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THE DESTINY OF SOCIETY: Sociologies of Hope and Hopelessness

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Title: MULTICULTURALISM POLICY:MOSAIC MADNESS? Subject: sociology 335 Author: Francis Adu-Febiri Last modified by: newuser Created Date: 7/21/1997 7:26:44 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE DESTINY OF SOCIETY: Sociologies of Hope and Hopelessness


1
THE DESTINY OF SOCIETY Sociologies of Hope and
Hopelessness
EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING IN SOCIOLOGY
  • Darwins Nightmare?

2
Contents of Presentation
  • 1. Introduction
  • Social Darwinism and Societal Transformation
  • Central Question and Main Theory
  • Assumption, Paradigm Shift, and Agenda of Main
    Theory
  • 2. Typologies of Evolutionary Theorizing
  • Classical
  • Neo-evolutionary
  • 3. Classical Evolutionary Theorists
  • 4. Neo-evolutionary Theorists
  • 5. Darwins Nightmares

3
IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vnLvszWBf6BQ

4
  • INTRODUCTION

5
INTRODUCTIONSocial Darwinism
  • Evolutionary selection is the organizing force of
    not only the natural world but also the social
    world.
  • According to Herbert Spencer, since all
    creatures adapt biologically to their
    environments, it is both useless and cruel to try
    to civilize the natives in colonies or to allow
    criminals and mentally defective persons to
    produce their inevitably defective children (
    Collins and Makowsky 2005, p. 81).

6
  • EVOLUTIONARY SELECTION (x)

x
Y
Transformation of the Social World
7
INTRODUCTIONSocietal Transformation
  • Evolutionary theories of sociology provide a
    stimulating overview of how societies transform
    by identifying
  • 1. the major and far-reaching differences
    between our reality and that of our ancestors.
  • 2. the processes of the transformation
  • 3. the directions and impact of the
    transformation
  • 4. the driving forces of the transformation
  • 5. the destiny of society

8
INTRODUCTIONCentral Question
  • WHAT IS THE CHANGE PATTERN OF HUMAN SOCIETIES,
    ITS IMPACT, DRIVING FORCE DESTINATION?

9
INTRODUCTIONMain Theory
  • All human societies start from the same point,
    move on the same path and in the same direction
    towards the same destination independent of the
    actions of societal members or social
    engineering.

10
INTRODUCTIONAssumption
  • Human choices count for little unless society is
    in transitional crisis Societal change is
    non-negotiable.

11
INTRODUCTIONParadigm Shift
  • Supernatural forces and human/social action have
    little to do with societal change.
  • Social Engineering is unnecessary
  • According to Saint-Simon, the main task of
    science knowledge is to discover the laws of
    social development, evolution , and progress
    those laws are inevitable and absolute. All that
    man can do is submit. Progress takes place in
    stages and each stage is necessary and
    contributes something to the further progress of
    humankind (Zeitlin 2001 71).

12
INTRODUCTIONAgenda
  • Political To maintain the STATUS QUO.
  • to avert revolution and to achieve the
    resignation of the multitude to the conditions
    of the existing order (Zeitlin 2001 82).
  • This agenda puts evolutionary theorizing into the
    ideological typology of sociological theory.

13
  • TYPOPOLOGIES

14
TYPOLOGIES OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING
  • 1. Classical Evolution Theory Linear Stages
    Model
  • 2. Neo Evolution Theory
  • Ecological Model
  • Curvilinear Model
  • Globalization Model

15
TYPOLOGIES OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING
  • CLASSICAL Growth is Progress Stages Toward
    Progress
  • Conceptualizes the movement of society through
    evolutionary stages where each stage of
    development represents a marked movement in human
    progress.
  • The movements are independent of social
    action/engineering.
  • NEO Growth creates a New order but not
    necessarily Progress
  • focuses on mechanisms and processes of change in
    size, scale, scope and complexity rather than
    progress.
  • Social action/engineering influences change only
    in periods of structural crises.

