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Medieval Europe aka Middle Ages


Medieval Europe aka Middle Ages 500-1250 CE Hundred Years War 1328- the French king died- he had no heirs so England and France battled for his throne- France won ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval Europe aka Middle Ages

Medieval Europeaka Middle Ages
  • 500-1250 CE

Geography of Europe
  • Smallest continent on its own- BUT combined with
    Asia- known as Eurasia- creates worlds largest
  • Shaped like a big peninsula, has many peninsulas
    and islands
  • Surrounded by Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea,
    North Sea and Baltic Sea

  • Scandinavia has fjords narrow inlets
  • CLIMATE- temperate- but there are extreme temps
    along Asia border and Alps
  • Many mines have helped sustain Europes economy
    over time coal, iron, oil, bauxite, copper, lead
    ,zinc, gold and silver

  • 2000 years ago Europe was heavily forested
  • Deforested the area and set up farms
  • N. European Plain- most fertile area
  • Fishing very important (close to so many seas)
  • Rivers very useful to get around Europe

THE Middle Ages
  • Also Known As Medieval ( Latin for Middle)
    because in the middle of ancient and modern
    times- or Dark Ages- b/c light of civ had gone
  • End of Western Roman Empire ( 500 AD)
  • Trade declined BUT ownership of landwealth and

Christianity spreads
  • The Pope helped to spread it by sending
    missionaries to teach about Christianity
  • Britain was one of the first places converted
  • Not all were missionaries from the pope- 400s AD
    (Saint) Patrick went on his own- people claim he
    drove all the snakes out of Ireland- named a
    saint b/c of this

Religious communities
  • monasteries- (men) monks
  • Convents- (women) nuns devote their LIVES to
  • Benedict 500s wrote first code (rules) for
    monks- Benedictine Rule
  • Abbot head monk
  • Monksgt pray for most of the day

    Study (copied books by hand)
  • Make wine , crafts , Medicines

  • 480s Clovis converted Gaul to Christianity
  • 700s Charlemagne ruled Gaul
  • Had conquered France, Italy, Germany
  • Was Christian and as he conquered spread
  • 800s Pope Leo III crowned him Emperor of Rome(
    whoop de do!) after he conquered it

  • New capital NOT Rome- Aachen (Germany)
  • P.S. Literacy was not encouraged during MA in
    Europe- BUT Charles knew differently and had his
    court filled with books, scholars, poets, and

  • Charlemagnes rule
    ended in early 800s
  • Norsemen (Vikings) invaded from the NORTH into
  • Scandinavia looking for land and riches
  • 900s Norsemen settled around Seine R. Became
    known as NORMANS called area NORMANDY adopted
    Christianity and French language.
  • 1066 Normans invaded England- leader was
    William the Conqueror
  • 1199 King John I ruler of England made lords
    pay for wars, could imprison without a trial

  • A new form of governing and organization
  • Definition- a society based on land ownership AND
  • Manor-large estate owned by wealthy nobles

  • Lord- owned the manor/could also be king of his
  • Bishop- religious person- also could be a lord
  • Lady-lords wife was in charge of castle
  • Vassal- took an oath to serve the lord
  • did not own land
  • Lord gave each V a fief ( separate manor- he
    did not own it but he managed it)
  • Most important job was to serve as lords knight

  • Knight- warrior on horseback
  • Different Stages
  • Page (7)-left home (son of a noble)
  • Lived with a knight
  • Learned ettiquite
  • Cared for horses
  • Squire (15-20)
  • Rode into battle with a knight
  • Blessed by a preist
  • Given a sword and a belt
  • Knight- protected lord and manor
  • Must have 3 horses, armor, and a squire
  • Got extra by jousting!

  • Craftworkers- free people
  • Made/built saddles, shoes, etc.
  • Family owned business
  • Father was expert/master
  • Levels
  • Age 14- apprentice- live with a master
  • 17-28 journeyman- could join a guild
  • Master- makes a master piece to show capability
  • GUILD- groups of workers, set prices and rules
    about quality

  • Serfs
  • Given land to farm
  • Had to work lords land too
  • Pay rent/taxes
  • Ask permission on lord to get married
  • One room house with people and animals
  • Usually died young
  • Church bells signaled breaks in day

Women in the MA
  • Women had fewer rights
  • But had important roles- supported their families
  • Governed manor households
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine -c.1200 AD- ran an area in
    S. France as a vassal, because queen of France,
    married Louis VII, divorced him became Queen of
    England by marrying King Henry II, had many kids-
    2 sons became Kings of England

The power
  • By the middle/late Middle Ages power fell into
    the hands of the spiritual leader (Pope) and
    political leader (king).
  • Pope seen as Gods rep. on Earth- got power from
    God and people
  • If people disagreed with the Pope he would
  • King usually had power/things/land from family

  • In the mid 900s AD- pope gave the emperor ( of
    Charlemagnes empire) approval to rule- now
    called Holy Roman Empire ( pope lives in Rome)
  • Did not inherit crown-were elected by nobles-
    which led to fights and trickery!

