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What Have We Learned From the Research on Online Learning?

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What Have We Learned From the Research on Online Learning? Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Professor, Indiana University President, CourseShare and SurveyShare – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What Have We Learned From the Research on Online Learning?


1
What Have We Learned From the Research on Online
Learning?
  • Dr. Curtis J. Bonk
  • Professor, Indiana University
  • President, CourseShare and SurveyShare
  • http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk,
  • cjbonk_at_indiana.edu

2
Tons of Recent Research
  • Not much of it
  • ...is any good...

3
Basic Distance Learning Finding?
  • Research since 1928 shows that DL students
    perform as well as their counterparts in a
    traditional classroom setting.
  • Per Russell, 1999, The No Significant Difference
    Phenomenon (5th Edition), NCSU, based on 355
    research reports.
  • http//cuda.teleeducation.nb.ca/nosignificantdiffe
    rence/

4
Online Learning Research Problems (National
Center for Education Statistics, 1999 Phipps
Merisotos, 1999 Wisher et al., 1999).
  • Anecdotal evidence minimal theory.
  • Questionable validity of tests.
  • Lack of control group.
  • Hard to compare given different assessment tools
    and domains.
  • Fails to explain why the drop-out rates of
    distance learners are higher.
  • Does not relate learning styles to different
    technologies or focus on interaction of multiple
    technologies.

5
Online Learning Research Problems(Bonk Wisher,
2001)
  • For different purposes or domains in our study,
    13 concern training, 87 education
  • Flaws in research designs
  • - Only 36 have objective learning measures
  • - Only 45 have comparison groups
  • When effective, it is difficult to know why
  • - Course design?
  • - Instructional methods?
  • - Technology?

6
Evaluating Web-Based InstructionMethods and
Findings (41 studies)(Olson Wisher, October,
2002 International Review of Research in Open
and Distance Learning)
http//www.irrodl.org/content/v3.2/olsen.html
7
Wishers Wish List
  • Effect size of .5 or higher in comparison to
    traditional classroom instruction.

8
Evaluating Web-Based Instruction Methods and
Findings(Olson Wisher, 2002)
  • there is little consensus as to what variables
    should be examined and what measures of of
    learning are most appropriate, making comparisons
    between studies difficult and inconclusive.
  • e.g., demographics (age, gender), previous
    experience, course design, instructor
    effectiveness, technical issues, levels of
    participation and collaboration, recommendation
    of course, desire to take addl online courses.

9
Evaluating Web-Based Instruction Methods and
Findings(Olson Wisher, 2002)
  • Variables Studied
  • Type of Course Graduate (18) vs. undergraduate
    courses (81)
  • Level of Web Use All-online (64) vs.
    blended/mixed courses (34)
  • Content area (e.g., math/engineering (27),
    science/medicine (24), distance ed (15), social
    science/educ (12), business (10), etc.)
  • Attrition data (34)
  • Comparison Group (59)

10
Some of the Research Gaps(Bonk Wisher, 2000)
  • 1) Variations in Instructor Moderation
  • 2) Online Debating
  • 3) Student Perceptions of e-Learning Envir.
  • 4) Devel of Online Learning Communities
  • 5) Time Allocation Instructor and Student
  • 6) Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
    Applications in Sync/Asynchronous Envir
  • 7) Peer Tutoring and Online Mentoring
  • 8) Student Retention E-learning and Attrition
  • 9) Graphical Representation of Ideas
  • 10) Online Collaboration

11
Compare Higher Ed and Corp
12
1. Research in Higher Ed
13
My Evaluation Plan
14
Electronic Conferencing Quantitative Analyses
  • Usage patterns, of messages, cases, responses
  • Length of case, thread, response
  • Average number of responses
  • Timing of cases, commenting, responses, etc.
  • Types of interactions (11 1 many)
  • Data mining (logins, peak usage, location,
    session length, paths taken, messages/day/week),
    Time-Series Analyses (trends)

