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Section 3: The Impact of the Enlightenment

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Section 3: The Impact of the Enlightenment – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Section 3: The Impact of the Enlightenment


1
Section 3 The Impact of the Enlightenment
2
The Arts
  • Architecture
  • Balthasar Neumann two masterpieces The Church of
    the Fourteen Saints and the palace of
    prince-bishop of Wurzburg both are light,
    painted with bright colors, lavish with elaborate
    detail

3
Art
  • rococo replaced baroque in the 1730s it was
    secular, emphasizing grace, charm, and gentle
    action.

4
  • Antoine Watteau his paintings reveal a world of
    upper class pleasure and joy Danse dans un
    Pavillion Gersaints Shopsign

5
Gersaints Shopsign
6
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
  • ?painted many walls and ceilings
  • of churches and palaces masterpiece
  • the Ceiling of the Bishops Palace at
  • Wurzburg

7
Music
  • Bach organist composer music director at the
    Church of St. Thomas Mass in B Minor
  • Handel known for his religious music Messiah
  • Hayden musical director for Hungarian princes
    The Creation and The Seasons
  • Mozart child prodigy wrote operas The Marriage
    of Figaro, The Magic Flute, and Don Giovanni

HANDEL
HAYDEN
BACH
8
Literature
  • development of the European novel
  • Henry Fielding wrote novels about people without
    morals who survive by their wits The History of
    Tom Jones, a Foundling

9
Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism
  • The philosophers believed in natural rights for
    all people.
  • ? These rights are referred to in the American
    Declaration of Independence to religious
    worship, speech, press, assembly, hold property,
    and the pursuit of happiness they believed that
    enlightened rulers were to preserve these rights.
  • B. Enlightened absolutism a system in which
    rulers tried to
  • govern by Enlightenment principles while
    retaining royal
  • power. Enlightened rulers emerge in
    Prussia, Austria, and
  • Russia.

10
Prussia Army and Bureaucracy
  • - Fredrick William I built the fourth largest
    army in Europe it was the most important
    institutions in the state.
  • - Frederick II, or Frederick the Great,
    adopted some Enlightenment ideas
  • abolished torture except in treason and murder
    cases,
  • granted limited freedom of speech,
  • limited freedom of the press, and
  • complete religious toleration but he kept
    serfdom and the rigid social structure

11
PRUSSIA
?FREDERICK I FREDERICK II ?
12
The Austrian Empire
  • - Austria was a major power by the eighteenth
    century.
  • - Empress Maria Theresa, worked to alleviate
    the conditions of the serfs but was not open to
    the ideas of the Enlightenment.

13
AUSTRIA
14
CHRISTMAS IN AUSTRIA
15
  • - Her successor, Joseph II, was more influenced
    by the philosophers. He abolished serfdom and
    the death penalty, recognized equality before the
    law and allowed religious toleration. His
    programs largely failed because he alienated
    nobility and the Catholic Church. Serfs were
    confused about their new role in society.

16
Russia Under Catherine the Great
  • . - Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, was
    the German wife
  • of the murdered Peter III, through
    politics she came to the
  • Russian throne.
  • - She knew the ideas of the Enlightenment,
    and even invited
  • Diderot to speak in Russia, and
    corresponded through
  • letters to Voltaire. However, she did
    not adopt Enlightenment
  • reforms because she need the support of
    the
  • Russian nobility.
  • - Under her rule, conditions for the
    peasants worsened, and
  • she crushed a peasant revolt and
    expanded serfdom to
  • new parts of the empire.
  • - She expanded Russias territory.
    Catherine fought the
  • Ottoman Turks for a warm water port and
    added territory
  • along the Black Sea Russia gained
    about 50 percent
  • of Polands territory She attacked
    Poland with Prussia and
  • Austria they divided the rest of
    Poland Poland leaves the
  • map until 1918.

17
CATHERINE THE GREAT
18
Catherines Palace North Side
19
  • Enlightened Absolutism?
  • ?The rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia
    decisions were ultimately guided by a concern for
    power and the well-being of their states.

20
War of the Austrian Succession
  • Maria Theresa succeeded her father
  • to the Austrian throne after his death
  • many European rulers did not recognize her right
    to succeed him, therefore Prussia invaded
    Austrian Silesia.
  • ? France allied with Prussia, and Britain
  • allied with Austria.

21
  • ? The War of the Austrian Succession was fought
    in Europe, the Far East, and North America. In
    1748 all parties agreed to peace with the Treaty
    of Aix-la-Chapelle
  • ? all occupied territories but Silesia were
    returned to their original owners.

22
The Seven Years War
  • In 1756 a worldwide war broke out three major
    areas of conflict Europe, India, and North
    America (FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR)
  • Europe British and Prussians against the
    Austrians, Russians, and French
  • ?Prussian army was able to defeat the
    French, Austrians, and Russians for some time,
  • ?But Frederick the Great faced disaster
    until the czar Peter III (Russia) withdrew his
    troops from the war
  • ?A stalemate led to peace under the
    Treaty of Paris (1763),
  • ?All occupied territories were returned
    and Austria officially recognized Prussias
    permanent control of
  • Silesia.

23
FRENCH INDIAN WAR
24
  • ?India Struggle was between Britain and France
    outside of Europe was known as the Great War for
    Empire
  • ?Sheer persistence made the British win in India.
  • ?With the treaty of Paris the French withdrew
    from India for good

25
  • ?North America known as the Seven Years War
  • ?The French colonies in North America
  • (Canada and Louisiana) were thinly populated
  • trading outposts
  • ?The 13 British colonies were thickly populated
    and
  • were quite prosperous
  • Native Americans allied with the French
  • because they were viewed as traders,
  • not settlers.
  • Mainly fought over the
  • Ohio River Valley
  • British win
  • With the Treaty of Paris the French transferred

26
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