CASP Presidential Address March 6, 2003 Los Angeles, California - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CASP Presidential Address March 6, 2003 Los Angeles, California


CASP Presidential Address March 6, 2003 Los Angeles, California Brent B. Duncan, Ph.D., NCSP Humboldt State University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CASP Presidential Address March 6, 2003 Los Angeles, California

CASP Presidential AddressMarch 6, 2003Los
Angeles, California
  • Brent B. Duncan, Ph.D., NCSP
  • Humboldt State University

CASP Presidential Address
  1. CASP Today
  2. The Political Context
  3. A Psychological Context

CASP Today - Mission Statement
  • "Our mission is to provide high quality
    educational and leadership programs, which
    establish standards of practice for school
    psychologists through legislative advocacy,
    professional development, communications,
    publications, ethics guidelines, and direct
    services to members, resulting in the growth and
    development of the profession, and successful
    outcomes for the children, schools and
    communities we serve."

CASP Today
  1. Service Services
  2. People
  3. Leadership (Relationships)

CASP is Member Service
  • Expertise - Practitioners and Trainers
  • Crisis prevention and intervention
  • Consultation
  • Grade Retention
  • Behavior Analysis and Intervention
  • Publications
  • CASP Today
  • California School Psychologist
  • Certification
  • CATS Functional Analysis
  • CATS School Crisis Response

CASP is Highly Qualified and Incredibly
Dedicated People
  • Suzanne Fisher, CASP Staff (Heidi Holmblad)
  • Betty Connolly
  • Mike Furlong
  • Shane Jimerson
  • Diane DiBari
  • Rose DuMond
  • Lee Huff
  • Rich Lieberman and Steve Brock
  • Jim Russell and Chris Kahn
  • (P.S. Come to Tomorrows Awards Luncheon to meet
    the Best in School Psychology and Celebrate your

CASP is Leadership and Advocacy (Relationships)
  • Strong relationships with CDE, legislators, and
  • Pupil Services Coalition
  • Board Position Regarding IDEA Reauthorization
  • Redesigned Webpage - Access to Information and
  • Day to Day Support for members by CASP Staff and
  • IDEA Summit

IDEA Summit Member Organizations California
Association of School Psychologists
Association of California School
Administrators SELPA
  • Association of Educational Therapists
  • California Advisory Commission on Special
  • California Association of Licensed Educational
  • California Association of Private Special
    Education Schools
  • California Association of Resource Specialists
  • California Association of School Counselors
  • California County Superintendents
  • Education Services Association
  • California Department of Education- Special
    Education Division
  • California Association of Professors of Special
  • California School Boards Association
  • California School Nurses Organization
  • California Special Education Hearing Office
  • California Speech-Language-Hearing Association
  • California State University, Sacramento
  • California Teachers Association
  • Commission on Teacher Credentialing
  • Council for Exceptional Children
  • Developmental Disabilities Area Boards - State
  • Family Empowerment Centers
  • Family Resource Centers
  • Learning Disabilities Association - California
  • Parent Resource Centers
  • Parent Teachers Association
  • Protection and Advocacy, Inc
  • Special Education Administrators of County

The Political and Ecological Context of Schooling
in 2003
  1. Fiscal Climate
  2. ESEA (NCLB)
  3. IDEA Reauthorization

Its the Perfect StormC. Kahn, Fall 2001
"The Perfect Storm" Conditions at the Time of the
  • Energy Crisis
  • Economy
  • Election

The Perfect Storm October 1991
Political Context 1 Elementary and Secondary
Education Act of 2001
  • a healthy start
  • a head start
  • a fair start
  • a safe start
  • a moral start
  • in life, and successful passage to adulthood
    with the help of families and caring communities.

