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Archiving of food samples from restaurants and caterers

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Archiving of Food Samples from Restaurants and caterers – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 20 February 2020
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Title: Archiving of food samples from restaurants and caterers


1
Archiving of food samples from restaurants and
caterers
  • Fumiko Kasuga
  • National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan
  • (National Institute of Infectious Diseases)

2
An example of data collection for Hazard
Characterization
  • Analysis of outbreak data in Japan

3
Hazard Characterization describes,
  • Pathogen concerned
  • serotypes, virulence, toxins, etc
  • Population involved, susceptible, at risk
  • Vehicle foods
  • contaminated, protect pathogens against stomach
    acid, inactivate pathogens or inhibit
    proliferation
  • Dose response how likely to get ill?

4
Data for dose-response
  • Pathogen dose ingested
  • concentration in food
  • food amount taken
  • Attack rate (or P(infection), P(death), etc.)
  • population exposed
  • infected, ill, dead, etc.

5
Data source for dose-response
Outbreak data has limitations, needs
assumptions when used, but reflects real-world
events.
6
What we have experienced
7
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations
World Health Organization
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Risk
Assessment of Microbiological Hazards in
Foods   FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy  17 - 21
July 2000   - Preliminary Report -   Hazard
Identification and Hazard Characterization of
Salmonella in broilers and eggs
MRA 00/03
8
Beta-Poisson model for Salmonella spp. derived
using outbreak data
9
Why was it possible?
10
Japanese Directive "Control measures against
foodborne outbreaks"
  • issued
  • in march 1997
  • by Director General of Environmental Sanitation
    Bureau of the Japanese Ministry of Health and
    Welfare
  • large scale cooking facilities
  • more than 750 meals per day
  • more than 300 dishes of a single menu at a time
  • food saving
  • 50 gram aliquots of each raw food material and
    cooked dish
  • more than 2 weeks, lower than -20 C

11
Original purpose of food-storing system was to
improve identification of vehicle food by
microbiological examination.
12
Kitchen owners
Food-storing system improvement of causative
food identification
  • cost supply
  • Exposed
  • Ill
  • Food amount taken

Health centers
  • epidemiological
  • investigation

Complete data set for Hazard Characterization
Coordination
Quantitative data (concentration in
food) co-operation with laboratories
Prefectural laboratories
  • facility and technique
  • capacity
  • cost supply

13
How do we combine those data?
14
Outbreak reports
  • Format, elements vary
  • Essential elements are required to be included.
  • Rapid reports by FAX or e-mails
  • Changeable, not confirmed
  • Detail reports
  • Several months later
  • Administrative reports
  • in Japanese

15
Outbreaks for which detail reports to MHLW are
required (1)
  • With more than 50 patients
  • With less than 50 patients and with following
    characteristics
  • Death involved
  • Caused by imported food
  • Occurred in more than two prefectures by single
    source

16
Outbreaks for which detail reports to MHLW are
required (2)
  • With less than 50 patients and with following
    characteristics (continued)
  • Unique epidemiology, or complicated investigation
    and actions needed
  • Caused by the following pathogens
  • Yersinia enterocolitica O8
  • Campylobacter jejuni / coli
  • Salmonella Enteritidis
  • Enterohemorrhagic E. coli
  • Clostridium botulinum

17
Analysis of outbreak data (1989 1998) with
Salmonella concentrations in implicated
foods In total 39 outbreak reports were
collected, and they were divided into 5
categories upon settings.
18
Outbreaks occurred at schools
  • Ages of pupils in an elementary school are 6 to
    12.
  • Most schools serve the same lunch menu to all of
    their pupils on a single day.
  • All the pupils in the school are reasonably
    considered to be the exposed population in those
    outbreaks.
  • The exposed population to the contaminated food
    is usually very large

19
Outbreaks occurred at schools
20
Outbreaks occurred at schools
21
Outbreaks occurred at daycare centers
  • The age of children is less than 1 up to 6 years
    old.
  • In general, the size of daycare population is
    smaller than that of schools and each daycare has
    its own kitchen in most places.
  • Therefore the exposed populations were smaller
    than those of school cases.
  • Attack rates were higher than those in school
    outbreaks, which might reflect the susceptibility
    of the population.

22
Outbreaks occurred at daycare centers
23
Outbreaks occurred at hospitals
  • Hospital inpatients are generally considered to
    be more susceptible to pathogens than the
    healthy, normal population.
  • The attack rates in collected outbreaks, however,
    were not very high.
  • the influence of concurrent medications including
    antibiotics??

24
Outbreaks occurred at hospitals
25
Outbreaks occurred at restaurants, hotels,
caterers, and other business kitchens (20
outbreaks)
  • Kitchens vary in size, the scale of outbreaks
    also differs.
  • Amounts of ingested food were not always
    specified in the original reports, and
    assumptions were often made to estimate ingested
    dose of pathogens.
  • The food storage conditions were also different
    among the outbreaks.

26
Outbreaks caused by confectionaries (6 outbreaks)
  • Number of exposed people varies much in this
    group, from small outbreak with 5 cases to very
    large outbreak with more than one thousand.

27
Comparison of dose-response from outbreaks where
food samples were kept frozen or not - effect of
freezing food system
28
(No Transcript)
29
Outbreaks where food portions were stored frozen
30
Outbreaks where food portions were not frozen
31
Summary of my talk (1)
  • Food-storing system
  • Might be a good example of co-operation of
    management and assessment.
  • Existing measures helped data collection for risk
    assessment.
  • Very useful for developing dose-response models.
  • Need to encourage local authorities to continue
    enumeration of causative microbes.
  • May need additional mechanism, cost supply.

32
Summary of my talk (2)
  • Outbreak reports
  • Not always comprehensive, improvement of
    epidemiological investigation and report
    formatting needed.
  • Case definition, recognition of foodborne
    outbreak is not systematically defined.
  • Underestimation of reported cases.
  • Many outbreak reports are useful.
  • Translating to English under discussion.
  • Current summary to be available.

33
Thank you!
  • Co-workers
  • Masamitsu Hirota1), Masamichi Wada2), Toshihiko
    Yunokawa3), Hajime Toyofuku4), Masaki
    Shibatsuji5), Hideshi Michino5), Toshiaki
    Kuwasaki5), Susumu Kumagai6), Shigeki Yamamoto1)
  • 1)     National Institute of Health Sciences
  • 2)     Nagano Research Institute for Health and
    Pollution
  • 3)     National Institute of Public Health
  • 4)     Food Safety Programme, World Health
    Organization
  • 5)     Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
  • 6) The University of Tokyo
  • Special advisors
  • Anna Lammerding, Aamir Fazil, Eric Ebel
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