15
Electronic Conferencing Qualitative Analyses
  • General Observation Logs, Reflective interviews,
    Retrospective Analyses, Focus Groups
  • Specific Semantic Trace Analyses, Talk/Dialogue
    Categories (Content talk, questioning, peer
    feedback, social acknowledgments, off task)
  • Emergent Forms of Learning Assistance, Levels of
    Questioning, Degree of Perspective Taking, Case
    Quality, Participant Categories

16
Student Basic Quantitative
  • Grades, Achievement Test Scores, etc.
  • Number of Posts
  • Overall Participation
  • Computer Log Activitypeak usage, messages/day,
    time of task or in system
  • Attitude Surveys

17
Student High-End Success
  • Message complexity, depth, interactivity,
    questioning
  • Collaboration skills
  • Problem finding/solving and critical thinking
  • Challenging and debating others
  • Case-based reasoning, critical thinking measures
  • Portfolios, performances, PBL activities

18
Other Measures of Student Success(Focus groups,
interviews, observations, surveys, exams, records)
  • Positive Feedback, Recommendations
  • Increased Comprehension, Achievement
  • High Retention in Program
  • Completion Rates or Course Attrition
  • Jobs Obtained, Internships
  • Enrollment Trends for Next Semester

19
Findings Learning Improved(Maki et al., 2000)
  • Intro to Psych Lecture vs. Online
  • Online performed better on midterms.
  • Web-based course students scored higher since had
    weekly activities due
  • Lecture students could put off reading until
    night before exam.

20
Findings Learning Improved(review by Chang,
2003)
  • Online outperformed peers in histology
    (anatomyplant and animal tissues under
    microscope) course (Shoenfeld-Tacher et al.,
    2001)
  • Web enhancements raised exam performance, grades,
    attitudes toward economics
  • Agarwal and Day (1998)
  • Online business communications students performed
    better on final exams than on campus (Tucker,
    2000)

21
Integrating Wireless Content Syllabus Magazine,
May 13, 2003
  • Study by Mobile Learning Corp group of college
    institutions
  • Digital content helped first-year college
    accounting students learn
  • Online interactive exercises useful to student
    learning
  • Encouraged independent student learning, and
    instructors to adopt coaching role.

22
Findings Learning Worse(Wang Newlin, 2000)
  • Stat Methods Lecture vs. Online
  • No diffs at midterm
  • Lecture 87 on final, Web a 72
  • Course relatively unstructured
  • Web students encouraged to collab
  • Lecture students could not collab
  • All exams but final were open book

23
Findings Learning WorseOrganizational
Behavior, IUSE(Keefe, Educause Quarterly, 1,
2003)
  • Keefe studied 4 semesters of courses, 6 sections,
    118 students
  • Face-to-face more satisfied with course and
    instructor
  • Those in online course associated with lower
    grades

24
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25
Learning Improved or Not?(Sankaran et al., 2000)
  • Students with a positive attitude toward Web
    format learned more in Web course than in lecture
    course.
  • Students with positive attitude toward lecture
    format learned more in lecture format.

26
Contrasting Findings are the Norm
  • Some courses impersonal, isolating, and
    frustrating (Hara Kling, 2001)
  • Sense of community and lower attrition rates when
    support interactivity, reflection, and sharing
    (Harnishfeger, March, 2003)

27
Problem-Based LearningDistance Ed, 23(1), 2002
  • Practical learning issues generated more
    interactions and higher levels of interaction
    than theoretical issues
  • Communities of learners need to negotiate
    identity and knowledge and need milestones (chat
    session agreements, producing reports, sharing
    stories, and new work patterns)
  • Group development (1) negotiate problem and
    timetable, (2) divide work in subgroups, and (3)
    produce drafts of products

28
Network Conferencing Interactivity (Rafaeli
Sudweeks, 1997)
  • 1. gt 50 percent of messages were reactive.
  • 2. Only around 10 percent were truly interactive.
  • 3. Most messages factual stmts or opinions
  • 4. Many also contained questions or requests.
  • 5. Frequent participators more reactive than low.
  • 6. Interactive messages more opinions humor.
  • 7. More self-disclosure, involvement,
    belonging.
  • 8. Attracted to fun, open, frank, helpful,
    supportive environments.