Leave no child behind? is not a one time speech
or a winsome song, but a lifelong struggle to
save child lives (Marion Wright Edelman, 2003)
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2001
ESEA (2001) Promises
  • Stronger Accountability for Results
  • Record Flexibility for States and Communities
  • Concentrating Resources on Proven Education
  • More Choices for Parents

ESEA (2001) Has the Potential to Deliver
  • High-Stakes Testing - One Accountability System,
    (AYP) Designed by the Federal Government
  • Flexibility - To move money between categorical
  • Curriculum decisions made by the Federal
    Government (What Works Clearinghouse)
  • Parental Choice - To move their children out of
    failing schools (Non AYP Compliant Schools)

  • Under No Child Left Behind, the federal
    government will only invest in educational
    practices that work-that research evidence has
    shown to be effective in improving student
  • What Works does leave some things out. It simply
    tells part of the story - maybe the most
    important part.
  • William J. Bennett (1987)

(No Transcript)
Competitive State GrantsPaige Announces 17
Million in Grants to Help States Develop
Assessments under NCLB (2/12/03)
  • Colorado 1.7 Improve alternative assessments for
    students with complex disabilities
  • Minnesota 2.0 New tools to measure progress of
    ELL's using technology
  • Nevada 2.2 Annual growth of English language
    development in speaking, listening, reading and
  • Oklahoma 1.4 Alignment of ELL assessments with
    content standards

Paige Announces 17 Million in Grants to Help
  • Pennsylvania 1.8 Assess ELLs by analyzing state
    standards, establishing content benchmarks and
    developing standards-based assessments drawn from
    scientific research
  • Rhode Island 1.8 Impact of computer-based
    testing accommodations
  • South Carolina 1.7 Information about ELLs'
    academic knowledge and skills accommodations
  • Utah  1.8 Assessments of English language
    proficiency at four levels (K-3 4-6 7-9 10-12)
  • Wisconsin 2.3 Measure ELLs' performance and
    progress in English proficiency and literacy
    skills based on state standards

Political Context 2 IDEACommission on
Excellence in Special Education
  • Summary lists
  • 9 major findings
  • 3 major recommendations
  • Report contains
  • 7 sections
  • 32 additional findings
  • 33 general recommendations
  • Numerous additional (specific) recommendations

Complementary context for Reauthorization
  • No Child Left Behind Act (accountability with
  • Emerging consensus on shift from processes to
    results ( focused monitoring)
  • Promising research on early intervention (WH
  • Shift in assessment and instruction practices
    (NRC Report, LD Summit, etc.)

The Commissions strategies
  • Examined special education broadly (not just
  • Held 13 public hearings
  • Obtained expert testimony and public input (100
  • Received and analyzed white papers and external
  • Drafted and approved a report to the President by

Major recommendations
  • Major recommendation 1
  • Focus on results not on process.
  • Major recommendation 2
  • Embrace a model of prevention, not a model of
  • Major recommendation 3
  • Consider children with disabilities as general
    education children first. 

In summary Commission themes
  • Increase accountability
  • Emphasize results
  • Provide flexibility
  • Empower parents and their choices

  • Stronger Accountability for Results
  • Record Flexibility
  • Concentrating Resources on Proven Methods
  • More Choices for Parents
  • Increase accountability
  • Emphasize results
  • Provide flexibility
  • Empower parents and their choices

Myths about the Commission
  • The Report was written before the Commission
  • Commissioners have their minds made up.
  • This is a hatchet job on special education.
  • Everything in Florida is going national.

Really big myth
  • The Commission did NOT endorse full funding of
    the federal share of special education costs.

California IDEA Summit Statement on Funding
  • There are those who believe that additional
    funding for IDEA should be put on hold until
    policy reforms can be put in place to address
    shortfalls in the delivery of special education
    services. That argument is extremely troubling
    for local educators, service providers and
    parents. Federal special education requirements
    are some of the largest un-funded mandates of
    federal education statutesThe shortfall in
    special education funding impacts the quality of
    services for both special and regular education

A specific recommendation
  • The Commission recommends that the U.S.
    Secretary of Education ensure all federal
    requirements for accountability be integrated
    into a unified system of accountability
    throughout the Department. (p. 16)

Poor outcomes
  • Parents want an education system that is results
    oriented and focused on the childs needs in
    school and beyond.