16
  • CLASSICAL SOCIAL EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING

17
CLASSICAL SOCIAL EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING
  • MAIN THEORY
  • Change in human society is inevitable,
    unidirectional, stages-based, and progresses
    toward a final destination.

18
SIGNIFICANT FEATURES OF CLASSICAL SOCIAL
EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING
  • 1. All societies are fundamentally similar in
    that they all go through the same sequence of
    stages, albeit at different rates of change,
    showing a hierarchy of developmental stages
    toward the highest and final stage.
  • 2. Many of these classical theorists ranked their
    own societies (European societies) very high and
    placed contemporary non-European societies lower
    on the sequence of developmentthrowbacks to
    earlier, simpler social forms that European
    societies had long since surpassed.

19
SIGNIFICANT FEATURES OF CLASSICAL SOCIAL
EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING
  • 3. Classical social evolutionists did not believe
    that once the final stage of evolution was
    achieved, history came to an end rather, they
    thought that once the final stage arrives, change
    would involve a continued elaboration and
    development of this final form.

20
SIGNIFICANT FEATURES OF CLASSICAL SOCIAL
EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING
  • 4. Social Relationships, that is, 1) Social
    Action, 2) Social Status positions and Roles, 3)
    Culture, 4) Structured Social Inequality, 5)
    Social Institutions, 6) Attitudes and Behaviors
    of individuals, and 7) all collective phenomena
    are manifestations of a particular stage of
    development or disruptions that occur in crises
    periods of transition in the progressive
    development process.

21
  • CLASSICAL SOCIAL EVOLUTIONISTS

22
CLASSICAL SOCIAL EVOLUTIONISTS
  • Saint-Simon Sociology of Hope
  • Auguste Comte Sociology of Hope
  • Herbert Spencer Sociology of Hope
  • Emile Durkheim Sociology of Hope
  • Karl Marx Sociology of Hope
  • Max Weber Sociology of Hopelessness
  • Thorstein Bunde Veblen Sociology of Hope

23
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
CLASSICAL EVOLUTIONISTS
  • 1. Saint-Simon Comte Model
  • The Law of Three Stages
  • Movement of ideas towards science causes society
    to progress in stages from THEOLOGICAL, through
    METAPHYSICAL to POSITIVISTIC.
  • Whats the driving force of social progress?
  • Knowledge is the underlying and sustaining factor
    of society a social system is the application of
    a system of ideas. The historical growth of
    knowledge, or science, was the major cause of
    the transformation of European society from
    feudalism to industrialism (Zeitlin 2001 70-71).

24
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • ACCOMPANYING CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS
  • Theological Stage
  • Dominated by religion ruled by priests.
  • Metaphysical Stage
  • Dominated by abstract philosophy ruled by
    Enlightenment thinkers
  • Positivistic Stage
  • Dominated by science or positive philosophy as
    against negative philosophy, the legacy of
    Enlightenment and the French revolution and
    social thought before them ruled by
    scientific-industrial elite.

25
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • 2. Spencers Model
  • The Law of the Four Stages
  • Increasing differentiation moves human society
    from simple society through compound and doubly
    compound societies to trebly compound society.
  • What drives social progress?
  • Increasing differentiation in the areas of
    production, reproduction, regulation and
    distribution moves society progressively from a
    simple stage, through compound, to doubly
    compound and trebly compound stages. In the
    process the best forms of social organization
    emerge ensuring the survival of the fittest and
    thereby elevating the level of society.

26
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • Simple societies of hunters and gatherers reveal
    very little differentiation. As societies
    compound to horticultural systems, however, clear
    differentiation between regulatory (political)
    and operative (productive and reproductive)
    structures is evident then, as they doubly
    compound into agrarian societies, they
    differentiate distinctive distributive systems
    such as markets, ports and roads. Finally, with
    treble compounding into industrial societies,
    complex patterns of differentiation between and
    within the operative, regulative, and
    distributive axes are evident.

