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The American Civil War Chapters 16

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Title: The American Civil War Chapters 16 & 17 Author: nmorrison Last modified by: Northwest ISD Created Date: 3/22/2009 4:48:11 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The American Civil War Chapters 16


1
The American Civil WarChapters 16 17
  • 1861-1865

2
What do you think?
  • What social, political, and economic trouble
    might be likely to occur in a civil war?
  • What might happen when a civil war breaks out?
  • How might a civil war be worse than other wars?
  • How was the Souths situation in the Civil War
    similar to the Patriots situation in the
    Revolutionary War?

3
Major Players The North
BLUE
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • Supreme Military Commander of the Union Army
  • United States General during the Civil War
  • Accepted the surrender of Robert E. Lee at
    Appomattox Courthouse in April 1865.

4
Major Players The North
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • From Illinois and was a member of the Republican
    Party
  • President of the United States during the Civil
    War
  • Famous speeches included his First and Second
    Inaugural Addresses and the Gettysburg Address.
  • Issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
    freeing all slaves in areas then in rebellion.
  • Through his leadership the Union was preserved
    and slavery was abolished after his assassination
    in 1865.

5
Major Players The South
  • Jefferson Davis
  • From Mississippi
  • Served in the US Senate prior to the Civil War
  • Supported Secession
  • Became President of the Confederate States of
    America during the Civil War.

6
Major Players The South
GRAY
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Fought in the Mexican War
  • Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia
  • Supreme Military Commander of the Confederacy
  • Defeated Union troops at the battles of
    Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.
  • Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at
    Appomattox Courthouse in April 1865.

7
Complete the following analogy
  • ___________________ was to the Confederacy as
    ____________________ was to the Union.
  • Frame of reference President

8
Advantages Resources The North
  • A very strong navy and almost all the shipyards
    were in the North.
  • More factories (about 85 of all factories)
  • Larger population (22 million to the Souths 9
    million)

9
Advantages Resources The North
  • Booming Economy
  • Railroads!!!! Better organized and much more
    mileage of track.
  • LEADERSHIP OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN!!!
  • He was able to convince Northerners that
    democracy depended on preserving the Union.

10
Advantages ResourcesThe South
  • Knew the land (home-field advantage)
  • Were trying to preserve their way of life (had
    the HEART this war meant everything to them)
  • Much better military commanders
  • Many were trained at military colleges like West
    Point
  • Had fought Mexico in the Mexican-American War so
    they were experienced.

11
Advantages ResourcesThe South
  • Was able to fight a defensive war, requiring the
    Union to stretch their resources to the limit in
    order to reach the Rebels.
  • They werent trying to concur the North, they
    just wanted to be independent.

D
12
What do you think?
  • Which side had better advantages? Why?
  • Based on this evaluation which side would you
    predict would win the war if you didnt know the
    outcome already?????

13
Major Battles
  • Firing on Fort Sumter
  • First shots of the Civil War.
  • Battle of Bull Run
  • First actual battle of the Civil War.
  • The South won much to everyones surprise!
  • Antietam
  • Single bloodiest day during the Civil War

14
Major Battles, Cont
  • Shiloh
  • U.S. gained northern part of the Mississippi
    River, A.S. Johnston was killed.
  • Battle of Vicksburg
  • General Grant captured the city of Vicksburg
    completing the capture and control of the
    Mississippi River and cutting the Confederate
    States in half.

15
Major Battles Cont.
  • Battle of Gettysburg
  • Turning point of the Civil War in the east.
    Robert E. Lees invasion of the north was turned
    back by the Army of the Potomac in July 1863.
  • Appomattox Court House
  • Surrender of Lee to Grant, ended the Civil War.

16
What do you think?
  • Why do you think President Lincoln chose to
    re-supply Fort Sumter and risk all-out war rather
    than letting the Rebels have control over it.
    (pg. 465-466)

17
Complete the following analogy
  • ________________ was to the Revolutionary War as
    _________________ was to the Civil War.
  • Frame of reference First shots fired

18
Complete the following analogy
  • ________________ was to the Revolutionary War as
    _________________ was to the Civil War.
  • Frame of reference Turning point of the war

19
New inventions used during the war
  • Telegraph
  • While the telegraph had been around for a little
    while this was the first time it had been used by
    the military.
  • Hot Air Balloons
  • These were used to spy on troop movements and
    locations during the war.
  • Ironclads
  • Warships covered with iron
  • Were a big improvement over wooden ships of the
    past
  • New rifle technology allowed people to shoot
    further with more accuracy
  • Railroads!!!! They werent new but they played a
    big role in the war.

20
What do you think?
  • How might the use of the telegraph affect the
    outcome of a war?
  • Why do you think the military chose to use hot
    air balloons? Was this choice beneficial? Why?
  • How did changes in weapons and technology affect
    the way war was fought?

21
Strategies of the North
  • The Anaconda Plan Designed to smother the
    Souths economy
  • Blockade of the Souths coastline (use of the
    Navy) so no goods or people could get in or out.
  • Take control of the Mississippi River and split
    the Confederacy in two
  • This plans drawback was that it would take time
  • It worked!

22
Strategies of the North
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Issued by President Lincoln on September 22, 1862
  • Emancipation Proclamation declared that all
    slaves in states currently in rebellion after
    January 1, 1863 were free
  • It DID NOT free slaves in the Border States (only
    ones in Confederate Territory)

23
What do you think?
  • Why would Lincoln choose to abolish slavery only
    in the areas of rebellion and not where it
    existed in the Union?
  • Was the Emancipation Proclamation effective? Why
    or why not? (pg. 488)
  • Why was control of the rivers important for
    victory?

24
Strategies of the North Cont.
  • Shermans March to the Sea (total war)
  • General William Sherman and his men marched from
    Tennessee, living off of the land, to the
    Atlantic Coast of Georgia.
  • The soldiers destroyed EVERYTHING in their path
    (enemy soldiers, entire towns, crops, livestock,
    railroads.everything!)

25
What do you think?
  • Why would Sherman choose to use this type of
    strategy?
  • Do you think it was fair or unfair? Do we have
    the right to do whatever we want to win a war?
  • Evaluate how effective you think this sort of
    strategy would be in winning a war.

26
Strategies of the South
  • Defensive position only
  • They hoped that the North would soon get tired of
    fighting and agree to leave them alone.
  • King Cotton
  • Planned on using their cotton production as
    leverage in the war.
  • The world needed cotton made in the South so they
    thought by withholding cotton to the rest of the
    world they might get other nations to help them
  • This failed because other nations had A LOT of
    cotton from the year before so they didnt need
    more.

27
Strategies of the South Cont.
  • Once the Souths other plans didnt work they
    tried to go on the offensive and hurt the North
    by wrecking their morale (then maybe they would
    get tired of fighting)

28
Lincolns Ideas of Union, Liberty, Equality, and
Government
  • First Inaugural Address Argued passionately for
    the preservation of union. Promised he had no
    intention of abolishing slavery.
  • Second Inaugural Address Fight for restoration
    of peace and the Union. Malice towards none,
    with charity towards all.
  • Gettysburg Address The country should have a
    new birth of freedom. The government of the
    people, by the people, and for the people shall
    be preserved.

29
Lincolns Assassination
  • Lincoln was assassinated on April 15, 1865 by
    John Wilkes Booth, a confederate sympathizer who
    blamed Lincoln for the Souths looming defeat in
    the Civil War, during a play at Fords Theatre in
    Washington D.C.

30
Put the following in order
  • Passage of the 13th Amendment
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Election of Lincoln
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Dred Scott Decision
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