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States of Matter

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Table of Contents States of Matter Changes of State Gas Behavior Graphing Gas Behavior – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: States of Matter


1
Table of Contents
  • States of Matter
  • Changes of State
  • Gas Behavior
  • Graphing Gas Behavior

2
Solids
- States of Matter
  • A fixed, closely packed arrangement of particles
    causes a solid to have a definite shape and
    volume.

3
Solids
- States of Matter
  • Solids that are made up of crystals are called
    crystalline solids.
  • In amorphous solids, the particles are not
    arranged in a regular pattern.

4
Liquids
- States of Matter
  • Because its particles are free to move, a liquid
    has no definite shape. However, it does have a
    definite volume.

5
Gases
- States of Matter
  • As they move, gas particles spread apart, filling
    all the space available. Thus, a gas has neither
    definite shape nor definite volume.

6
Building Vocabulary
- States of Matter
  • A definition states the meaning of a word or
    phrase by telling about its most important
    feature or function. After you read the section,
    reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of
    Key Terms. Use all the information you have
    learned to write a definition of each Key Term.

Key Terms
Examples
solid
A solid has a definite shape and a definite
volume.
Surface tension is the result of an inward pull
among the molecules of a liquid that brings the
molecules on the surface closer together.
crystalline solid
Solids that are made up of crystals are called
crystalline solids.
Another property of liquids is viscositya
liquids resistance to flowing.
amorphous solid
In amorphous solids, the particles are not
arranged in a regular pattern.
Like a liquid, a gas is a fluid. Unlike a liquid,
however, a gas can change volume very easily.
liquid
A liquid has a definite volume but no shape of
its own.
fluid
A liquid is also called a fluid, meaning a
substance that flows.
7
Viscosity
- States of Matter
  • Click the Video button to watch a movie about
    viscosity.

8
End of Section States of Matter
9
Changes Between Solid and Liquid
- Changes of State
  • The change in state from a solid to a liquid is
    called melting.

10
Changes Between Solid and Liquid
- Changes of State
  • The change of state from liquid to solid is
    called freezing.

11
Temperature and Changes of State
- Changes of State
  • A beaker of ice at 10ºC was slowly heated to
    110ºC. The changes in the temperature of the
    water over time were recorded. The data were
    plotted on the graph shown here.

12
Temperature and Changes of State
- Changes of State
  • Reading Graphs
  • What two variables are plotted on the graph?
  • Temperature (ºC) on the y-axis, time (minutes) on
    the x-axis

13
Temperature and Changes of State
- Changes of State
  • Reading Graphs
  • What is happening to the temperature of the water
    during segment C of the graph?
  • The temperature is rising from 0ºC to 100ºC.

14
Temperature and Changes of State
- Changes of State
  • Interpreting Data
  • What does the temperature value for segment B
    represent? For segment D?
  • Segment B melting point of ice segment D
    boiling point of water

15
Temperature and Changes of State
- Changes of State
  • Drawing Conclusions
  • What change of state is occurring during segment
    B of the graph? For segment D?
  • Change from solid to liquid change from liquid
    to gas

16
Temperature and Changes of State
- Changes of State
  • Inferring
  • In which segment, A or E, do the water molecules
    have more thermal energy? Explain your reasoning.
  • Water molecules in segment E have more thermal
    energy because they are at a higher temperature.

17
Outlining
- Changes of State
Changes in State
  • As you read, make an outline about changes of
    state. Use the red headings for the main topics
    and the blue headings for the supporting ideas.
  • Changes Between Solid and Liquid
  • Melting
  • Freezing
  • Changes Between Liquid and Gas
  • Evaporation
  • Boiling
  • Boiling Point and Air Pressure
  • Condensation
  • Changes Between Solid and Gas

18
Data Sharing Lab
- Changes of State
  • Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity
    about sharing data for the Skills Lab Melting Ice.

