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Laying the Foundation for Behavioral Supports for All Students: An Introduction to School-wide Positive Behavior Support


Laying the Foundation for Behavioral Supports for All Students: An Introduction to School-wide Positive Behavior Support Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Laying the Foundation for Behavioral Supports for All Students: An Introduction to School-wide Positive Behavior Support

Laying the Foundation for Behavioral Supports for
All Students An Introduction to School-wide
Positive Behavior Support
  • Tim Lewis, Ph.D.
  • University of Missouri
  • OSEP Center on Positive
  • Behavioral Intervention Supports

2 Minutes
  • With your neighbor, identify common curriculum
    across key academic subjects

2 Minutes
  • With your neighbor, identify school-wide rules
    and strategies for teaching social behavior

The point?
  • Social behavior often the hidden curriculum
  • We cant make students learn or behave
  • We can create environments to increase the
    likelihood students learn and behave
  • Environments that increase the likelihood of
    social and academic success are guided by a core
    curriculum, adapted to reflect student need, and
    implemented with consistency and fidelity

The Challenge
  • Students with the most challenging academic and
    social problems need pro-active comprehensive and
    consistent systems of support
  • School-wide discipline systems are typically
    unclear and inconsistently implemented
  • Educators often lack specialized skills to
    address severe problem behavior and learning
  • Pressure on schools to incorporate national and
    state initiatives such as Values Education,
    Anti-Bullying, Safe Schools and achieving
    adequate yearly progress. Many often have
    clearly defined outcomes without structures to
    reach or a framework for deciding what should be
    implemented when, for whom, and to what degree

The Danger.
  • Punishing problem behaviors (without a
    proactive support system) is associated with
    increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c)
    truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995,
    Mayer Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba Peterson,

The Good News
  • Research reviews indicate that the most effective
    responses to school violence are (Elliot,
    Hamburg, Williams, 1998Gottfredson, 1997
    Lipsey, 1991, 1992 Tolan Guerra, 1994)
  • Social Skills Training
  • Academic Restructuring
  • Behavioral Interventions

Toward a Solution
  • The answer is not the invention of new solutions,
    but the enhancement of the schools
    organizational capacity to
  • Accurately adopt and efficiently sustain their
    use of research-validated practices
  • Provide a Seamless continuum of behavioral and
    academic support for all students
  • Be part of a district wide system of behavior
  • Increased focus, teacher training, community
    training, and funding for early intervention

School-wide Positive Behavior Support
  • SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and
    individualized strategies for achieving important
    social and learning outcomes while preventing
    problem behavior
  • OSEP Center on PBIS

PBS is not...
  • Not specific practice or curriculumits a
    general approach to preventing problem behavior
  • Not limited to any particular group of
    studentsits for all students
  • Not newits based on long history of behavioral
    practices effective instructional design

School-wide Positive Behavioral Support
  • Proactive systems approach to school-wide
    discipline (NOT a curriculum) designed to be
    responsive to current social and educational
  • Focus on prevention
  • Focus on instruction
  • Incorporates empirically validated practices
  • Incorporate best practice in professional
    development and system change (teams)
  • Emphasizes the use of assessment information to
    guide intervention and management decisions
  • Focus on the use of a continuum of behavioral
  • Focus on increasing the contextual fit between
    problem context and what we know works

School-wide Positive Behavioral Support
  • Focus on establishing school environments that
    support long term success of effective practices
    3-5 years
  • Expectations for student behavior are defined by
    a building based team with all staff input
  • Effective behavioral support is implemented
    consistently by staff and administration
  • Appropriate student behavior is taught
  • Positive behaviors are publicly acknowledged
  • Problem behaviors have clear consequences
  • Student behavior is monitored and staff receive
    regular feedback
  • Positive Behavioral Support strategies are
    implemented at the school-wide, specific setting,
    classroom, and individual student level
  • Positive Behavioral Support strategies are
    designed to meet the needs of all students