29
Schallert Reed, AERA, April 2003
  • Nonnative students do not participate equally in
    written discussions
  • Enthusiastic and frequent contributors do not
    necessarily make intellectually significant
    contributions.
  • Some who seem deeply engaged may be less
    rigorously engaged in many conversations

30
Collaborative Behaviors(Curtis Lawson, 1997)
  • Most common were (1) Planning, (2) Contributing,
    and (3) Seeking Input.
  • Other common events were
  • (4) Initiating activities,
  • (5) Providing feedback,
  • (6) Sharing knowledge
  • Few students challenge others or attempt to
    explain or elaborate
  • Recommend using debates and modeling appropriate
    ways to challenge others

31
Dimensions of Learning Process(Henri, 1992)
  • 1. Participation (rate, timing, duration of
    messages)
  • 2. Interactivity (explicit interaction, implicit
    interaction, independent comment)
  • 3. Social Events (stmts unrelated to content)
  • 4. Cognitive Events (e.g., clarifications,
    inferencing, judgment, and strategies)
  • 5. Metacognitive Events (e.g., both metacognitive
    knowledgeperson, and task, and strategy and well
    as metacognitive skillevaluation, planning,
    regulation, and self-awareness)

32
Surface vs. Deep Posts(Henri, 1992)
  • Surface Processing
  • making judgments without justification,
  • stating that one shares ideas or opinions already
    stated,
  • repeating what has been said
  • asking irrelevant questions
  • i.e., fragmented, narrow, and somewhat trite.
  • In-depth Processing
  • linked facts and ideas,
  • offered new elements of information,
  • discussed advantages and disadvantages of a
    situation,
  • made judgments that were supported by examples
    and/or justification.
  • i.e., more integrated, weighty, and refreshing.

33
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34
Critical Thinking (Newman, Johnson, Webb
Cochrane, 1997)
  • Used Garrisons five-stage critical thinking
    model
  • Critical thinking in both CMC and FTF envir.
  • Depth of critical thinking higher in CMC envir.
  • More likely to bring in outside information
  • Link ideas and offer interpretations,
  • Generate important ideas and solutions.
  • FTF settings were better for generating new ideas
    and creatively exploring problems.

35
Social Construction of Knowledge (Gunawardena,
Lowe, Anderson, 1997)
  • Five Stage Model
  • 1. Share ideas,
  • 2. Discovery of Idea Inconsistencies,
  • 3. Negotiate Meaning/Areas Agree,
  • 4. Test and Modify,
  • 5. Phrase Agreements
  • In global debate, very task driven.
  • Dialogue remained at Phase I sharing info

36
Research on Instructors Online
  • If teacher-centered, students explore less,
    engage less, interact less (Peck, and Laycock,
    1992)
  • Informal, exploratory conversation fosters
    risktaking knowledge sharing (Weedman, 1999)
  • Online Teaching Job Varies--Plan, Interaction,
    Admin, Teaching
  • (McIsaac, Blocher, Mahes, Vrasidas, 1999)

37
Three Most Vital Online Teaching SkillsThe
Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April,
2001)
  • Ability to engage the learner (30)
  • Ability to motivate online learners (23)
  • Ability to build relationships (19)
  • Technical ability (18)
  • Having a positive attitude (14)
  • Adapt to individual needs (12)
  • Innovation or creativity (11)

38
Feelings Toward Online TeachingThe Online
Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April,
2001)(Note 94 practitioners surveyed.)
  • Exciting (30)
  • Challenging (24)
  • Time consuming (22)
  • Demanding (18)
  • Technical issue (16) Flexibility (16)
  • Potential (15)
  • Better options (14) Frustrating (14)
  • Collab (11) Communication (11) Fun (11)

