • Negative
  • The Blind Man Stood on the Road and Cried
  • Degrading
  • Master Going to Sell Us Tomorrow
  • Dyer Conditions
  • 6,000 Independent Spirituals Exist Today

5
HANDED DOWN SPIRITUALS SPEAK OF
  • Life Scandalize My Name
  • Death I Want to Die Easy, When I Die
  • Suffering Ive Been Buked
  • Sorrow A City Called Heaven
  • Love God is God! God Dont Never Change!
  • Judgment In That Great Getting Up Morning
  • Grace Fix Me, Jesus
  • Hope Heaven, Heaven
  • Justice Didnt My Lord Deliver Daniel
  • Mercy Standing in the Need of Prayer

6
SPIRITUALS WERE
  • Songs of A PEOPLE WEARY AT HEART
  • Songs of UNHAPPY PEOPLE
  • BEAUTIFUL EXPRESSION of Human Experience

7
AFRICANS LIVES CELEBRATED THOUGH MUSIC
  • Marriage Marry a Woman Uglier Than
  • Birth Mary Had A Baby
  • Death Im So Glad Theres No Dying Over There
  • Work Children, Dont Get Weary Til Your Work
    Is Done
  • Play All I Do the Church Keep A Grumbling
  • Public Humor Jerry, The Arkansas Mule

8
RHYTHM
  • Important to Music
  • Words Primary
  • Derived From Particular Event
  • Content Mood Dictated Instrumentation Use
  • Ex. Hand clapping

9
NEGRO SPIRITUALS TELL OF
  • Exile Let My People Go
  • Trouble I Been in the Storm So Long
  • Strife Aint Gonna Let Nobody turn Me Round
  • Hiding No Hiding Place Down There
  • Groping (toward some unseen power) Over My
    Head I Hear Music in the Air
  • Sigh For Rest (at the end of life)
  • Soon I Will Be Done

10
  • But through all the sorrow of the sorrow songs
    there breathes a hope - a faith in the ultimate
    justice of things.
  • William E. B. Dubois

11
MUSICAL FORM OF THE NEGRO SPIRITUAL
  • Rhythm
  • Intricacy (of Rhythm)
  • Written in Quadruple Duple Meter
  • Syncopation

12
3 CLASSIFICATIONS OF NEGRO SPIRITUALS
  • Call Response
  • Chant Response By Choir
  • Syncopated
  • Fast Tempos
  • Body Movements
  • Rhythm That Swings
  • Slow Sustained
  • Long-phrased Melodies
  • Slow Tempos
  • Long Sustained Phrases, Nostalgic, Dignified

13
SPIRITUALS ARE
  • Vocally Diatonic
  • Highly Ornamental
  • Plaintive
  • Nostalgic
  • Dignified
  • Beautiful
  • Appealing

14
TYPES OF SCALES USED IN SPIRITUALS
  • Conventional Major Minor Scales
  • Pentatonic Scale
  • Mixed Modal Scales

15
  • Flatted Thirds
  • Flatted Sevenths
  • Flatted Sixths
  • I, IV, and V7 Chords

16
MUSICAL TEXTUTES
  • Horizontal Melodic
  • Vertical Harmonic
  • Monophonic
  • Single melodic line without accompaniment
  • Polyphonic
  • 2 or more simultaneous melodies
  • Homophonic
  • Single melody with accompaniment

17
VOCALIST/SOLOIST
  • Most vital factor
  • Techniques Had No Bounds or Rules
  • Chants
  • Hums
  • Wailings
  • Shouts
  • Glides
  • Turns
  • Groans Moans
  • Word Interjections

18
IMPROVISATION
  • Main Stylistic Feature/Tool of Folk Songs
  • Permitted in Lyrics
  • Words of the Negro Spiritual
  • Generally represent the feeling of the songs

19
HOWARD THURMAN SUGGESTS Majority of Text Came
From
  • Old Testament of the Bible
  • Go Down Moses
  • Didnt My Lord Deliver Daniel
  • New Testament of the Bible
  • Were You There When They Crucified My Lord
  • He Never Said a Mumblin Word
  • Go Tell It On the Mountain
  • De Glory Manger

20
  • The World of Nature
  • Deep River
  • Roll, Jordan Roll
  • The Promised Land
  • Heaven
  • Over Jordan

21
  • Freedom from slavery and
  • freedom from life
  • were often synonymous.
  • Oh Freedom
  • Bound for Canaan Land
  • Deep River
  • Swing Low Sweet Chariot
  • Steal Away to Jesus

22
  • Release in death sometimes
  • became the ultimate hope and goal.
  • Steal Away
  • Swing Low Sweet Chariot
  • I Want to Die Easy, When I Die

23
  • HILDRED ROACH informs us that despite the
    overabundance of biblical words used in the
    majority of spirituals, their functions were not
    purely religious.

24
FUNCTIONS OF BIBLICAL WORDS USED IN SPIRITUALS
(According to Hildred Roach)
  • Search of Freedom
  • In Religious Services
  • To Teach - To Gossip
  • To Scold - To Signal
  • To Delight in the Telling of Tales
  • Relief in the Minds Bodies of the Enslaved
  • Inform Slaves of Their Own Affairs
  • Social Politics - Deliverance - Escape - Satire

25
SPECIALIZATION IN MESSAGE OF SPIRITUALS
  • God is a God
  • God dont never change!
  • God is a God
  • An He always will be God!