27
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • ACCOMPANYING CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS
  • Simple Society
  • Dominated by hunting-gathering virtually no
    differentiation among the three fundamental axes
    of society.
  • Compound Society
  • Dominated by horticulture clear differentiation
    among the axes of society
  • Doubly Compound Society
  • Dominated by agrarian activities distinct
    differentiation with the distributive axis
  • Trebly Compound
  • Dominated by industrial activities complex
    differentiation among and within the three main
    axes of society.

28
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • Survival of the fittest
  • Almost a decade before Darwin published On the
    Origin of Species, Spencer coined the phrase
    Survival of the fittest. He used this phrase in
    a moral and philosophical sense, arguing that the
    best forms of social organizations emerge with
    unregulated competition among human, which allows
    most fit to survive, thereby elevating the level
    of society (Turner 2003 77).

29
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • 3. Durkheims Model
  • The Law of Two Stages
  • The necessity of social integration moves human
    society from the Mechanical Solidarity stage to
    the Organic Solidarity stage
  • What drives social progress?
  • Problems of integration compel society to become
    differentiated and progressively move from a
    MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY stage to an ORGANIC
    SOLIDARITY stage (Emile Durkheim).

30
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • ACCOMPANYING CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS
  • Mechanical Solidarity Stage
  • This is an initial stage of evolution when
    society is characterised by hunting/gathering
    with little differentiation. Collective
    conscience (shared basic moral values, beliefs,
    and norms) provided social solidarity.
  • Organic Solidarity Stage
  • This highest stage of society is characterized by
    industrialization with complex pattern of
    differentiation, and division of labour creating
    a moral value in the form of mutual
    interdependence that provide integration for the
    social system.

31
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • 4. Marxs Model
  • The Law of Six Stages
  • Contradictions in the relations of production
    create social conflict that moves society from
    Classprimitive communism through slavery,
    feudalism, capitalism, and socialism-- to
    Classlessness (advanced communism).
  • What drives social progress?
  • Contradictions in relations of production
    reflected in economic inequalities, exploitation
    and alienation produce conflicts--class
    struggles--that progressively transform society
    from class society into classless society
    specifically from a primitive communalism through
    ancient slavery, feudalism, and capitalism, to
    socialism, and, ultimately, communism.

32
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • ACCOMPANYING CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS
  • Primitive Communism
  • Hunting/gathering is the focus of life with
    little economic inequalities and exploitation.
  • Slavery
  • Horticulture/agrarian activities dominate slaves
    and commoners are exploited for the benefits of
    the nobility/royalty.
  • Feudalism
  • Agrarian economy is well developed with the
    exploited labour of the serfs for the benefit of
    the clergy and gentry.

33
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • Capitalism
  • Industrialization takes a central stage
    exploiting the working classes (proletariat) for
    the benefit of the upper classes (bourgeoisie).
  • Socialism
  • Dictatorship of the proletariat .
  • Communism
  • Highest stage of industrialization without
    exploitation classless society.
  • Inequality
  • Unfair distribution of scarce resources
  • Exploitation
  • Appropriation of the labor effort of a
    group/individual for the benefit of another.
  • Alienation
  • Separation from ones self, others, and
    product/service.

34
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • 5. Webers Model
  • The Law of Two Stages
  • Increasing rationality moves society from
    traditional society to modern society
  • What drives social change?
  • Increasing rationality changes society from a
    traditional inefficient stage into a modern
    efficient but oppressive bureaucratic stage
  • Increasing purposive rationality structures
    society into a bureaucratic iron cage.