19
End of Section Changes of State
20
A Change in Pressure
- Gas Behavior
  • A punctured basketball deflates as gas particles
    begin to escape.

21
Using Formulas
- Gas Behavior
  • Pressure can be calculated using the formula
    below. Force is measured in newtons (N). If area
    is measured in square meters (m2), pressure is
    expressed in pascals (Pa).
  • Pressure Force/Area
  • For example, a machine exerts a force of 252 N on
    a piston having an area of 0.430 m2. What is the
    pressure in pascals on the piston?
  • Pressure 252 N/0.430 m2 586 Pa

22
Using Formulas
- Gas Behavior
  • Practice Problem
  • A trash compactor exerts a force of 5,600 N over
    an area of 0.342 m2. What pressure in pascals
    does the compactor exert?
  • P 5,600 N/0.342 m2 16,374 Pa

23
Pressure and Volume
- Gas Behavior
  • As weights are added, the gas particles occupy a
    smaller volume. The pressure increases.

24
Pressure and Temperature
- Gas Behavior
  • When a gas is heated, the particles move faster
    and collide more often with each other and with
    the walls of their container. The pressure of the
    gas increases.

25
Gas Laws Activity
- Gas Behavior
  • Click the Active Art button to open a browser
    window and access Active Art about gas laws.

26
Volume and Temperature
- Gas Behavior
  • Changing the temperature of a gas at constant
    pressure changes the volume similarly.

27
Asking Questions
- Gas Behavior
  • Before you read, preview the red headings. In a
    graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what
    or how question for each heading. As you read,
    write answers to your questions.

Questions
Answers
What measurements are useful in studying gases?
Volume, temperature, and pressure
How are the pressure and volume of gases related?
When the pressure of a gas increases at constant
temperature, its volume decreases.
How are the pressure and temperature of gases
related?
When the temperature of a gas increases at
constant volume, its pressure increases.
How are the volume and temperature of gases
related?
When the temperature of a gas increases at
constant pressure, its volume increases.
28
End of Section Gas Behavior
29
Making a Graph
- Graphing Gas Behavior
  • The x-axis (horizontal) and the y-axis (vertical)
    form the backbone of a graph.

30
Temperature and Volume
- Graphing Gas Behavior
  • As the temperature of the water bath increases,
    the gas inside the cylinder is warmed by the
    water.

31
Temperature and Volume
- Graphing Gas Behavior
  • The data from the experiment are recorded in the
    notebook table.

32
Temperature and Volume
- Graphing Gas Behavior
  • The graph of Charless law shows that the volume
    of a gas is directly proportional to its kelvin
    temperature under constant pressure.

33
Pressure and Volume
- Graphing Gas Behavior
  • Pushing on the top of the piston decreases the
    volume of the gas. The pressure of the gas
    increases.

34
Pressure and Volume
- Graphing Gas Behavior
  • The data from the experiment are recorded in the
    notebook table.

35
Pressure and Volume
- Graphing Gas Behavior
  • The graph of Boyles law shows that the pressure
    of a gas varies inversely with its volume at
    constant temperature.

36
Previewing Visuals
- Graphing Gas Behavior
  • Before you read, preview Figure 23. In a graphic
    organizer like the one below, write questions
    that you have about the diagram. As you read,
    answer your questions.

Graphing Charless Law
Q. What is the relationship between temperature
and volume?
A. The volume of a gas is directly proportional
to its temperature under constant pressure.
Q. What does the dotted line show?
A. The dotted line predicts how the graph would
look if the gas could be cooled further.
37
Links on Gases
- Graphing Gas Behavior
  • Click the SciLinks button for links on gases.

38
End of Section Graphing Gas Behavior
39
Graphic Organizer

Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Example (at room temperature)
State of Matter
Shape
Volume
Solid
Definite
Definite
Diamond
Not definite
Water
Liquid
Definite
Not definite
Oxygen
Gas
Not definite
40
End of Section Graphic Organizer
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