39
Dennens Research on Nine Online
Courses (sociology, history, communications,
writing, library science, technology, counseling)
Poor Instructors Good Instructors
  • Provided regular qual/quant feedback
  • Participated as peer
  • Allowed perspective sharing
  • Tied discussion to grades, other assessments.
  • Used incremental deadlines
  • Little or no feedback given
  • Always authoritative
  • Kept narrow focus of what was relevant
  • Created tangential discussions
  • Only used ultimate deadlines

40
Role of Online Teacher(Bonk, Kirkley, Hara,
Dennen, 2001)
  • TechnicalTrain, early tasks, be flexible,
    orientation task
  • ManagerialInitial meeting, FAQs, detailed
    syllabus, calendar, post administrivia, assign
    e-mail pals, gradebooks, email updates
  • PedagogicalPeer feedback, debates, PBL, cases,
    structured controversy, field reflections,
    portfolios, teams, inquiry, portfolios
  • SocialCafé, humor, interactivity, profiles,
    foreign guests, digital pics, conversations,
    guests

41
Problems and Solutions(Bonk, Wisher, Lee, in
press)
  1. Tasks Overwhelm
  2. Confused on Web
  3. Too Nice Due to Limited Share History
  4. Lack Justification
  5. Hard not to preach
  6. Too much data
  7. Communities not easy to form
  • Train and be clear
  • Structure time/dates due
  • Develop roles and controversies
  • Train to back up claims
  • Students take lead role
  • Use Email Pals
  • Embed Informal/Social

42
Benefits and Implications(Bonk, Wisher, Lee,
in press)
  1. Shy open up online
  2. Minimal off task
  3. Delayed collab more rich than real time
  4. Students can generate lots of info
  5. Minimal disruptions
  6. Extensive E-Advice
  7. Excited to Publish
  • Use async conferencing
  • Create social tasks
  • Use Async for debates Sync for help, office
    hours
  • Structure generation and force reflection/comment
  • Foster debates/critique
  • Find Experts or Prac.
  • Ask Permission

43
More Implications
  • Include Variety tasks, topics, participants,
    accomplishments, etc.
  • Make interaction extend beyond class
  • Have learners be teachers
  • Find multiple ways to succeed
  • Add personalization and choice
  • Provide clarity and easy navigation

44
Ten Ways Online Ed Matches or Surpasses FTF, Mark
Kassop, Technology Source, Michigan Virtual Univ,
May/June 2003
  1. Student-centered learning
  2. Writing intensity
  3. Highly interactive discussions
  4. Geared for lifelong learning
  5. Enriched course materials
  6. Online demand interaction and support
  7. Immediate feedback
  8. Flexibility
  9. An intimate community of learners
  10. Faculty development and rejuvenation

45
2. Research and Evaluation in Corporate Settings
46
Collecting Evaluation Data
  • Learner Reaction
  • Learner Achievement
  • Learner Job Performance
  • Manager Reaction
  • Productivity Benchmarks

47
Forms of Evaluation
  • Interviews and Focus Groups
  • Self-Analysis
  • Supervisor Ratings
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • ROI
  • Document Analysis
  • Data Mining (Changes in pre and post-training
    e.g., sales, productivity)

48
What is Evaluation???
  • Simply put, an evaluation is concerned with
    judging the worth of a program and is essentially
    conducted to aid in the making of decisions by
    stakeholders. (e.g., does it work as
    effectively as the standard instructional
    approach).
  • (Champagne Wisher, in press)

49
Meta-Analysis Recurrent Themes in E-Learning
Reports (Waight, Willging, Wentling, 2002)
  1. 250 e-learning reports from 1999-2001
  2. Of those, 100 were sold by private companies for
    100-3,000
  3. Of remaining 150, 70 outside U.S.
  4. 15 selected were from government, bus, and
    professional associations
  5. Few studied review existing research