The Pope steps in
  • Pope Leo IX believed all religious officials
    should answer to the Pope b/c everyone did answer
    to the first pope ( St. Peter) then all should
    answer to every Pope
  • 1054 AD Constantinople's bishop refused to do
    this so Leo excommunicated him thus began the
    Eastern Orthodox Church
  • 1073 Pope Gregory VII vs. Emperor Henry IV

Breaking up is hard to do!
  • 1054 Christian church split
  • Constantines church Eastern Orthodox Rome
    Roman Catholic

  • A Long series of wars between Christians and
    Muslims in SW Asia over control of Palestine
  • Holy Land to both
  • Turkish Muslims were attacking any Christians who
    visited Jesus town
  • Turks raided the Byz. Empire- so the Emp asked
    the Pope for help!

  • 1045 Pope Urban II called for a Christian
    Pilgrimage (1st Crusade) to Jerusalem to capture
    it back from Muslim Turks
  • 1291- last crusade
  • Crusade- Latin for marked with a cross

  • 1st Crusade 1096- 5000 Crusaders left Europe for
    the HL- the peasant crusaders (pc) attacked Jews
    in Germany- blamed them for Jesus death- most of
    the pcs were killed before they reached
  • Nobles reached J and took it over- set up 4 small
    towns and traded with Europe
  • BUT.. Within 50 years Muslims began taking land
    back thus the second Crusuade

2 and 3
  • 1147- French and Germans set out to retake the
    Holy Land again
  • Poor planning and heavy troop loss led to a

  • 1189- Muslims had recaptured all of the HL- The
    French, German, English, and HRE led armies in-
    But the German king died, French King and HRE
    left- so that left King Richard I( the
    Lionhearted) to battle with Saladin ( Muslim
  • Both were respected but overall, Saladin kept
    Jerusalem for the Muslims

  • 1201- French Knights set out this time- from
    Venice- and in order to pay for the trip they had
    to capture Zara for the HRE
  • Instead of going to Jerusalem- they got
    sidetracked and ransacked Constantinople (
    another Christian city) and never made it to

Many more and then finally
  • By 1291 the Muslims had recaptured ALL of the
    holy land and the Crusades were DONE (
    unsuccessful for Christians)
  • Why, you may ask?
  • Had to travel far from home on FOOT- many died
  • Werent prepared to battle in the desert
  • Outnumbered by well prepared and well led armies
  • Christians fought amongst themselves and were

  • Crusades
  • helped kings to become more powerful
  • Created more tensions between Jews, Christians
    and Muslims
  • increased trade
  • increased towns
  • increased disease..

  • Many wanted to visit religious places- so went on
    pilgrimages to do so- traveled to Holy and
    religious sites around Europe and Asia
  • Some believed in the church so much that when
    they dies- they left land to the church- which
    was divided into fiefs- and the church became a
    lord- humor anyone????

Being religious
  • Monks of Cluny- French Monks- unhappy with Church
    affairs- became a religious order and devoted
    lives to nothing but God
  • Dominicans and Franciscan friars lived in cities
    and spread Christian teachings- St. Francis of
    Assisi ( most famous one)

  • As towns grew- eventually desire for education
    did as well-
  • 1st university in Bologna, Italy also had them in
    Paris (Sorbonne) and England
  • Thomas Aquinas- reasoned that rational thought
    could be used to argue Christian beliefs ( eg.
    existence of God )
  • Also Natural Law- God had created a law about how
    the world operated

  • Had traveling musicians called troubadours or
    minstrels- and would sing and dance and make fun
    of people
  • showed devotion to God by
  • (during M.Ages) 1. Built huge churches called
    Cathedrals (ex. Notre Dame)
  • 2. going on pilgrimages to Rome or

  • 1215 Kings / Lords irritated with King Johns
    ideas limited his power with a legal document
    called Magna Carta at first only pertained to
    nobles but then to all
  • habeas corpus- you have the body- meaning you
    had to have just cause to arrest someone, etc.
  • Created a Parliament- law making body that still
    governs England today!

Hundred Years War
  • 1328- the French king died- he had no heirs so
    England and France battled for his throne- France
    won- but England did not relent- thus began the
  • For 100 years the English fought well- then Joan
    of Arc ( French GIRL) rallied the French to stand
    against them- the English killed her- but the
    French succeeded!

  • England
  • Parliament's power grew
  • King now needed permission
  • King lost power
  • France
  • Kings power grew
  • Nobles supported their king!

  • -Christianity in M.Ages-
  • (Many were Christian but there were also
    Muslims and Jews)
  • Christian belief grew so strong M.Ages became
    know as
  • Age of

  • 1348- Black Plague starts in Sienna, Italy
  • Infected fleas traveled on infected rats on ships
  • Spread disease- wiped out 1/3 of Europes entire
  • Spread as far as Africa and Baghdad
  • Black Flags were flown to warn visitors of plague
    in the town
  • Lasted for 130 years