Exiting with a regular diploma
  • Ages 14 - 21

Note There are no currently uniform standards
guiding standards for diplomas for students with
disabilities. Considerable differences exist
across states.
Toward a Psychology of Helpfulness
Whenever possible, we should try to be helpful
  • Although school psychologists
  • usually want to be helpful,
  • our interventions sometimes
  • do more harm than good
  • (Iatrogenic harm)
  • (Caplan Caplan, 2001)

Whenever possible, we should try to be helpful
  • Not all psychological theories are useful or
    helpful for developing interventions
  • Whenever possible, do no harm, and attend to
    possible iatrogenic effects of your work

In order to be helpful, one needs...
  • A genuine and committed desire to be helpful
  • A theoretical perspective (Good intentions,
    though essential, are not enough)
  • Knowledge of development and developmental
    psychopathology appropriate to support the design
    and implementation of interventions
  • An understanding of how the social system in
    which you are working operates

Obstacles to a Psychology of Helpfulness
  • Categorical Thinking
  • Designing Interventions based on a Between
    Subjects Design
  • Legalistic Thinking
  • Doing Whats Right Instead of Doing the Right

Obstacle 1Categorical Thinking
  • If we are primarily concerned with labeling,
    naming, diagnosing, or deciding whether a
    particular behavior or problem fits within a
    category, our chances of being truly helpful is
  • Also known as Abnormal psychology,
    between-subjects design, traditional scientific
    or medical model

Whats in a name?
  • Whats the use of their having names, the Gnat
    said, if they won t answer to them?
  • No use to them, said Alice, but it is useful
    to people who name them I suppose. If not, why
    do things have names at all? Lewis Carrol,
    Through The Looking-Glass as quoted on page 15
    in Adelman Taylor, 1994.

What is Wrong with Categorical Thinking?
  • In psychology, the categories often lack
    sufficient specificity to design interventions
  • When applied to understanding an individuals
    behavior, using group data (categorical) fails to
    take into account significant variation within a
    category (e.g. within versus between group

Examples of Troubled or Troubling Categories in
School Psychology
  • Emotional Disturbance (under IDEA)
  • Social Maladjustment exclusion
  • (or BD Vs. ED)
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Severe discrepancy between ability achievement
  • ADHD

  • Under No Child Left Behind, the federal
    government will invest in educational practices
    that work-that research evidence has shown to be
    effective in improving student performance
  • If What Works is defined as what works for a
    statistically significant number of children, it
    will still NOT WORK for all children
  • What happens then? Blame the Patient
  • (State, School, Teacher, Child, Parent)

To be helpful
  • Approach your task as an attempt to understand
    this child, in this family, in this classroom,
    with this unique set of developmental strengths
    and challenges
  • Pay attention to risk and protective factors,
    risk and protective processes, and pathways in
  • Appreciate the importance of
  • Co-morbidity
  • Resilience

Learning Disability Roundtable http//
In keeping with the first federal special
education legislation in 1975, the tenets of this
approach are not grounded solely in research.
They also emanate from the ideals of the society
in which policy changes are advocated. The
willingness to challenge the status quo in the
face of this daunting reality demands not only
cooperation and trust among stakeholders but also
a commitment to using both clinical judgment and
data in decision making about models for
identification, eligibility, and intervention.
Obstacle 2Legalistic Thinking
  • If we are primarily concerned with following the
    legally prescribed mandates or rules that have
    been established, our chances of being truly
    helpful is diminished
  • Also known as Confidentiality, timelines, state
    prescribed eligibility guidelines and definitions
    for handicapping conditions. Sheer mass of
    regulatory requirements


The dangers of legalistic thinking...
  • What may be legally correct may be wrong
    (useless/unhelpful) in every other regard
  • Confidentiality belongs to the client, not the
    agency (Dont use confidentiality as a way to
    assert power in a relationship with another
  • As psychologists, we are responsible for the
    psychological truth and integrity of our work

