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Energy

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Energy World energy consumption projected to rise 70% from 2003 to 2030 OECD – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 14 January 2020
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Title: Energy


1
Energy
  • World energy consumption projected to rise gt
    70 from 2003 to 2030
  • OECD

2
Energy
  • Bulk of increase expected to come from non-OECD
    nations
  • Energy demand in Asia, Central and South America
    expected to more than double by 2030

3
  • Energy
  • Conventional
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Oil
  • Transportation, electricity generation, heating
  • Worlds dominant source of energy for past
    several decades
  • Expected to remain important for next 20 years -
    Estimated 35-40 of total energy consumption
    through 2020
  • Greatest consumption by OECD nations, but gap
    closing
  • 1999 Non-OECD nations consumed 58 as much as
    OECD nations
  • 2030 Projected to use 90 as much
  • Most of increase from transportation sector (few
    alternative fuel sources)

4
  • Energy
  • Conventional
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Oil
  • Benefits
  • Readily available
  • High energy density
  • Inexpensive
  • Existing technology infrastructure
  • Concerns
  • Combustion releases pollutants (CO2, NOx, SOx,
    PM)
  • Extraction harms environment
  • Accidental releases, especially in ocean
  • Long-term availability
  • Energy security - US imports 60 of oil

5
  • Energy
  • Conventional
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Coal
  • Electricity generation (65 of global coal use)
  • Main fuel source in China for industry
  • Use expected to grow slowly, mostly fueled by
    Asia, especially China and India
  • Benefits
  • Inexpensive
  • Abundant, easy to recover
  • Requires minimal processing
  • Existing technology infrastructure
  • Concerns
  • Environmental degradation from mining
  • Requires extensive transportation system (rail)
  • Combustion generates pollutants (CO2, PM, Hg,
    NOx, SOx), including components of brown smog

6
  • Energy
  • Conventional
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Natural gas (methane)
  • Fastest growing source of energy over next 20
    years (projected to double)
  • Equaled coal (BTU basis) in 1999
  • Increase fueled by price, environmental concerns,
    energy security issues, market deregulation
  • Benefits
  • Inexpensive
  • Abundant, easy to recover
  • Existing technology infrastructure
  • Burns relatively cleanly (little PM, etc.),
    almost no solid waste
  • High efficiency (90 vs. 27 for electricity)
  • Energy security US produces 85 of demand vs.
    40 for oil
  • Concerns
  • Greenhouse gas
  • Adequate long-term supply

7
  • Energy
  • Conventional
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Gas (methane) hydrates
  • Worldwide reserves estimated at up to 100,000
    trillion cubic feet of gas (10,000 Gt carbon),
    twice the carbon in all other fossil fuel
    reserves on earth
  • Located beneath marine sediments at 300-500 m
    depth
  • Common off SE US, Siberia, Alaska
  • Benefits
  • Extremely abundant
  • Existing infrastructure for distribution
  • Burns relatively cleanly (little PM, etc.),
    almost no solid waste
  • High efficiency (90 vs. 27 for electricity)
  • Energy security US has extensive reserves
  • Concerns
  • Greenhouse gas
  • Damage to sea floor
  • Catastrophic effects of massive release

8
  • Energy
  • Conventional
  • Nuclear
  • Derived from splitting ("fissioning) of uranium
    atoms
  • Uranium mined, processed to increase fissionable
    material, made into fuel rods
  • Uranium atoms split inside reactor, generate heat
    ? steam ? electricity
  • World capacity projected to rise from 362 GW in
    2003 to 437 GW in 2030
  • Highest growth projected for developing world,
    especially Asia
  • Benefits
  • Clean (few pollutants or GHGs)
  • Relatively inexpensive
  • Existing technology infrastructure
  • Compact fuel waste (high energy density 1 lb
    of U 3.5 million lbs of coal)
  • Energy security US has extensive reserves
  • Concerns
  • Safety Possibility of accidents
  • Strategic risks Material stolen and used to
    create weapon
  • Waste disposal Contamination of ground water,
    soil, animals, plants, people

9
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10
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11
  • Energy
  • Renewable
  • Sources either cant be used up or are
    replenished quickly through natural processes
  • In CA, eligible renewable energy sources include
  • Biomass and waste
  • Geothermal
  • Solar
  • Small hydroelectric
  • Wind energy
  • Use expected to increase by 65 worldwide between
    2003 and 2030 current 8 share of total energy
    consumption projected to rise slightly to 9 by
    2030
  • Growth in renewable energy resources expected to
    be constrained by moderate fossil fuel prices
  • Energy consumption expected to be driven by new,
    large-scale hydroelectric projects, esp. in
    China, India, Malaysia, other developing Asian
    countries