50
Meta-Analysis Six Functions of E-Learning
(Waight, Willging, Wentling, 2002)
  • Anytime, anywhere
  • Cost effective
  • Global reach
  • Just-in-time
  • Allow personalization
  • Improve collaboration and interactivity
  • Address learner diversity, learner-centered, and
    blur working and learning lines

51
Meta-Analysis Six Purposes of E-Learning Reports
(Waight, Willging, Wentling, 2002)
  1. Inform investors of opportunities
  2. Discuss learning in the workforce
  3. Inform policy makers, educators, employees, and
    public
  4. Identify drivers and players
  5. Discuss contrib of tech to lrng/perf
  6. Identity trends and winning strategies

52
Overall Blended Learning Results???
53
Blended Learning Advantages
  1. Course access at ones convenience and flexible
    completion
  2. Reduction in physical class time
  3. Promotes independent learning
  4. Multiple ways to accomplish course objectives
  5. Increased opportunities for human interaction,
    communication, contact among students
  6. Less time commuting and parking
  7. Introverts participate more

54
Blended Learning Disadvantages
  1. Procrastination, procrastination, procrastination
  2. Students have trouble managing time
  3. Problems with technology at the beginning (try
    too much)
  4. Can be overwhelming or too novel
  5. Poor integration or planning
  6. Resistance to change
  7. Good ideas but lack of time, money, support

55
Evaluation of E-Learning In Corporate Training
Success Stories and Examples
56
Success Story 1 (Sitze, March 2002, Online
Learning)EDS and GlobalEnglish
  • Charge Reduce money on English training
  • Goal 80 online in 3 months
  • Result 12 use in 12 months
  • Prior Costs 1,500-5,000/student
  • New Cost 150-300/user
  • Notes Email to participants was helpful in
    expanding use rolling out other additional
    languages.

57
Success Story 2 (Overby, Feb 2002, CIO)Dow
Chemical Offensive Email
  • Charge Train 40,000 employees across 70
    countries 6 hours of training on workplace
    respect and responsibility.
  • Specific Results 40,000 passed
  • Savings Saved 2.7 million (162,000 on record
    keeping, 300,000 on classrooms and trainers,
    1,000,000 on handouts, 1,200,000 in salary
    savings due to less training time).

58
Success Story 3 (Overby, Feb 2002, CIO)Dow
Chemical Safety/Health
  • Charge Train 27,000 employees on environmental
    health and safety work processes.
  • Results Saved 6 million safety incidents have
    declined while the number of Dow employees have
    grown.

59
Success Story 4 (Overby, Feb 2002, CIO)Dow
Chemical e-learning system
  • Charge 1.3 million e-learning system
  • Savings 30 million in savings (850,000 in
    manual record-keeping, 3.1 in training delivery
    costs, 5.2 in reduced classroom materials,
    20.8 in salaries since Web required 40-60 less
    training time).

60
Success Story 5 (Ziegler, e-learning, April
2002)British Telecom sales training
  • Costs Train 17,000 sales professionals to sell
    Internet services using Internet simulation.
  • Result Customer service rep training reduced
    from 15 days to 1 day Sales training reduced
    from 40 days to 9 days.
  • Savings Millions of dollars saved sales
    conversion went up 102 percent customer
    satisfaction up 16 points.

61
Success Story 6. Infusing E-Learning (Elliott
Masie, March 2002, e-learning Magazine)
  • A manufacturing company transformed a week-long
    safety program into a three-part offering
  • 1. One day in classroom
  • 2. Multiple online simulations and lessons.
  • 3. One final day of discussions and exams.
  • Must accomplish online work before phase 3
  • this raised success rate, transfer of skills,
    and lowered hours away from the job.

