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Medieval Achievements

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1. IMPROVEMENTS IN AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY Windmills Water Wheels Iron tools Iron heavy plow ... This included Spanish, French, English, and German. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval Achievements


1
Medieval Achievements
2
Medieval Achievements
Life was very chaotic during the early Dark
Ages. People concentrated on protecting
themselves from invasions and taking care of
their own physical needs. After the onset of
the Crusades, Europe experienced greater
prosperity and security and a growing population.
As a result, in the 12th and 13th centuries,
medieval Europe had its golden age.
3
1. Improvements in Agricultural Technology
  • Windmills
  • Water Wheels
  • Iron tools
  • Iron heavy plow (could go much
  • deeper into the soil)
  • Horse collar
  • System of crop rotation

4
The Heavy Plow
Farmers were able to open up extensive new fields
thanks to the heavy plough, boosting crop yields
and population numbers.
5
Water Mills
Water mills were first developed by the Greeks
before being used throughout the Roman empire.
Their numbers exploded during this time. By
around 1000 A.D. there were tens of thousands of
them. The technology invented by the Greeks was
further refined during the Middle Ages and was
used to power tanneries, blast furnaces, forge
mills, and paper mills which evolved into the
machinery used in today's factories and
facilities.
6
2. Blast Furnace
The oldest known blast furnaces in the West were
built in Dürstel in Switzerland, the Märkische
Sauerland in Germany, and Sweden at Lapphyttan
where the complex was active between 1150 and
1350.
7
3. Clocks The hour glass
It was the first dependable, reusable and
reasonably accurate measure of time, especially
at sea. During Ferdinand Magellans voyage around
the globe, his vessels kept 18 hourglasses per
ship. It was the job of a ships page to turn the
hourglasses and thus provide the times for the
ships log.
8
Clocks The mechanical clock
The first mechanical clocks to which clear
references exist were large, weight-driven
machines fitted into towers and known today as
turret clocks. This clock was erected at Rouen,
France, in 1389.
9
4. Eyeglasses
13th-century Italians came up with eyeglasses.
They were first documented in the early 1300s,
with early models made to be held up by hand or
pinched on the nose. It wasn't until the 1700s
that designs featuring arms that bent around the
nose became widely used.
10
5. Universities
  • Influenced by contacts with Islamic scholarship
    during the Crusades, Europe began to establish
    universities
  • Led to translation of Aristotle and other Greek
    scholars, from Arabic into Latin
  • Universities taught mainly religious courses at
    first, but later broadened scope to include
    medicine, law

11
6. Scholasticism
  • A philosophical school of thought that tried to
    reconcile faith and the teachings of the Church
    with reason and the works of Aristotle.
  • Thomas Aquinas was the most famous scholastic.
  • He tried to use Aristotles methods of logic to
    prove existence of God
  • His teachings helped expand former ways of
    thinking and understanding.

12
7. Use of the Vernacular in Poetry and Literature
  • The language of scholars and the Church was still
    Latin
  • The vernacular was the language of the common
    people.
  • This included Spanish, French, English, and
    German.
  • People began to produce literature in their own
    languages.

13
Troubadour Poetry
  • The most popular form of vernacular literature in
    the 12th century was troubadour poetry, which was
    mostly love stories about life at court between
    knights and ladies of the court.
  • Troubadours were usually travelling poets and
    musicians who would go from court to court
    telling their stories of courtly love.

14
Literature
Each influenced the development of their
respective languages.
  • Canterbury Tales
  • The Divine Comedy
  • Geoffrey Chaucers collection of stories
  • Group of pilgrims traveling to Canterbury each
    tells story to entertain others
  • Characters give insight into what life was like
    in the Middle Ages
  • Dante Alighieris story of his imaginary trip
    through the afterlife
  • Composed in three parts.
  • On journey, met people from own life, as well as
    figures from history

15
8. Illuminated Manuscripts
16
9. Medieval Architecture
  • Originally buildings were built in a Basilica
    style which consisted of a rectangular building
    with a flat wooden roof.
  • Later, Romanesque architecture replaced this flat
    roof with a rounded arch.

17
Romanesque Architecture
  • Romanesque architecture had some specific traits.
  • Rounded Arches
  • Thick walls with small windows with stone roofs.
  • The dark environment of the church was meant to
    suggest the power and mystery of God.

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Gothic Architecture greatest achievement of
middle ages
  • By the 12th century changes were made to the
    Romanesque style which developed a new style
    known as Gothic Architecture.
  • Gothic architecture developed some distinct
    characteristics of its own.
  • Vaulted Arches (Pointed)
  • Flying Buttresses
  • Thinner walls and stained glass windows
  • The advancements allowed thinner walls and larger
    windows, which allowed for these new churches to
    have much more natural light.
  • The Gothic style was much more serene and
    self-confident.

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Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris 1163-1250
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Flying buttresses
  • Gothic designs possible through advances in
    engineering
  • New type of support, flying buttress
  • Supported walls from outside
  • Flying buttresses allowed higher ceilings,
    eliminated columns
  • Larger windows possible
  • Stained glass showed Biblical scenes, saints

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Flying Buttresses
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Gargoyles
  • A Gargoyle functioned as a grotesque. They were
    meant to scare away evil spirits, but often also
    acted as water spouts for the churches.

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