Social Competence Academic Achievement
Positive Behavior Support
Supporting Decision Making
Supporting Staff Behavior
Supporting Student Behavior
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success
Universal Strategies School-Wide
  • Essential Features
  • Statement of purpose
  • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules)
  • Procedures for teaching practicing expected
  • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors
  • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors
  • Procedures for record-keeping and decision making

Preparing for Implementation
  • Establish a regular meeting schedule for the
    behavior committee
  • Establish a standard system for communicating
    information within the committee and among staff
  • Analyze needs assessment data and other data to
    create short and long term goals (EBS survey)
  • Develop regular opportunities for training on key
    PBS strategies
  • Develop strategies to share information with
    parents community

Statement of Purpose
  • State positively
  • Focus on everyone and all settings in school
  • Focus on academic and behavioral outcomes
  • "To promote and maintain a safe and orderly
    learning environment for students and staff"

Clearly Define Expected Behaviors
  • Set of rules
  • State positively and succinctly
  • Keep to five or fewer
  • Process
  • 1. List problem behaviors
  • 2. Identify replacement behaviors what do you
    want them to do instead
  • 3. Create matrix of replacements by settings

I am. All Settings Classroom Hallways Cafeteria Bathrooms Playground Assemblies
Safe Keep bodies calm in line Report any problems Ask permission to leave any setting Maintain personal space Walk Stay to the right on stairs Banisters are for hands Walk Push in chairs Place trash in trash can Wash hands with soap and water Keep water in the sink One person per stall Use equipment for intended purpose Wood chips are for the ground Participate in school approved games only Stay in approved areas Keep body to self Walk Enter and exit gym in an orderly manner
Respect- ful Treat others the way you want to be treated Be an active listener Follow adult direction(s) Use polite language Help keep the school orderly Be honest Take care of yourself Walk quietly so others can continue learning Eat only your food Use a peaceful voice Allow for privacy of others Clean up after self Line up at first signal Invite others who want to join in Enter and exit building peacefully Share materials Use polite language Be an active listener Applaud appropriately to show appreciation
A Learner Be an active participant Give full effort Be a team player Do your job Be a risk taker Be prepared Make good choices Return to class promptly Use proper manners Leave when adult excuses Follow bathroom procedures Return to class promptly Be a problem solver Learn new games and activities Raise your hand to share Keep comments and questions on topic
Procedures for Teaching Expected Behaviors
  • Social skill instruction
  • teach the rule
  • demonstrate the skill
  • students practice the skill
  • review and test the skill
  • Embed in curriculum
  • Practice, Practice, Practice

Procedures for Encouraging Expected Behaviors
  • Identify rule student met and specific behavior
    they displayed (verbal feedback)
  • Deliver reinforcement
  • Tangible to intrinsic
  • External to internal
  • Frequent to infrequent
  • Predictable to variable

Procedures for Discouraging Problem Behaviors
  • Clearly define problem behavior
  • Clear distinctions between staff/classroom and
    office managed behavior
  • Establish a continuum of procedures for
    correcting problem behavior
  • Establish data decision strategies for repeat

Data-Based Decision Making
  • Types of Data
  • Office Discipline Referrals (
  • Anecdotal data
  • Teacher, student, parent surveys
  • Direct observation (behavior counts)
  • Archival data (e.g., referrals to special
    education, attendance, academic performance,
    grade retention, attendance, suspensions/expulsion

Implementation Examples
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Alton High SchoolAverage Referrals per Day
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ExampleSelf-contained Special Education Building
  • Enrollment 200
  • 50 free and reduced lunch
  • Ages 13 and up
  • Programs
  • Serves 8 component districts
  • Physically Impaired
  • Autism
  • Language Impaired
  • Hearing Impaired
  • Multiple/ Severe Disabilities
  • Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

Reported Results
  • Reduction in inappropriate behavior (verbal
    aggression, sleeping in class, off task,
  • Increased prosocial behaviors and task completion
  • Post universal systems, only 5 students (from 33)
    required individualized support

Maryland PBS Initiative
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Group Cost Benefit
  • Office Referral Reduction Across
  • 12 PBIS schools 5,606
  • If one Office Referral15 minutes of
    administrator time, then 5,606 x 15
  • 84,090 minutes
  • 1401.15 hours or
  • 233 days
  • of administrator time recovered and reinvested.