62
Success Story 7. Ratheon, Build Own LMS (John
Hartnett, Online Learning, Summer 2002)
  • SAP Training Choice Vendor (390,000) or Build
    Internally (136,000) or Cost of Instructor-led
    Training (388,000).
  • Note Saved 252,000
  • Five Training Components in 18 Weeks (within 6
    weeks, 4,000 courses taken by 1,400 students)
  • Role-based simulations
  • Audio walk-throughs
  • Online quick reference system
  • Live training support (special learning labs)
  • Online enrollment and tracking

63
Success Story 8 IBMSpecial E-Learning Issue,
April 2001
  • 33,000 IBM managers have taken online courseware.
  • 5 times as much content at one-third the cost.
  • IBM reported 200 million in savings in one year.
  • Voided 80 million dollars in travel and housing
    expenses during 1999 be deploying online
    learning.

64
IBM Training of 6,600 New First-Line Managers
(Basic Blue)
  • Phase I 26 Weeks of Self-paced Online Learning
  • Cohorts of 24 managers
  • Lotus LearningSpace Forum
  • 2 hours/week 5 units/week
  • 18 mandatory and elective management topics
  • Need minimum score on mandatory topics
  • 14 real-life interactive simulations
  • LearningSpace tutor guides behavior
  • Karen Mantyla (2001), ASTD.

65
IBM Training of 6,600 New First-Line Managers
(Basic Blue)
  • Phase II In-class 5 day learning lab
  • Experiential higher order learning
  • Bring real-life activities from job
  • Focus on self-knowledge and to understand their
    roles as leaders and members of IBM
  • Harvard Business cases, leadership competency
    surveys, managerial style questionnaires, brain
    dominance inventories
  • Coached by a learner-colleague (teaming impt!)
  • Less than 1 hour of the 5 days is lecture

66
IBM Training of 6,600 New First-Line Managers
(Basic Blue)
  • Phase III 25 Weeks of Online Learning
  • Similar to Phase I but more complex and focuses
    on application
  • Creates individual development plan and
    organizational action plan
  • Managers reviews and signs off on these plans

67
IBM Training Results (Kirkpatrick Model)
  • Level 1
  • High satisfaction and enthusiasm for blended
  • Coaching and climate rated highest
  • Level 2
  • 96 displayed mastery in all 15 subject areas 5
    times as much content covered in this program
    compared to 5 days of live training
  • 150 Web page requests/learner

68
IBM Training Results (Kirkpatrick Model)
  • Level 3
  • Significant behavior change (in particular in
    coaching, styles, competencies, and climate)
  • Graduate had high self-efficacy and believed that
    they could make a difference
  • Level 4
  • Linkage bt leadership customer satisfaction
  • Leadership led to teamwork and satisfaction
  • Managers reported improvement on job
  • Improved morale and productivity reported

69
IBM Training Results (Kirkpatrick Model)
  • Level 5
  • Asked graduates to estimate the impact on their
    departments in dollars
  • 415,000 or ROI of 47 to 1.
  • Perceived real and lasting leadership increases

70
Updated Success Story 8 IBM CLO, March 2003
  • 5,000 new managers/year
  • Program cost 5 million, cost avoidance 88
    million (travel, living expenses, and manager
    time)
  • 5 times as much content delivered compared to
    previous new-manager training program
  • 72 delivered through distance, 25 via classroom
  • Access materials at own convenience.

71
Blended Learning Advantages for IBM
  1. Greater consistency of language, knowledge, and
    corporate culture across the globe
  2. Blended approach to training now replicated in
    other units
  3. Market its e-learning design
  4. Cross functional understanding teamwork
  5. No risk trials and simplicity helps

72
Success Story 9. Army Three Phases of AC3-DL
  1. Asynchronous Phase 240 hours of instruction or 1
    year to complete must score 70 or better on
    each gate exam
  2. Synchronous Phase 60 hours of asynchronous and
    120 hours of synchronous
  3. Residential Phase 120 hours of training in 2
    weeks at Fort Knox

73
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74
AC3-DL Course Tools
  • Learned faster than in correspondence course
  • More flexible could do around full time work
    schedules
  • Fit Army small group training model
  • Async for content, sync for application
  • Need to shorten course modules and provide sync
    training earlier to increase retention

75
Overall frequency of interactions across chat
categories (6,601 chats).
76
Success 10 Microsoft Excel Training(Jeff
Barbian, Blended Works, Summer 2002, Online
Learning)
  • Group One 5 scenario-based exercises that
    offered live use of Excel on real-world tasks,
    online mentors, FAQs, relevant Web sites, NETg
    Excel Fundamentals Learning Objects.
  • Group Two Same as Group One but without
    scenarios, but info in 5 scenarios were embedded
    in the learning objects.
  • Group Three No training control.

