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Title: CRCT Review


1
CRCT Review
  • Science

2
Rock and Minerals
Luster The way in which a mineral reflects light
Streak The color of the powder of a mineral
Cleavage The splitting of a mineral along smooth, flat surfaces
Fracture The manner in which a mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces
Hardness A measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching
Density The ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of a substance DM/V
Reclamation The process of returning land to its original condition after mining is completed
Ore A natural material whose concentration of economically valuable minerals is high enough for the material to be mined profitably
Rock A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
Ways to Identify Minerals
Mineral A naturally formed, inorganic solid that has definite chemical structure
Elements A substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
Compound A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
Crystals A solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite pattern
Silicate minerals (1 of 2 types of minerals) A mineral that contains a combination of silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals
Nonsilicate minerals (2 of 2 types of minerals) A mineral that does not contain compounds of silicon and oxygen
3
Rock Cycle The series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes
Weathering The process in which water, wind, ice and heat break down rock
Erosion The process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
Deposition The process in which material is laid down
Composition The chemical makeup of a rock describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock
Texture The quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rocks grains
Igneous rock Rocks formed when magma cools
Intrusive Igneous Rock Rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath the Earths surface cools slowly large crystals
Extrusive Igneous Rock Rock that forms as a result of volcanic activity at or near the Earths surface cools fast small or no crystals
Sedimentary Rock Formed through erosion 3 types clastic, chemical, organic
Strata Layers of rock
Clastic Forms when rock or mineral fragments are cemented together
Chemical Forms when minerals crystallize out of a solution such as sea water to become rock
Organic Forms from the remains of once living plants and animals
Stratification The process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
Metamorphic rock Result of a change in structure, texture, or composition can be changed by heat and/or pressure
Foliated Metamorphic rock Describes the texture of metamorphic rock in which he mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
Nonfoliated metamorphic rock Describes the texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands
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Mohs Hardness Scale Mohs Hardness Scale
1 is the softest and 10 is hardest A mineral can scratch any other minerals that are softer than itself. 1 is the softest and 10 is hardest A mineral can scratch any other minerals that are softer than itself.
1 Talc
2 Gypsum
3 Calcite
4 Fluorite
5 Apatite
6 Orthoclase
7 Quartz
8 Topaz
9 Corundum
10 Diamond
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Ways to Identify Minerals
Density -DM/V
Color
Hardness -Mohs Hardness Scale
Streak (more reliable than color)
Luster
Metallic -bright and reflective
Cleavage Fracture
Nonmetallic
Submetallic -dull and reflective
Special Properties -radioactivity -optical -taste
-magnetism -fluorescence -chemical reaction
Resinous -plastic
Vitreous -glass, brilliant
Silky -fibrous
Waxy -greasy, oily
Earthy -rough, dull
Pearly -creamy
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Earths Resources Earths Resources
Natural Resource Any natural material that is used by humans, such as water, petroleum, minerals, forests and animals
Renewable Resources A natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed Examples trees, fresh water, wind, sunlight
Nonrenewable Resources A resource that forms at a rate that is much slower than the rate at which it is consumed
Fossil Fuels A nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago examples include oil, coal, and natural gas
Mining The removal process of resources through one of two processes surface or subsurface mining
Deforestation The process of removing trees
Reclamation The process of returning land to its original condition after mining is completed
Ore A natural material whose concentration of economically valuable minerals is high enough for the material to be mined profitably
Energy Conservation The act of saving energy ex. Turning off lights when you leave the room
Water Conversation The act of saving water ex. Taking shorter showers, turning off the water when brushing teeth
Air Conservation The act of saving air by not polluting ex. Walking, riding bikes instead of driving cars
Soil Conservation The act of saving soil ex not polluting (throwing trash on side of road)
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sedimentary
clastic
extrusive
rocks
metamorphic
nonfoliated
igneous
intrusive
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Weathering and Erosion Weathering and Erosion
Weathering The process by which rock materials are broken down by the action of physical and chemical processes
Mechanical Weathering The breakdown of rock into smaller pieces by physical means -extreme temperature changes and water increases rate of weathering
--agents Ice, abrasion, wind, water, gravity, plants, animals
Ice Wedging Result of water seeping into cracks during warm weather, then freezing and expanding during cold weather. This process continues and the crack widens.
Abrasion The grinding and wearing away of rock surfaces through the mechanical action of other rock or sand particles
Chemical Weathering The process by which rocks break down as a result of chemical reactions -weathering is faster in warm, humid climates
--agents Water, weak acids, air
Acid Precipitation Rain, sleet, or snow that contains a high concentration of acids
Oxidation A chemical reaction in which an element, such as iron, combines with oxygen to form an oxide
Gravity -affects weathering -the steepness of the slope of a mountain will cause the rainwater to run quicker
Erosion The process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
Deposition The process in which material is laid
-agents Water, wind, ice, gravity
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Soil Soil
Soil A loose mixture of rock fragments, organic material, water, and air that can support the growth of vegetation
Bedrock The layer of rock beneath the soil
Top soil The upper, outer most layer of soil that is richest in organic material usually 2-8 inches deep
Sub soil The soil laying directly under the top soil
Soil Texture The soil quality that is based on the proportions of soil particles sand, silt, clay
Sand A particle in soil that is .05-2mm in size
Silt A particle in soil that is .002-.05mm in size
Clay A particle in soil that is less than .002mm in size
Humus The dark, organic material formed in soil from the decayed remains of plants and animals
Loam Soil that contains almost equal amounts of sand, silt and clay. Soil is rich with nutrients and best suited for gardening.
Soil horizons Series of layers of soil with humus-rich soil on top (top soil), sediment below that and bedrock on the bottom
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Parent Rock
Chemical weathering
oxidation
soil
Mechanical weathering
Rock
Ice wedging
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Layers of the Earth Layers of the Earth
Crust The thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
Mantle The layer of rock between the earths crust and core
Core The central part of the earth below the mantle
Outer Core The liquid layer of the Earths core that lies beneath the mantle and surrounds the inner core
Inner Core The solid, dense center of the planet that extends from the bottom of the outer core to the center of the Earth
Lithosphere The outermost, rigid layer of the Earth. Made of two parts-the crust and rigid upper part of the mantle. The lithosphere is divided into pieces called tectonic plates
Asthenosphere The plastic layer of the mantle on which pieces of the lithosphere move. It is made of solid rock that flows very slowly
Mesosphere The strong, lower part of the mantle, beneath the asthenosphere. It extends from the bottom of the asthenosphere to the core.
Seismic Waves A wave of energy that travels through the Earth and away from an earthquake in all directions. Their speed depends on the density and composition of material that they pass through. A seismic wave traveling through a solid (inner core) will go faster than a seismic wave traveling through a liquid (outer core).
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Layer Temperature Composition Other
Crust 0- 1000OC Oxygen, silicon, aluminum -Thinnest layer (5-100km) -Oceanic and continental crust
Mantle 1000-3700OC More magnesium, less aluminum and silicon than crust -Thicker than crust -Contains more of Earths mass
Core 3700-7000OC Iron, small amounts of nickel -Roughly 1/3 of the earths mass
       
