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Chapter 18 Ocean Motion Chapter 19 Oceanography

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Submarine Canyon Seafloor Features Seafloor Features Sonar _Sonar__ An acronym for sound navigation and ranging, an instrument used to locate objects under ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 18 Ocean Motion Chapter 19 Oceanography


1
Chapter 18 Ocean Motion Chapter 19 Oceanography
  • Chapter 18.3 and 19.1 Notes Guide

2
Waves
  • A __wave___ is a rhythmic movement that carries
    energy through matter in space.
  • In the ocean, waves move through _seawater__.
    Waves look like __hills__ and valleys.
  • Waves are created by friction from ___wind_____.

3
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4
Waves Continued
  • The __crest_____ is the high point of a wave.
  • The __trough___ is the low point of a wave.
  • Wavelength is the horizontal distance between the
    crests or between the troughs of two waves.
  • Wave height is the vertical distance between
    crest and trough.
  • Half the distance of the wave height is called
    the amplitude of a wave.

5
Wave Movement
  • As a wave passes, only _energy_ moves forward,
    while the water molecules move around in
    _circles__ and stay near their original position.
  • Waves break as they approach the shore, and drag
    along the bottom, causing them to eventually
    collapse.

6
Waves move in circles!!
7
Wave Breaking
8
Formation of Waves
  • When wind blows across a body of water, wind
    __energy__ is transferred to the water. If the
    wind speed is great enough, the water begins to
    pile up and a __wave__ is formed.

9
Tides
  • The rise and fall in sea level is called a
    _tide___. A tide is giant __wave___ produced by
    the _gravitational___ pull of the _Earth__ and
    the __Sun__.
  • A tide is a form of wave, but it is _thousands__
    of meters long.
  • As the crest of the wave approaches shore, sea
    level appears to _rise__. This is _high_ _tide__.

10
Tides
  • As the trough of the wave approaches shore, sea
    level appears to _drop. This is called __low__
    __tide___.
  • The _tidal__ _range_ is the difference between
    the level of ocean at high and low tide.

11
Gravitational Pull
  • The ___moon______, not the __sun______ has most
    effect on the tides.
  • However, the sun can __increase_____ or
    ___decrease____ the moons effects of tides.
  • When the sun, earth and moon are lined up
    together, the combined pull causes ___spring ____
    __tide_______. During spring tides, the high
    tides are __higher_______ and the low tides are
    __lower____ than normal.
  • When the sun, earth and moon form a right angle,
    ___neap_____ _tides_____ occur. During neap
    tides, high tides are __low_____ and low tides
    are _high_______ than normal

12
Spring Tide
13
Spring Tide
14
Neap Tide
15
Neap Tide
16
Ocean Topography
17
Map of Ocean Topography
Continental Shelf
Abyssal Plain
Continental Slope
18
The Ocean Basins
  • __Ocean_______ basins which are low areas of the
    Earth have many features.
  • -The ____continental__shelf____ is the gradually
    sloping end of a continent that extends under the
    ocean.
  • -The ____ continental __slope_______ extends from
    the outer edge of a continent shelf down to the
    ocean floor.
  • -The ____ continental __ _rise_____ is an area of
    sediment directly after the continental slope.
  • -The __abyssal___ __plain___ is the flat ocean
    floor that are 4,000 to 6,000 m below the surface
    of the ocean.

19
The Continental Margin
20
The Ocean Basins
  • -A _mid___-_ocean___ ridge is an area in the
    ocean basin where new ocean floor is formed.
  • -A _trench__ is the deepest part of the ocean
    floor, and is defined as a long, narrow, steep
    sided, depression where one crustal plate sinks
    beneath each other.
  • -A __hydrothermal vent_ is also called a black
    smoker and are commonly found near mid-ocean
    ridges or hot spots.
  • - A _seamount__ is a undersea volcano that no
    longer erupts.
  • - A _guyot__ is a flap topped seamount.
  • -A _submarine canyon_ is a deeply incised,
    steep-walled, commonly V-shaped in profile that
    is cut into the rocks and sediments of the outer
    continental shelf and slope.

21
Submarine Canyon
22
Seafloor Features
23
Seafloor Features
24
Sonar
  • _Sonar__ An acronym for sound navigation and
    ranging, an instrument used to locate objects
    under water by reflecting sound waves.
  • Mapping by sonar from ships.
  • Mapping By sonar from satellites

25
Sonar
26
How Sonar is Used!
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