77
Success 10 Microsoft Excel Training(Thompson
Learning Company Study Jeff Barbian, Blended
Works, Summer 2002, Online Learning)
  • Group One (the blended group) 30 percent
    increase in accuracy over Group Two (the
    e-learning group) and were 41 percent faster
  • Group Two performed 159 more accurately than
    Group Three
  • Groups 1 and 2 relied on the online mentors for
    support
  • (Note with these results, Lockhead Martin became
    a blended learning convert.

78
Success 11 NCR Blended Approaches(Thompson
Learning Company Study Jeff Barbian, Blended
Works, Summer 2002, Online Learning)
  • Design of E-Learning (Various methods Web
    articles Synchronous points for team exercises)
  • Field Guide Binders (Web site guidance, live
    feedback on case studies, live kick off that
    promotes collaboration, hands-on role play)
  • Over 71 percent of learners were responding to
    customers more effectively (Kirkpatrick Level 3)

79
Success 12 Convergys Blended(Jeff Barbian,
Blended Works, Summer 2002, Online Learning)
  • Leadership Dev, Succession Planning, performance
    management, etc.
  • LMS from Knowledge Planet, 3 e-learning
    libraries, virtual classroom tools to 50
    locations in North America Europe
  • New managers received Readings, job aids,
    meeting checklists, 5 off-the-shelf courses from
    SkillSoft, virtual classes via LearnLinc (new
    recruits talk to experienced managers), and a 4
    day instructor-led seminar at HQ.

80
Success 13 Sallie Mae/USA Group (Blended
student loan provider program)(Jeff Barbian,
Blended Works, Summer 2002, Online Learning)
  • LEAD (Leadership and Education Development)
    Groom internal staff to fill supervisory-level
    positions
  • 4 hours/week in class with internal and external
    instructors learn trust, role of managers, etc.
  • First must complete 3 online management courses
    from SkillSoft and 6 online project management
    courses (includes panel presentation by IT
    Project Team to illustrate how projects are
    handled in the companys culture)
  • Findings increased temawork, camaraderie, shared
    understanding of concepts, respect for individual
    differences, social interaction, and
    reinforcement for class concepts.

81
Success 14 Proctor and Gamble(Jeff Barbian,
Blended Works, Summer 2002, Online Learning)
  • 1999 100,000 employees 20,000 trained/year
  • LMS from Saba, live training from Centra
  • CD-based training using Authorware,
    CourseBuilder, Dreamweaver
  • 2002 1,200 learning items 34 Web, 54 CD
  • Global English saved 2.5 million per year
  • Off-the-shelf courses in time management and
    managing for success

82
Proctor and Gamble(Jeff Barbian, Blended Works,
Summer 2002, Online Learning)
  • Given our learning objectives and needs, should
    we select Web-based live training, versus
    classroom, versus video-based, versus CBT, or
    some blended solution?It depends, on the
    resources you have, how far geographically you
    have to reach, or whether you can get your arm
    around them and pull them into a classroom. Art
    DiMartile, Senior IT Manager, Proctor and Gamble

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The Worldwide Expansion of E-Learning!!!
  • Success 15 Circuit City is training 50,000
    employees from 600 stores using customized
    courses that are short, fun, flexible,
    interactive and instantly applicable on the job.
  • Success 16 The Armys virtual university
    offered online college courses to more than
    12,000 students located anywhere in the world in
    2001 in the first year of a 42 million
    e-learning program.
  • Dr. Sylvia Charp, Editor-in-Chief, T.H.E.
    Journal, March 2002.

