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The Special Needs Population

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The Special Needs Population Categories and Definitions Chapter 3 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Special Needs Population


1
The Special Needs Population
  • Categories and Definitions
  • Chapter 3

2
Broad General Categories
  • Many professionals and parents involved in
    Special Education..different orientationsdiffere
    nt vocabulary
  • All agree on 6 broad general categories
  • -Intellectual and developmental differences
  • -Sensory disabilities
  • -Communication Disorders
  • -Physical and Health Difficulties
  • -Behaviour Disorders
  • -Combinations of above

3
5 Official Ministry Categories of Exceptionality
  • Communications
  • - 5 sub-categories
  • Behaviour
  • Physical
  • -1 sub-category
  • Intellectual
  • -3 sub-categories
  • Multiple- any 2 or more co-existing from above
    list

4
Categories and Sub-Categories(Areas)
  • Communication (Category)
  • Sub-Categories
  • 1) Learning Disabilities
  • 2) Deaf and Hard of Hearing
  • 3) Autism
  • 4) Speech Impairment
  • 5) Language Impairment
  • Definitions Appendix Page 221

5
Category Behaviour
  • No subcategories, but many different descriptors
    which include
  • Mental health disorders/mental illnesses
  • Emotional disturbances
  • Socially maladjusted
  • Delinquent ( criminal behaviour )
  • Conduct Disorders
  • Form a continuum from extreme aggression and
    acting out behaviour to extreme withdrawal
    /shyness Appendix p.221

6
Category Intellectual
  • Sub-Categories
  • 1.Gifted
  • 2.Mild Intellectual Disability (M.I.D.)
  • -Slow learner, at times confused with L.D.
  • 3. Developmental Disability
  • -Very low intellectual functioning ( lt.1 ile).
    and poorly developed ADAPTIVE Behaviour

7
Category Physical
  • Blind and Low Vision
  • Orthopaedic Concerns Cerebral Palsy, Muscular
    Dystrophy, Musculer Sclerosis, Spina Bifida, etc.
  • Neurological Disabilities
  • Health Difficulties that interfere with learning
  • Ministry definition Appendix p.222

8
Category Multiple
  • Combination of learning or other disorders, or
    physical disabilities
  • Any 2 or more of the above sub-categories
  • Co-occuring or comorbid conditions
  • Require specialized teacher (s) (Special
    Education AdditionalQualifications) AND
  • Specialized Equipment and
  • Services of an Educational Assistant ( usually)

9
What Do the Numbers tell Us?
  • Steady increase in numbers of Special Education
    students since inception of Bill 82
  • Incidence data the number of new cases
    identified over a period of time
  • Prevalence data total number of existing data
  • Example At both elementary and secondary levels,
    L.D. exceptionality is the largest segment of the
    exceptional population (high prevalence) and the
    most frequent new identifications ( high
    incidence rate)

10
High Incidence ExceptionalitiesElementary
  • High Incidence and High Prevalence in descending
    order
  • 1) Learning Disabilities - 3 to1
  • 2) Giftedness
  • 3)Mild Intellectual Disability (M.I.D.)
  • 4)Behaviour
  • 5)Language Impairment
  • 6) Autism - fastest growing ( incidence)
  • 7) Developmental Disability

11
Low Incidence ExceptionalitiesElementary
  • Low Incidence and Low Prevalence in descending
    order
  • 1) Multiple Exceptionalities
  • 2) Physical Disability
  • 3) Deaf and H.of H.
  • 4)Speech Impairment
  • 5)Blind and Low Vision
  • 6) Deaf and Deaf-Blind ( alternative program

12
Round Table Discussions
  • Tables 1 and 2 What factors could account for
    the large increase in students identified as L.D.
    in secondary schools over elementary schools?
  • Tables 3 and 4 There are over 3000 fewer
    students identified as Behavioural Exceptionality
    in secondary schools vs. elementary schools.
    What could account for this decrease in numbers?
  • Tables 5 and 6 Why would it appear that the
    number of students who are speech impaired is
    greatly decreased in secondary from elementary?
  • Tables 7 and 8 What factors could be
    causing the numbers of students being identified
    as Communications Autism to be so drastically
    increasing at both elementary and secondary
    levels? What does an increase of 175 in
    services for autism at secondary mean??????
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