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DEATH AND DYING

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DEATH AND DYING Biological Psychological Social Developmental – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DEATH AND DYING


1
DEATH AND DYING
  • Biological
  • Psychological
  • Social
  • Developmental

2
What Causes Aging? What Causes Death?
3
What Causes Aging?
  • 1. Programmed theories
  • Genes
  • 2. Damage theories
  • Wear and tear

4
What Causes Aging?
  • PROGRAMMED Theories
  • genetic
  • pre-programmed
  • inevitable
  • universal

5
What Causes Death?
  • 1. Programmed theories of aging
  • genes turn on off
  • premature aging
  • endocrine or immune systems directs program

6
Maximum life span
  • Maximum number of years any member of a species
    has lived
  • 110 to 120 years (for humans)

7
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8
What Causes Aging?
  • DAMAGE theories of aging
  • wear tear
  • disease
  • disuse

9
What Causes Death (cont)?
  • 2. Damage theories
  • Repair lags behind damage
  • As you age--
  • damage more easily
  • repair more slowly
  • Evidence
  • Physical diet, exercise, substance abuse
  • Psychological stress, activity, outlook

10
DEATH AND DYING
  • Life expectancy average number of years a
    newborn can be expected to live
  • 76.5 years (US Census Bureau, 2000)

11
Society and Death
  • Historical changes in death
  • 1900-average life expectancy 49 yrs. half of
    children died, two wives

12
DEATH AND DYING
  • Caucasian African-American
  • Males 74.9 68
  • Females 79.9 75
  • (US Census Bureau, 2000)

13
Factors which affect life expectancy
  • nutrition
  • medical care
  • poverty
  • sanitation
  • child birth procedures
  • public health

14
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15
What Causes Aging? What Causes Death?
  • Aging and Death are processes.
  • Genetics
  • Environment
  • Own activity
  • Biological, psychological, social
  • INTERACTIONS over TIME

16
Process of Dying Process of Bereavement
17
Cultural Differences in the Process of Dying
  • Meaning of death
  • Process of dying
  • where?
  • with whom?
  • how?

18
PROCESS OF DYING
  • Aging Death future past
  • Shift to years left
  • Reminisce- satisfied with life
  • Fear decreases as grow older
  • Elderly comfort in loved ones achievements

19
PROCESS OF DYING (cont.)
  • The Experience of Dying
  • 1. Denial and isolation
  • 2. Anger
  • 3. Bargaining
  • 4. Depression
  • 5. Acceptance

20
PROCESS OF DYING (cont.)
  • Critique and Alternatives
  • 1. Not stages
  • 2. Depends on illness process
  • 3. Individual and social influences

21
Cultural Differences in BEREAVEMENT
  • 1. Expressions of grief
  • 2. Duration of mourning
  • 3. Continuing relationship with the dead

22
Bereavement
  • Experience of grieving
  • 1. Shock numbness
  • 2. Yearning
  • 3. Depression
  • 4. Reorganization (yearly cycle)

23
Bereavement
  • CHALLENGES to the
  • GRIEF WORK Perspective
  • 1. Confront loss
  • 2. Deal with emotion
  • 3. Detach from person

24
BEREAVEMENT (cont.)
  • Critique and Alternatives
  • 1. Not stages
  • 2. Depends on loss process
  • 3. Individual and social influences

25
BEREAVEMENT (cont.)
  • Depends on Loss Process
  • 1. Relationship
  • Parent, spouse, child, friend
  • Closeness, dependency
  • 2. Cause of death
  • On time vs. off-time
  • Preventable, meaningful
  • 3. Supports and stressors

26
Social Support
  • Helping People who are Dying or Grieving
  • 1. Not easy
  • 2. Remain engaged
  • 3. Respect individuality
  • 4. Take some of the load
  • 5. Patience
  • Hospice care or Professional help

27
Children Dying and Bereavement
  • Experiences shaped by
  • 1. Developmental level and tasks.
  • 2. Conception of death.
  • 3. Cultural context.
  • 4. Specific experiences.
  • Parental and social support.

28
PRESCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN
  • 1. Aware of dying.
  • 2. Show distress indirectly.
  • 3. Few coping strategies (escape).
  • 4. Developmental tasks/ issues
  • Attachment/ Abandonment.
  • Self-regulation/ Opposition.

29
SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN
  • 1. Can talk about it more directly.
  • 2. Express distress more directly.
  • 3. Pragmatic coping strategies.
  • 4. Developmental Tasks/ Issues
  • Peer relationships/ Rejection.
  • Social comparison/ Competencies.

30
ADOLESCENT CHILDREN
  • 1. Understand all the implications.
  • 2. Distress over lost possibilities.
  • 3. Many coping strategies.
  • 4. Developmental tasks/ issues
  • Body image/ Appearance.
  • Identity/ Future lost.
  • Autonomy/ Dependence on parents.

31
Children and Bereavement
  • Understanding of death is consistent with
    cognitive level.

32
MATURE CONCEPTION
  • DEATH IS
  • Final
  • Irreversible
  • Universal
  • Caused by internal processes

33
INFANTS
  • No concept of death.
  • Temporary grief from separation.
  • Long-term effects depend on replacement.

34
PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
  • Full-blown attachment
  • Few coping strategies
  • Biggest negative long-term effects

35
PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
  • Conception of Death
  • Dead retain life functions
  • Death is reversible

36
SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN
  • Conception of Death
  • Cessation of life
  • Irreversible
  • Universal
  • Not understand causality of death

37
ADOLESCENCE
  • Mature conception of death

38
LAST NAME, first name
  • 1. According to theories of PROGRAMMED aging,
    what causes aging and death?
  • 2. According to DAMAGE theories of aging, what
    causes aging and death?
  • 3. Name 3 factors that influence how children
    experience dying and bereavement.

39
END
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