35
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • ACCOMPANYING CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS
  • Purposive Rationality
  • the rule of reason demanding that meaning and
    action are justified explicitly and objectively.
  • Iron Cage
  • Social organization that depersonalizes,
    dehumanizes, and dominates/restrains its members.
  • Bureaucracy
  • formally rational, large-scale organization with
    the following six characteristics division of
    labor, hierarchy of positions, formal system of
    rules, separation of the person from the office,
    hiring and promotion based on technical merit,
    and the protection of careers that produce
    efficiency.

36
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • 6. Veblens Model
  • The Law of Three Stages
  • From savagery through barbarianism to
    civilization
  • As the material conditions of life change,
    society develops through three basic
    stages--savagery through barbarianism to
    civilization.

37
LINEAR STAGES MODEL THEORIES IN EARLY SOCIOLOGY
  • MAJOR CONCEPTS
  • Savage Society
  • Small, independent, and self-sufficient hunting
    and gathering communities.
  • Barbarian Society
  • Both the agricultural slave societies of the
    ancient Middle East and Asia and feudal societies
    that developed in Europe and Asia.
  • Civilization
  • Modern society that began in the West in the 19th
    century with the Industrial Revolution.

38
  • NEO-EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING

39
NEO-EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING
  • MAIN THEORY
  • Competition for scarce resources and control over
    surplus compels society to evolve/grow from
    simple to more complex forms of social
    organization.

40
NEO-EVOLUTIONARY THEORISTS
  • Amos Hawley
  • Gerhard Lenski
  • Jurgen Habermas
  • Anthony Giddens
  • Immanuel Wallerstein

41
1. ECOLOGICAL MODEL OF NEO- EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • Unlike the stages model, the ecological model
    does not focus on social progress. Rather, it
    focuses on growththat is, increasing size,
    scale, scope, and complexity of the systemic
    whole in its environment (Turner 2003 89).

42
ECOLOGICAL MODEL OF NEO-EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING
  • Amos Hawleys Ecological Model
  • Main Theory A societys contact with other
    cultures and societies causes it to increase in
    size, scale, scope, and complexity.
  • An ecosystems exposure to ecumenical environment
    produces new knowledge that causes growth and
    change in society when it increases the level of
    communication and transportation technologies
    through increasing production which then causes
    expansion of these technologies until the
    mobility costs associated with the change reach
    their maximum, that is, until equilibrium is
    attained (Hawley 1950, 1992).

43
ECOLOGICAL MODEL OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIZING
  • ACCOMPANYING CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS
  • Growth
  • Increasing size, scale, scope, and complexity of
    the systemic whole in its environment
  • Mobility cost
  • the time, energy, money and materials associated
    with the movement of information, materials, and
    people for a change in any given technology.
  • Ecumenical Environment
  • Other societies or cultures of other societies
  • Equilibrium
  • Relative stability in the ecological system.

44
2. CURVILINEAR STAGES MODEL OF NEO-EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • Main Theory
  • Societies begin with equality, change into
    inequality, and move toward equality (Kuznets
    Curve).
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vWth6HhOYpn8

45
CURVILINEAR STAGES MODEL OF EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • Lenskis Model
  • Main Theory Improvement in technology first
    changes society from more equality to less
    equality and later back towards more equality.
  • Low technology-production-surplus in
    hunting/gathering societies displayed the most
    equality then through medium technology-productio
    n-surplus in horticultural and agrarian societies
    monopolistic control of surplus increased
    inequality, but with high technology-production-su
    rplus in industrial societies, democratic
    redistribution of surplus lowered inequality
    somewhat but not to the level of hunter-gatherers
    (Gerhard Lenski).

46
CURVILINEAR STAGES MODEL OF EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • ACCOMPANYING CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS
  • Inequality
  • Unfair distribution of power and privilege among
    the members of a population.
  • Societal types
  • Hunting and gathering societies, simple
    horticultural societies, advanced horticultural
    societies, agrarian societies, and industrial
    societies.

47
3. GLOBALIZATION MODEL OF NEO- EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • MainTheory
  • Traditional societies disintegrate into
    transitional modern capitalist nation-states and
    eventually into a global society.