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Success 17 Community Health Network of Indiana
www.ehealthindiana.com (July 15, 2002, American
Hospital Association)
  • Named one of most wired hospitals and most
    improved hospital system nationwide in the use of
    technology in health care
  • Virtual nurse recruitment Web site (live chats
    with recruiters)
  • Video streams of nursing leaders
  • Virtual tours of individual nursing units
  • Online application and interactive job-posting
    databases
  • Web portal for physicians
  • First in nation to offer live Web cast of in
    vitro fertilization procedure
  • Real time clinical data repository

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Success 18 Cisco and DigitalThink Course (Cisco
vendors)
  • Most saw significant growth in productivity
  • 74 reported improvement in ability to sell or
    service clients
  • Customer satisfaction jumped 50

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Success 18 Cisco and DigitalThink Course
(employees)
  • Sales training self-assessment
  • Ask via survey to estimate how much time training
    saved them on the job
  • Ask whether it improved performance
  • Select a percentage for each
  • ROI of 900 for every 1 spent on training,
    Cisco sees a gain of 900 in productivity

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Success 19 Kinkos(CLO, May 2003)
  • 1,100 locations in 9 countries
  • Used blended model Internet decentralized
    instruction, job aids, mentoring, virtual
    classroom training
  • Resulted in cost savings
  • Increased staff capability, reduced time to
    competence, increased speed to market, and
    increased compliance and certification

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Success 20 Masimo (develops medical signals
for vital signs) (CLO, May 2003)
  • Challenge to keep sales force and OEM
    distribution partners up-to-date and competent
  • E-learning has resulted in faster time-to-market
    and deeper capabilities for adoption of their
    technology
  • Increased brand awareness and product awareness
    among hospital staff
  • Building communities of uses for future sales

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Success 21 Tenet Health System(CLO, March 2003)
  • By 2010, there will be 21,000 less nurses than
    today and 40 will be over age 50
  • Recruitment and retention a major problem
  • Provided access to 500 hours of online clinical
    training and learning paths aligned along career
    trajectories (e.g., RN track a way to recruit)
  • 40 of RNs cited learning opportunities as major
    reason for taking job

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Success 22 Real Estate Company(CLO, March 2003)
  • Microsoft applications (Outlook, Excel, Word,
    etc.) training via e-learning
  • 67 percent of costs were non-technical
  • 150 courses completed in 8 months and more than
    500 initiated

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Success 22 Real Estate Company(CLO, March 2003)
  • Employee satisfaction and retention up
  • Time to payback period 5-6 months
  • Faster time to competency and greater employee
    productivity
  • Return on investment (ROI) of 22 percent

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Success 23 Energy Company(CLO, March 2003)
  • IT technical training for employees
  • Async, Web-based, self-paced learning
  • Some employees discussed learning in virtual
    classroom
  • In 12 month span, 3,000 courses completed and
    another 7,000 partially completed

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Success 23 Energy Company(CLO, March 2003)
  • Payback period of 3-4 months
  • 12 month ROI of 192 percent
  • Faster time to competency
  • Reduced re-work
  • Higher employee retention
  • Higher quality of service
  • Reduced help desk call volume and costs
  • Less system downtime

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Success 24 Defense Aerospace Company (CLO,
March 2003)
  • Fortune 100 company
  • Trained consultants who built systems
  • Subject matter highly technical rapidly
    changing
  • Cost 100,000 more per year
  • Blended selectedprimarily instructor led with
    some Web content for self study
  • 60 instructor delivered, 30 web, 10 individual
    coaching/mentoring

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Success 24 Defense Aerospace Company (CLO,
March 2003)
  • Payback period of 1-2 months
  • 12 month ROI of 195 percent
  • Faster time to competency
  • Higher employee retention and customer
    satisfaction
  • Reduced cycle times
  • Higher quality of service
  • Higher customer loyalty

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Some Final Advice
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