26
SPIRITUALS WITH DUAL OR DECODED MEAINGS
  • Theres a Great Camp Meeting
  • Walk Together Children
  • Children Dont Get Weary
  • Steal Away
  • O Mary, Dont You Weep, Dont You Mourn

27
SPIRITUALS WITH AMAZING MEANINGS OR WORD
PAINTINGS
  • Hush, Hush, Somebodys Calling My Name
  • Keep A-Inchin Along
  • Somebodys Knocking at Your Door

28
RELIGIOUS SONGS WITH SPIRITUAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • De Gospel Train
  • Get on Board Little Children
  • Steal Away
  • Didnt My Lord Deliver Daniel
  • Deep River

29
EARLY SPIRITUALS
  • Not Just Songs
  • Unceasing Variations on a Theme
  • Religious ( Social) Songs
  • Sung by group of people
  • Expressions of Feelings
  • Miniscule regard for sound effect, vocal beauty,
    or proper harmonic progression

30
SPIRITUALS BEYOND THE ACT OF EMANCIPATION
  • The Fisk Jubilee Singers
  • Artistic metamorphosis in 1870s
  • Became permanent American art form
  • George L. White
  • Caucasian music instructor at Fisk
  • Organized, trained, and named original
  • Fisk Jubilee Singers
  • The Invisible Church
  • Praise house songs artistic concertized in
    choral form in U.S. and beyond

31
  • The Hampton Institute Singers
  • Guidance of R. Nathaniel Dett
  • Became extremely popular
  • Black Colleges Churches
  • Sacred music of the painful past
  • Anthemizes Spiritual
  • Developed by black composers musicians who
    studied in conservatories

32
  • R. Nathaniel Dett
  • Listen to the Lambs 1914
  • Harry T. Burleigh
  • One of the first to arrange perform spirituals
  • Style of the European Art Song
  • Deep River - 1916
  • Became model for others

33
BLACKS WHO SING, FOLLOWED TRADITION HELPED
DEVELOP THE FORM
  • Marian Anderson Camilla
    Williams

34
Dorothy Maynor
Mattiwilda Dobbs
35
Paul Robeson
Leontyne Price
Roland Hayes
George Shirley
36
Shirley Verrett
Todd Duncan
Simon Estes
Robert McFerrin
37
BLACK COMPOSERS OF VOCAL INSTRUMENTAL SPIRITUAL
ARRANGEMENTS
  • Edward Boatner
  • Native of New Orleans, LA
  • Music Director, National Baptist Convention
  • Harry T. Burleigh
  • Erie, PA
  • Singer, Composer, Arranger
  • Clarence Cameron White
  • Clarksville, TN
  • Taught at West Virginia State Hampton Institute

38
  • Willis Laurence James
  • Montgomery, AL
  • Music Educator, Violinist, Musicologist
  • Alabama State, Fort Valley State, Spellman,
    Leland College
  • Hall Johnson
  • Athens, AL
  • Composer, Arranger
  • Conductor of Famous Hall Johnson Choir
  • Wrote Music for Green Pastures Run, Little
    Chillun

39
  • William Dawson
  • Annestomn, AL
  • Composer, Arranger
  • Conductor of Famous Tuskegee Choir
  • John W. Work
  • Tullahoma, TN
  • Fisk Jubilee Singers Director
  • Frederick Hall
  • Atlanta, GA
  • Director of Music at Clark, Morris Brown, Alabama
    State, and Dillard Universities

40
  • R. Nathaniel Dett
  • Drummondville, Ontario
  • Taught at Lane College, Lincoln, and Hampton
    Institute
  • Eva Jessye
  • Coffeyville, KS
  • Composer, Conductor
  • James Weldon
  • Rosamond Johnson
  • Samuel Coleridge-Taylor

41
  • William Grant Still
  • Woodville, MS
  • Conducted Major Symphony Orchestras
  • Florence Price
  • Little Rock, AK
  • Conductor, Arranger, and Composer for
    Instrumental Vocal Ensembles
  • Margaret Bonds
  • Chicago, IL
  • Pianist Choral Arrangements

42
  • Undine Smith Moore
  • Jarrat, VA
  • Music Educator, Composer, Arranger
  • Taught at Virginia State an VA Union
  • Lena McLin
  • Chicago, IL
  • Composer, Arranger, Music Educator

43
WHITE SYMPHONIC COMPOSERS
  • Anton Dvorak
  • Czechoslovakian composer
  • Greatly influenced by student -
  • Harry T. Burleigh
  • George Gershwin
  • American Composer
  • Porgy Bess
  • First successful American Opera
  • Written about the life of blacks
  • Written in style of the Spiritual

44
SPIRITUALS INFLUENCE DEVELOPMENT
  • Messages Emotions
  • Penetrating in Popular Classical Music
  • Minstrel Songs Jazz
  • Blues Country Music
  • Popular Songs Ring-Game Songs
  • Swing White Rock
  • Soul Music Gospel
  • RB Rap

45
OUT OF RESERVOIR OF NEGRO SPIRITUALS CAME
  • Freedom Songs of
  • The Nonviolent Movement
  • Songs that Demonstrate Justice Human Dignity
  • The Foundation for Black Music in U.S.

46
SONGS of the SOUL AND OF THE SOIL ENRICHED
AMERICAN MUSIC
  • Syncopated rhythm
  • The Art of Jazz Music
  • A Wealth of Materials used by Great Composers
  • They Articulate the Message of an Oppressed
    People
  • An Artful Expression that Enhanced Christianity
  • Patience
  • Love, Freedom
  • Faith
  • Hope

47
IN CONCLUSION
  • The slaves were NOT simply
  • singing a song
  • they were
  • expressing a point of view
  • Go Down, Moses Way Down in Egypt Land. Tell
    Ol Pharaoh to Let My People Go.
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