48
3. GLOBALIZATION MODEL OF NEO- EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • 1. Habermas Model Three Stages
  • Main Theory Crises/contradictions in the social
    system transmitted by communicative action
    transform society from primitive classless,
    through class systems, to a postmodern classless
    global society.
  • Communicative action/rationality (increasing
    rationalization of peoples lifeworlds or ideas,
    values and consciousness) transmits the crises
    and contradictions inherent in a social system
    to transform society from primitive classless
    social formation, through class social formations
    (traditional civilizations, modern
    civilizationsliberal capitalist, organized
    capitalist, postcapitalist) to postmodern
    classless global social formation (Jurgen
    Habermas).

49
3. GLOBALIZATION MODEL OF NEO- EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • In other words, this evolutionary process is a
    reflection of underlying structural changes and
    contradictions manifested in the breakdown of
    shared values or normative structures that cause
    the old social system to disintegrate because
    such disintegration threatens peoples feeling of
    social identity, and therefore integration
    (Wallace and Wolf 2006 177)
  • All societies in a given social formation are
    similar in their lifeworlds that evolve.

50
3. GLOBALIZATION MODEL OF NEO- EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • ACCOMPANYING CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS
  • Lifeworld (Ideas and Consciousness) Peoples
    values, feelings, identity, and interaction.
  • Communicative Action or Communicative
    Rationality
  • a distinctive type of interaction oriented to
    mutual understanding or noncoercive
    argumentation an ideal speech situation in
    which everyone would have an equal chance to
    argue and question, without those who are more
    powerful, confident, or prestigious having an
    unequal say (Wallace and Wolf 2006 184)

51
3. GLOBALIZATION MODEL OF NEO- EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • Primitive Social Formation
  • Tribal societies where the burden of social
    integration is on religion
  • Traditional Civilizations
  • Ancient and Feudal societies where the burden of
    social integration is shifting from religion
  • Liberal Capitalist Social Formation
  • 19th Century capitalism where the consensus
    formation in language is emerging as the burden
    of social integration.

52
3. GLOBALIZATION MODEL OF NEO- EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • Organized Capitalist Social Formation
  • Capitalism in the 20th and 21th centuries Western
    societies where the burden of social integration
    is shifting to consensus formation in language
  • Postcapitalist Social Formation
  • State-socialist class societies where the
    political elite disposes of the means of
    production.
  • Postmodern
  • Global high modernity where the burden of social
    integration has shifted to consensus formation in
    language/voices.

53
3. GLOBALIZATION MODEL OF NEO- EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • 2. Anthony Giddens Model Three Stages
  • Main Theory Changing dynamics of the interaction
    between social structure and human agency have
    transformed human society from a tribal system
    through a class-divided systems to a global high
    modernity
  • Due to structuration, the past is dominated first
    by tribal societies and then by class-divided
    societies where tradition and kinship are the
    dominant structural principles. Then followed
    global high modernity, distinctly different from
    class-divided societies in that its classes are
    global and structured by expertise and risk
    (Anthony Giddens).

54
3. GLOBALIZATION MODEL OF NEO- EVOLUTIONARY
THEORIZING
  • ACCOMPANYING CONCEPTS DEFINITIONS
  • Structuration The dynamics of the combined
    forces of social structure and human agency
  • Social Structure Norms, particularly rules, of
    relationships that tell people how to do social
    life, and the resources on which people can call
    to do social life.
  • Human Agency The creative aspect of human
    actionthe individual as a knowledgeable actor.
  • Global High Modernity Modern capitalism where
    people both calculate risk and feel out of
    control where economic changes have taken from
    the poor to give to the richon a huge and global
    scale, both within and between countries (Susan
    George 1999 190).