Group Cost Benefit
  • Office Referral Reduction
  • Across 12 PBIS Schools 5,606
  • If students miss 45 minutes of instruction for
    each Office Referral, 5,606 X 45
  • 252,270 minutes
  • 4204.50 hours or
  • 700 days
  • of instructional time recovered!!!!!

AD Alcohol and Drug ABS Anti-social
Behavior Scale
Impact on Moving Students to More Restrictive
  • Columbia Public Schools
  • Elementary Schools who implement SW-PBS referred
    students to alternative/special school at lower
    rates compared to schools who were not
    implementing SW-PBS (r -0.4306, p lt 0.01)
  • Elementary Schools who implemented SW-PBS have
    less recidivism to alternative settings once
    students returned to home-school

Universal Strategies Nonclassroom Settings
  • Assess the Physical Characteristics
  • Determine which environmental factors contribute
    to the problem
  • Determine which environmental factors can be
  • If factors cannot be modified what supervision is
  • Establish Setting Routines
  • Everyone knows the rules
  • Routines established that allow students to
    demonstrate appropriate skills minimize problem
  • Adult monitoring
  • Practice, Practice, Practice

Universal StrategiesClassroom
  • Use of school-wide expectations/rules
  • Effective Classroom Management
  • Behavior management
  • Instructional management
  • Environmental management
  • Support for teachers who deal with students who
    display high rates of problem behavior

Effective Classroom Management
  • Behavior management
  • Teaching routines
  • Positive student-adult interactions
  • Instructional management
  • Curriculum Instructional design
  • Environmental management

Small Group / Targeted
  • Part of a continuum must link to school-wide
    PBS system
  • Efficient and effective way to identify students
  • Assessment simple sort
  • Intervention matched to presenting problem but
    not highly individualized

Small Group / Targeted Practices
  • Social Behavioral Concerns
  • Social Skill Training
  • Self-Management / Check-in
  • Academic Concerns
  • Peer tutoring / Peer Network
  • Academic support
  • Emotional Concerns
  • Mentors

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Individual Support Plans
  • When small group not sufficient
  • When problem intense and chronic
  • Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Linked to school-wide system

Process (FBA to Individual PBS plan)
  • Conduct functional behavioral assessment
  • Create plan based on functional assessment
  • Develop infra-structure to support behavior
    change (school environment must change)

FBA PBS Plan Process
  • Success requires
  • Individual(s) with expertise in FBA-PBS
  • Fluency with a clear process among all staff
    including their role
  • A basic understanding among all school staff of
    the key Behavior is functionally related to
    the teaching environment

Essential Steps to Individual PBS Plans
  • Request for assistance
  • Operationally define problem/replacement behavior
  • Background/archival data/ data collection/Environm
    ental Assessment
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Indirect measures
  • Direct observation
  • Develop hypothesis regarding function of problem
  • Develop a PBS plan
  • Social skill instruction
  • Self management
  • Environmental modifications
  • Implement, Monitor and Evaluate progress

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Implications Conclusion
  • SW-PBS allows educators to build environments
    that increase the likelihood of student academic
    and social behavior success through a systemic
    and supportive process

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On school reform
  • Kauffman states attempts to reform education
    will make little difference until reformers
    understand that schools must exist as much for
    teachers as for students. Put another way,
    schools will be successful in nurturing the
    intellectual, social, and moral development of
    children only to the extent that they also
    nurture such development of teachers. (1993, p.

For More Information
  • OSEP Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions
    and Supports
  • Colorado School-wide Positive Behavior Support
  • IDEAS that Work
  • Association for Positive Behavior Support