An attitude of helpfulness as an antidote to
legalistic thinking
  • Try to achieve a balance between the legal
    mandates and the desire to be helpful
  • Whenever possible, ask whether your legally
    prescribed course of action is really
  • 1. Helpful, and
  • 2. Necessary

Consultee-Centered Consultation Improving
Professional Services in Schools and Community
Organizations (August 2003)
  • Nadine M. Lambert (ed.), Jonathan H. Sandoval
    (ed.), and Ingrid Hylander (ed.)
  • Primary Subject Special Education
  • A Volume in the Consultation and Intervention in
    School Psychology Series
  • Six Chapters by CASP School Psychologists Nadine
    Lambert, Jonathon Sandoval, Margaret Garcia,
    Colette Ingraham, Brent Duncan
  • Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, August 2003

Process Consultation
  • Consultee-centered or Process Consultation is a
    theory and a methodology for being genuinely
  • Process consultation is concerned with the
    psychological and social processes that are
    involved when one person tries to help another
    person. Schein, E.H., p. 3 (1999).

Process or Consultee-Centered Consultation as
Distinguished from Expert Consultation
  • Being helpful is not equivalent to having all the
    answers. When someone needs help, a difficult
    dynamic is set up between the helper and the
    client because the helper is automatically
    invited to adopt an expert role. (Schein, 1999,
    p. xii).

To help others
  • you have to know what they need, and the only way
    to find out what they need is for them to tell
    you. And they wont tell you unless they think
    you will listen...carefully. And the way to
    convince them that you will listen carefully is
    to listen carefully. (David Nyberg, as quoted
    on page 123 in Adelman Taylor, 1994.)

Ten Principles of Process Consultation Modified
slightly from Schein, E.H. (1999)
  1. Always, always, always try to be helpful
  2. Always stay in touch with the current reality
  3. Access your ignorance and your bias
  4. Everything you do is an intervention
  5. It is the (client/consultee/helpee) who owns the
    problem and the solution
  6. Go with the flow

Ten Principles of Process Consultation Modified
slightly from Schein, E.H. (1999)
  1. Timing is crucial - take advantage of openings
    when they are presented
  2. Be positively, constructively and cautiously
    opportunistic with confrontive interventions
  3. Everything is a source of data errors are
    inevitable - learn from them
  4. When in doubt share the problem

For whose children are we preparing school
  • Public Education is the only institution with the
    mandate and the ability to affect all children
  • School professionals, including school
    psychologists, must be Highly Qualified, well
    trained, well paid, and continually renewed
  • Leave no child behind doesnt mean just your
    child or mine, a few, some, or most children.
    (Marion Wright Edelman, 2003)

As school psychologists, perhaps the goal of of
our work is not to assure that no child is left
behindIn fact, According to the Education Code
of the State of California, Each child is a
unique person, with unique needs, and the purpose
of the education system of this state is to
enable each child to develop all of his or her
own potential. CA ED Code Section 33080 -
Purpose of the educational system
Our job is to make certain that this child - with
her own set of individual strengths and
vulnerabilities, with her own family, and her
own culture is not left behind.
These are all our children. School Psychologists
have a critical role to play in their success
  • Adelman, H. S. Taylor, L. (1994) On
    understanding intervention in psychology and
    education. Westport, CT Praeger.
  • Caplan, G., Caplan, R.B. (2001). Helping the
    Helpers not to Harm. Philadelphia, PA
    Bruner-Routledge, Publishers.
  • Lambert, N. M., Sandoval, J. H., Hylander, I.
    (2003) Consultee-Centered Consultation Improving
    Professional Services in Schools and Community
    Organizations. Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaun
    Associates, Inc.
  • Schein, E. H. (1999). Process Consultation
    Revisited Building the Helping Relationship.
    Reading, MA Addison-Wesley.
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