55
  • DARWINS NIGHTMARES

56
DARWINS NIGHTMARES
  • 1. Natural Selection is the Exception Unnatural
    Selection is the Rule
  • A) Orchestrated or planned action does the
    de-selection or the selection.
  • B) Societies that are well advanced on the
    evolutionary ladder are not producing enough
    off-spring and vice versa
  • 2) Change is negotiable

57
DARWINS NIGHTMARES
  • Unnatural Selections is the Rule
  • MOVIE REVIEW 'DARWIN'S NIGHTMARE' By A. O. SCOTT
    Published August 3, 2005 Get the full video
    in Camosun Library and watch it.
  • Youtube Video http//www.youtube.com/watch?vVK9v
    3ioiYBUfeaturefvsr

58
DARWINS NIGHTMARES
  • What do the planes bring to Africa?The answers
    vary. The factory managers say the planes'
    cavernous holds are empty when they land. One of
    the Russians, made uncomfortable by the question,
    mutters something vague about "equipment." Some
    of his colleagues, and several ordinary Mwanzans,
    are more forthright the planes, while they
    occasionally bring humanitarian food and medical
    aid, more often bring the weapons that fuel the
    continent's endless and destructive wars.
  • Along the shores of the lake, homeless children
    fight over scraps of food and get high from the
    fumes of melting plastic-foam containers used to
    pack the fish. In the encampments where the
    fishermen live, AIDS is rampant and the afflicted
    walk back to their villages to die.

59
DARWINS NIGHTMARES
  • Unnatural Selection is the Rule
  • The Nile perch itself haunts the film's infernal
    landscape like a monstrous metaphor. An alien
    species introduced into Lake Victoria sometime in
    the 1960's, it has devoured every other kind of
    fish in the lake, even feeding on its own young
    as it grows to almost grotesque dimensions, and
    destroying an ancient and diverse ecosystem.

60
DARWINS NIGHTMARES
  • 3. The Extinction of the Naturally Selected
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_an
    d_territories_by_fertility_rate

61
DARWINS NIGHTMARES
  • The Extinction of the Naturally Selected
  • In 2005, Hispanic women had the highest fertility
    rates, followed by non-Hispanic black women,
    Asian women, Native American women, and
    non-Hispanic white women. Fertility rates for
    Hispanic women were over 45 percent higher than
    those for non-Hispanic black women and Asian
    women (99 births per 1,000 for Hispanic women
    versus 67 births per 1,000 for non-Hispanic black
    and Asian women), and more than 65 percent higher
    than those for Native American women and
    non-Hispanic white women (60 and 58 births per
    1,000 women, respectively). (See Figure 3)

62
DARWINS NIGHTMARESThe Extinction of the
Naturally Selected
  • Ukraine 0.8 natural decrease annually 28
    total population decrease by 2050Russia -0.6
    -22Belarus -0.6 -12Bulgaria -0.5
    -34Latvia -0.5 -23Lithuania -0.4
    -15Hungary -0.3 -11Romania -0.2
    -29Estonia -0.2 -23Moldova -0.2
    -21Croatia -0.2 -14Germany -0.2 -9Czech
    Republic -0.1 -8Japan 0 -21Poland 0
    -17Slovakia 0 -12Austria 0 8
    increaseItaly 0 -5Slovenia 0 -5

63
  • CONCLUSION

64
CONCLUSION
  • Societal Change is Negotiable
  • The irony of Marxism and functionalism, says
    Berger and Luckmann, was that though their social
    ideas were inspired by the high ideals of the
    Enlightenment, their social theories sketched a
    process of social evolution in which individual
    choice counted for little Berger and Luckmann
    wished to bring real living, acting individuals
    back into the center of social thinking. They
    aimed to replace organismic and mechanistic
    social imagery with a view of society as a
    precariously negotiated, fluid order that
    ultimately resides in the interaction of
    individuals. The very title of their major work,
    The Social Construction of Reality, underscored
    the power of the individual to shape society and
    the open-ended character of history ( Seidman
    2004, p. 81)
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