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The Progressive Reform Era


The Progressive Reform Era Ch 18 Skele Notes 18.1 The Origins of Progressivism Progressive Era: 1890-1920, a lot of reform going on Outgrowth of earlier reform in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Progressive Reform Era

The Progressive Reform Era
  • Ch 18 Skele Notes

18.1 The Origins of Progressivism
  • Progressive Era 1890-1920, a lot of reform going
  • Outgrowth of earlier reform in the Northeast,
    Midwest, and West Coast
  • Roots of Reform (reacting to)
  • Immigration
  • Urbanization low pay, poor housing
  • Work environments
  • Corruption in the gov
  • Included people from all political parties
  • Most were of average wealth/middle class

  • Didnt share same views
  • Goals fell into 4 categories
  • Social
  • Moral
  • Economic
  • Political
  • Some overlapped
  • Some conflicted

  • Gov should be more accountable to its citizens
  • Gov should curb power and influence of wealthy
  • Gov should be given expanded powers so it could
    become more active in improving lives of its
  • Gov should become more efficient and less corrupt
    so they could competently handle an expanding role

Key Writers
  • Henry George wrote Progress and Poverty in
    effort to explain why poverty plagued such an
    advanced civilization
  • Proposed a single tax on the value of land
  • Edward Bellamy published Looking Backward where a
    man wakes up in 2000 and finds the US transformed
    into a utopian country
  • Clubs formed supporting both mens works

More on Writers
  • Many became scientific in their work and
    published their findings about our society
  • Hoped the public would push legislators to make
    and enforce new laws
  • Muckrakers journalists who uncovered information
    in an area of social reform and published their
  • Ex Upton Sinclairs The Jungle (meat packing
    ind), Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities
    (corruption in cities), Ida Tarbell about
    Standard Oil Trusts abuses

Reform Organizations
  • Union Movement 1890s
  • If unions succeeded in forming, business leaders
    often used court to issue injunctions (court
    order prohibiting something) preventing strike
  • Did have success with collective bargaining
  • Socialists public/gov control of property and
  • Elect leaders to do this, not through revolution
  • Most progressives didnt support such huge
  • Wanted to get rid of corruption and help the poor

Womens Groups
  • National Consumers League (NCL)
  • Investigated conditions in which goods were made
    and sold
  • Insisted factories obey state inspection laws and
    pay minimum wage
  • Women believed they needed the right to vote to
    get gov to create services essential to a
    familys health
  • Focused on liquor, workplace conditions, and
    commercialized vice
  • Powerless without the right to vote

Important Women
  • Florence Kelley Hull House
  • Enforcer of law prohibiting child labor, limiting
    work hours for women, and regulating sweatshop
    conditions in IL
  • Earned a law degree
  • Involved in NCL general secretary
  • Mother Jones Mary Harris Jones
  • Worked with Knights of Labor
  • Organized unions for workers (men and women)
  • Became national speaker on unions and child labor
  • 1905 helped form IWW

18.2 Progressive Legislation
  • Social Welfare Programs
  • Ensure minimum standard of living for people
  • Ex minimum wage, unemployment benefits, accident
    and health insurance, social security system
  • Municipal level reforms city level
  • Most early reforms
  • Pushed for home rule system that gives cities
    and limited degree of self rule
  • Allowed them to escape rule of state level
    political machines
  • Dealt with ending corruption (political machines)
  • Some political machines worked with reformers

Why did people want municipal reforms?
  • Many tragic events made people want these reforms
  • Galveston model of management
  • Commission (5) ran things, not just one person
  • Dayton first big city to do a council-management
  • Elected city council which sets laws and
    appointed a professional city manager to run city

City Reforms
  • Take over Utilities
  • Made efforts to regulate or dislodge monopolies
    that provided city utilities like water, gas, and
  • By 1915 nearly 2 of 3 cities had some city-owned
  • Provide Welfare Services
  • Some reform mayors led movements for
    city-supported welfare services

State Reforms
  • First worked to oust political bosses then change
  • Robert La Follette (Wis.) began direct primary
    voters choose who should run for office
  • Initiative citizens can propose new law through
    petition signatures and get it on the ballot
  • Referendum citizens can approve/reject a law
    passed by the legislature
  • Recall voters can remove person from office
    before the next election

Workplace Reforms
  • Labor depts provide information and
    dispute-resolution services to employers and
  • Went to court with business owners saying gov
    shouldnt get involved in business
  • Lochner v. New York (1905), the Supreme Court
    struck down a law setting maximum hours for
  • Muller v. Oregon the Court upheld an Oregon law
    that limited hours for female laundry workers to
    10 hours a day
  • Health issues
  • By 1907, nearly two thirds of the states had
    abolished child labor
  • Minimum wage laws for women and children also
    made headway

Fighting Bob La Follette
  • Ousted party bosses and brought about structural
    changes such as a direct primary and civil
    service reform
  • Wisconsin Idea called on academic experts to
    help draft reform legislation. To get it passed,
    he had the voting roll call read publicly in the
    districts of legislators who opposed reform.
  • Served in Senate after governor