12
  • Energy
  • Renewable
  • Hydroelectric
  • Currently supplies 20 of electricity production
    worldwide
  • Small (lt30 MW)
  • Less impact but less power than large facilities
  • Large (gt30 MW)
  • Includes immense dams with potentially large
    impacts
  • Ex Itaipu Dam (Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina)
    12,600 MW
  • Ex Three Gorges Dam (China) 18,200 MW
  • Benefits
  • Inexpensive, once facility exists
  • Minimal environmental impact Little pollution,
    no GHGs
  • Many facilities already in place
  • May permit flood control
  • Relatively efficient and nondestructive
  • Concerns
  • Limited use geographically

13
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14
  • Energy
  • Renewable
  • Wind
  • Power captured with wind turbines
  • The Dakotas and Texas have sufficient wind
    capacity to supply energy needs of entire United
    States
  • Benefits
  • Free
  • Minimal environmental impact Little pollution,
    no GHGs
  • Can produce electricity without being connected
    to power grid
  • Multiple uses of land
  • Concerns
  • Limited use geographically
  • Inconsistent energy source
  • Expensive to maintain
  • May be dangerous to birds
  • Low power density
  • Weather effects?

15
  • Energy
  • Renewable
  • Solar
  • Can be generated by
  • Focusing heat of sun on central point that heats
    up heat used to produce steam, which turns
    turbine
  • Photovoltaic (PV) cells Convert energy from sun
    directly to electricity each PV panel typically
    produces small amount of electricity, but panels
    can be grouped
  • Benefits
  • Abundant The amount of solar radiation
    striking the earth over a three-day period is
    equivalent to the energy stored in all fossil
    energy sources.
  • Free
  • Minimal environmental impact Little pollution,
    no GHGs
  • PV systems have no moving parts, require little
    maintenance
  • Can produce electricity without being connected
    to power grid
  • Concerns
  • Limited use geographically
  • Inconsistent energy source
  • Expensive 0.22-0.40/kWh vs. 0.13/kWh on my
    latest bill
  • Requires special materials to harvest energy
  • Low power density long-term storage of energy

16
  • Energy
  • Renewable
  • Biomass and Waste
  • Biomass fuels include residues from logging mill
    operations processing of wood, pulp, paper,
    fiberboard agricultural crops livestock and
    poultry operations food processing demolition
    (urban wood waste)
  • Waste fuels include combustible residues from
    industrial processes, municipal solid liquid
    wastes
  • Currently supplies 15 of electricity production
    worldwide, more in developing countries
  • Benefits
  • Readily available fuel
  • Inexpensive
  • Reduces waste stream
  • Concerns
  • Emissions Especially for waste combustion
  • Low fuel density
  • Technology not yet well developed

17
  • Energy
  • Renewable
  • Geothermal
  • Heat from deep within earth captured and used to
    turn an electric generation turbine
  • Benefits
  • Inexpensive
  • Minimal environmental impact Little pollution,
    no GHGs
  • Energy security US has extensive resources
  • Concerns
  • Limited use geographically
  • Not truly renewable (water injection can prolong
    life of geyser field)
  • Geothermal emissions may include CO2 and H2S, as
    well as various toxic compounds
  • Not economically viable in most areas

18
  • Energy
  • Renewable
  • Fuel Cells
  • Many types
  • All have membrane that only allows positively
    charged particles to cross and external shunt
    that channels electrons
  • Have been used for decades (powered manned space
    flights)
  • Benefits
  • Low emissions
  • Highly efficient (up to 85 in some cases)
  • No moving parts Enhances durability, simplifies
    maintenance
  • Energy security Can be produced anywhere
  • Concerns
  • Technology still in its infancy
  • Energy input during processing
  • Risks of handling hydrogen and other fuels
  • Currently very expensive

19
  • Energy
  • Renewable
  • Other
  • Tidal energy
  • Wave energy
  • OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion)
  • Fusion

20
Energy
California Net System Power Mix
21
  • Fresh Water
  • Historically limiting factor in arid regions
  • 1940-1990
  • World population more than doubled
  • 2.3 billion ? 5.3 billion
  • Per capita water use doubled
  • 400 m3 person-1 year-1 ? 800 m3 person-1 year-1
  • Global water use increased fourfold
  • Current Status
  • In 1996, world human population using estimated
    54 of all accessible fresh water in rivers,
    lakes, aquifers
  • Many people predict disastrous consequences for
    worlds fresh water supply in coming years
  • This potential disaster may have several causes

