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BROADLY: The gradual spread from the 16th to the 19th century of the

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THE TERM ENLIGHTENMENT CAN BE DEFINED BROADLY OR NARROWLY BROADLY: The gradual spread from the 16th to the 19th century of the scientific method for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BROADLY: The gradual spread from the 16th to the 19th century of the


1
THE TERM ENLIGHTENMENT CAN BE DEFINED BROADLY
OR NARROWLY
  • BROADLY The gradual spread from the 16th to the
    19th century of the scientific method for
    understanding the natural world and of universal
    literacy.
  • NARROWLY A movement that arose among French
    intellectuals (or philosophes) around 1730 to
    apply the scientific method to the analysis of
    society and politics.
  • The philosophes agreed on these slogans
  • Religious toleration!
  • Freedom of thought!
  • Let the punishment fit the crime!
  • The philosophes DISAGREED about the best form of
    government, equality between the sexes, and many
    other issues.

2
John Locke (1632-1704) fled to the Netherlands
under King James II and returned to England in
1688
  • A Letter Concerning Toleration (1689).
  • Second Treatise of Government (1689) Legitimate
    government is based on a social contract in which
    we promise obedience in exchange for the
    protection of our life, liberty, and
    possessions.
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
    applied Newtonian physics to psychology at
    birth, the mind is a blank slate.

3
The French court become receptive to irreverent
ideas during the regency for the boy king Louis
XV (crowned in 1722), and Montesquieus Persian
Letters (1721) became very popular.
4
Montesquieu (1689-1755) served as judge on the
parlement of Bourdeaux
Voltaire (1694-1778) was banished to England from
1726 to 1729
5
KEY TERMS FROM MONTESQUIEU
THE FOUR TYPES OF GOVERNMENT THE FOUR TYPES OF GOVERNMENT
Despotism, based on fear Monarchy, based on honor Aristocratic republic, based on self-restraint Popular republic, based on civic virtue Despotism, based on fear Monarchy, based on honor Aristocratic republic, based on self-restraint Popular republic, based on civic virtue
Liberty is best preserved through a separation of powers among the Legislative branch (the people) Judicial branch (the nobility) Executive branch (the royal dynasty)
6
CAN DESPOTISM SOMETIMES BE ENLIGHTENED?
Voltaire pinned his hopes for reform largely on the enlightened inclinations of the following absolute monarchs Louis XV of France (reigned 1715-1774) Frederick the Great of Prussia (1740-86) Catherine the Great of Russia (1762-96) But he found himself bitterly disappointed by their taste for wars of conquest....
7
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8
Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XV in 1730
Francois Boucher, Madame de Pompadour (1756)
9
A flute concert by Frederick the Great in
Potsdam, 1750
10
Maria Theresa of Austria (ruled 1740-80) France
and Prussia broke their treaties with her father
and sought to dismember her empire
11
THE WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, 1740-48
  1. Naval war broke out in 1739
  2. Prussia conquers Silesia
  3. Franco-Bavarian army captures Prague but must
    soon retreat

12
Voltaire at the round table of Frederick the
Great in Potsdam (1750-53)
13
The Seven Years War, 1756-63 France, Austria,
Russia seek to destroy Prussia
14
The British conquer Quebec, 1759
15
The printing press as a gift from heaven (1740)
16
Denis Diderot published his great Encyclopaedia,
or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts
and Crafts from 1751 to 1772
17
Title page of Diderots Encyclopedia, 1751
18
Illustration of agricultural techniques from the
Encyclopédie
19
Illustration of the final stages of paper-making,
from the Encyclopédie
20
Norman peasants signing a marriage contract By
this crude measure, French literacy rates rose to
about 40 by 1780
By now Prussia, Sweden, Scotland had achieved
universal literacy.
21
Literacy does not necessarily imply
enlightenment The Life of Saint Benedict
22
Voltaires Chateau in Ferney, on the Swiss border
(1764)
23
Voltaire at Ferney Jean Huber, Un diner de
philosophes (1772-73)
24
A.-C.-G. Lemonnier, In the Salon of Madame
Geoffrin in 1755 (painted in 1812)
25
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78), as a
fashionable young man
26
Rousseau in a beaver hat (1766), now a drop-out
from polite society
27
ROUSSEAU AS INTELLECTUAL GADFLY
  • 1750 His Discourse on the Arts and Sciences
    challenges the belief in progress
  • 1755 His Discourse on the Origin of Inequality
    suggests that property is theft.
  • 1762 His novel Emile, or On Education proposes
    in Book V an ideal education for girls very
    different from that for boys.
  • 1762 On the Social Contract argues that now law
    is legitimate unless every citizen has an equal
    voice in shaping that law.
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