Federal Reforms
  • Theodore Roosevelt was a powerhouse for reform as
  • Square Deal arbitration in mining strike TR
    felt was fair to both sides (check book for
  • Square Deal became slogan for his presidency

Progressive Reform Legislation
18.3 Tafts Presidency
  • Taft chosen by TR, but disappointed many
  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff a protective tariff, not
    supported by Progressives
  • Ballinger-Pinchot Affair dispute over lands in
    Alaska and their being sold for business purposes
    (coal), ended in Taft looking bad again

New Nationalism
  • TR campaigned for Progressives in the interim
    elections of 1910
  • Called for business regulation, welfare laws,
    workplace protection for women and children,
    income and inheritance taxes, and voting reform
  • Progressive Democrats won many seats in Congress

Election of 1912
  • Republicans Taft
  • Progressives formed own party Bull Moose Party
    with TR as candidate
  • tariff reduction, women's suffrage, more
    regulation of business, a child labor ban, an
    eight-hour workday, a federal workers'
    compensation system, and the direct election of
  • Democrats Woodrow Wilson and New Freedom
    policy- promised to enforce antitrust laws
    without threatening economic competition
  • Wilson won because Republican vote was split

Wilsons Presidency
  • Underwood Tariff Act of 1913 reduced average
    tariff rates from 40 percent to 25 percent
  • October 1913 Wilson signed into law a federal
    income tax, made legal with ratification of the
    Sixteenth Amendment (to make up for loss in

Trust Busting
  • Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) spelled out
    specific activities that big businesses could not
  • Companies could not prevent their buyers from
    purchasing goods from competitors
  • Some types of holding companies used to create
    monopolies were banned
  • Price cutting in local markets to squeeze out
    competitors was forbidden, as were some rebates.
  • Legalized unions as well as their key weapons
    strikes, peaceful picketing, and boycotts

Federal Trade Commission
  • Created in 1914
  • To enforce the Clayton Act and set up fair-trade
  • Given the power to order firms to cease and
    desist the practice of business tactics found to
    be unfair
  • Later court rulings weakened the Clayton Act

Federal Reserve Act of 1913
  • Created the Federal Reserve System
  • Divided the country into 12 districts, each with
    a Federal Reserve bank owned by its member banks
  • Supervised by a Federal Reserve Board appointed
    by the President
  • Fed. Reserve banks were bankers banks that
    collected and loaned money to member banks
    (helpful in times of crisis)
  • Created Federal Reserve Notes (new currency)
  • Federal Farm Loan Board in 1916 that made loans
    available to farmers

Brandeis Appointed to the Supreme Court
  • 1916 in middle of many reforms Wilson made to
    attract progressive voters
  • Controversial because some thought he was too
    radical, others didnt like him because he was
  • Appointed and served until 1939
  • Marked the peak of federal progressive reforms

Wilsons Re-Elected
  • TR didnt run again
  • Progressives supported Wilson
  • Wilson was re-elected in 1916 running on a slogan
    of keeping the US out of WWI which had broken out
    in Europe in 1914

Limits of Progressivism
  • Redefined and enlarged the role of gov
  • Little action to make social justice reforms
  • Immigrant issues, race and segregation issues,
    even womens rights (although women gained the
    right to vote under Wilson)
  • Progressivism died down with concern over WWI
  • Womens right to vote was only issue that still
    lived on

18.4 Suffrage at Last
  • Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    important women in suffrage movement (split in
  • National Woman Suffrage Association worked toward
    a constitutional amendment
  • American Woman Suffrage Association worked toward
    state level suffrage
  • Wyoming (1890) was 1st state to grant womens
  • Easier to attain in west because women worked
    just as hard as men and were treated more as

Suffragist Strategies
  • Constitutional amendment
  • More difficult
  • Brought up regularly but stalled, until 1913
  • Convince each state to grant women the right to
  • Easier at first, especially in the west

National American Woman Suffrage Association
(NAWSA) - 1890
  • Anthony served as president from 1892-1900
  • By this time women had gained many rights and
    were demanding right to vote
  • Stanton died (1902) and Anthony died (1906)
  • New leaders emerged
  • Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul

Congressional Union (CU)
  • Created by Paul
  • Tended to be more forceful in its demonstrations
  • Aggressive, militant campaign for the
    constitutional amendment
  • CU expelled from NAWSA in 1914 because so

Catts Winning Plan
  • Develop a large group of full-time leaders to
    work in red-hot campaigns for six years
  • Focus on getting Congress to re-introduce the
    federal suffrage amendment

WWIs Effect on Suffrage
  • 1918 US involved in WWI
  • Women stepped into many traditionally mens roles
    to help out
  • 18th Amendment (prohibition) ended liquor
    industrys objections to womens suffrage
  • In August of 1920 the 19th Amendment allowing
    womens suffrage was ratified
  • Last major reform of Progressive era