22
  • Fresh Water
  • Current Status
  • Distribution
  • Uneven compared to population
  • 75 of annual rainfall in areas containing less
    than one-third of global population
  • Amazon River carries 20 of global runoff through
    area containing 10 million people
  • Congo River carries 30 of Africas runoff
    through area containing 10 of population
  • Uneven in space
  • North America contains 19,000 m3 per person per
    year vs. 4700 m3 per person per year in Asia
  • lt10 of Mexico supplies gt50 of annual runoff
  • Uneven in time
  • India gets 90 of annual rainfall during summer
    monsoon season (Jun-Sep) runs off too rapidly
    for efficient use

23
  • Fresh Water
  • Current Status
  • Usage patterns
  • Agriculture 69
  • Industry/Energy 23
  • Domestic 8
  • Varies among regions and with development
  • Africa 88 for agriculture (irrigation)
  • Europe gt50 for industry
  • Japan Industrial but uses lots of water for
    growing rice
  • Spain/Portugal Arid water used heavily for
    agriculture
  • Personal use tracks standard of living
  • Africa 17 m3 year-1 (47 l d-1)
  • Asia 31 m3 year-1 (85 l d-1)
  • UK 122 m3 year-1 (334 l d-1)
  • US 211 m3 year-1 (578 l d-1)
  • By 2020, water shortages likely in Ethiopia,
    India, Kenya, Nigeria, China (parts of China
    already face problems)
  • Mexico City uses groundwater for 80 of municipal
    water supply

24
  • Fresh Water
  • Current Status
  • Contamination
  • Numerous examples worldwide
  • Biggest source Agriculture
  • Europe Over 90 of rivers have elevated
    nutrient levels from agrochemicals
  • Hungary Nearly 40 of well fields contaminated
  • Developing countries On average, 90 to 95 of
    all domestic sewage and 75 of all industrial
    waste discharged into surface waters without
    treatment
  • Impacts
  • Nile River Diverting water retention of
    sediment behind dams has caused fertile delta to
    shrink
  • Rhine River Lost 8 of 44 fish species 25 more
    endangered
  • Lake Chad Diversion drought has caused
    shrinkage from 25,000 to 2,000 km2 in 30 years
    Link
  • Aral Sea Diversion for agriculture has caused
    severe shrinkage, with environmental health
    problems L1 L2

25
  • Fresh Water
  • Possible Solutions
  • World may have enough fresh water but inadequate
    distribution mechanism
  • Long pipelines and movement of icebergs have been
    proposed
  • Excessively expensive
  • Technological limitations

26
  • Fresh Water
  • Possible Solutions
  • Improved irrigation efficiency
  • Drip irrigation reduces losses from evaporation
  • Cuts water use by 40-60 compared to conventional
    systems
  • Used on lt1 of irrigated land worldwide but used
    extensively in some countries (Ex Israel uses
    DI on 50 of irrigated land)
  • Low-energy precision application (LEPA) methods
    apply water directly to plants
  • Can lower use of water and energy (20-50)
  • Municipal conservation
  • Infrastructural losses can be substantial
  • Ex 40-70 of water lost in transit in 15 major
    Mexican cities (similar rates in India)
  • Ex Djakarta, Indonesia could cut water losses
    an estimated 20 by fixing leaky distribution
    pipes would save 12 billion gallons of water a
    year, enough to supply 800,000 people
  • Higher price could encourage conservation
  • Ex Bogor, Indonesia increased water prices
    3-4x average household water use dropped by 30
    in less than one year

27
  • Fresh Water
  • Possible Solutions
  • Reuse of urban wastewater
  • Use of treated wastewater for irrigation
  • Today, at least half a million hectares in 15
    countries are being irrigated with gray water
  • More water efficient industry
  • Practiced in industrialized nations.
  • Amount of water needed to produce a ton of steel
    ranges from 23 to 56 m3 in China, compared to an
    average of less than 6 m3 in US, Japan, and
    Germany
  • Desalination
  • 1990 Just over 13 million m3 of fresh water
    produced daily in 7,500 facilities worldwide
  • Provides 0.1 of global fresh water use
  • Current methods of desalination driven almost
    entirely by combustion of fossil fuels
  • Solar powered desalination plants are currently
    produce only 5,240 cubic m3d-1
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