The core is denser than the mantle because it contains materials that are denser. The crust is the least dense of the layers because it contains materials that are less dense. The core is denser than the mantle because it contains materials that are denser. The crust is the least dense of the layers because it contains materials that are less dense. The core is denser than the mantle because it contains materials that are denser. The crust is the least dense of the layers because it contains materials that are less dense. The core is denser than the mantle because it contains materials that are denser. The crust is the least dense of the layers because it contains materials that are less dense.
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Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics
Tectonic Plates A block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle
Continental Drift The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
Pangaea The single, large continent that existed 245 million years ago, before the continents drifted to their current location
Sea-floor Spreading The process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies
Plate Tectonics The theory that explains how large pieces of the Earths outermost layer, called tectonic plates, move and change shape
Convergent Boundary The boundary formed by the collision of two lithospheric plates
Divergent Boundary The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
Transform Boundary The boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
Fault A break in a body of rock along which one block slides relative to another ex normal, reverse, strike-slip
As a result of plate tectonics -mountain building -uplift (rising of regions of crust) -subsidence (sinking of regions of crust) -earthquake
Fossils Fossils are used to show the age of the Earth and how it has/it changed
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  • Continental-Continental Collisions
  • --When two tectonic plates with continental crust
    collide, they buckle and thicken, which pushes
    the continental crust upward.
  • Continental-Oceanic Collisions
  • --When a plate with oceanic crust collides with a
    plate with continental crust, the denser oceanic
    crust sinks into the asthenosphere. This
    convergent boundary has a special name the
    subduction zone. Old ocean crust gets pushed into
    the asthenosphere, where it is remelted and
    recycled.
  • Oceanic-Oceanic Collisions
  • --When two tectonic plates with oceanic
    lithosphere collide, one of the plates with
    oceanic lithosphere is subducted, or sinks, under
    the other plate.
  • Moving Apart
  • --At a divergent boundary, two tectonic plates
    separate from each other. As they move apart,
    magma rises to fill the gap. At a mid-ocean
    ridge, the rising magma cools to form new sea
    floor.
  • Sliding Past
  • --At a transform boundary, two tectonic plates
    slide past one another. Because tectonic plates
    have irregular edges, they grind and jerk as they
    slide, which produces earthquakes.

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  • Normal Faults often form when rocks are pulled
    apart because of tension.
  • Reverse Faults often form when rocks are pushed
    together by compression.
  • Strike-Slip Faults are often formed when rocks
    are moved horizontally by opposing forces.

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Transform boundary
collide
separate
Divergent boundary
Tectonic plates
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Currents, Waves, Tides Currents, Waves, Tides
Ocean Current A movement of ocean water that follows a regular pattern
Surface Current A horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind and that occurs at or near the oceans surface
Deep Current A streamline movement of ocean water far below the surface How they form (pg. 420) -Decreasing Temperatures -Increasing Salinity Through Freezing -Increasing Salinity Through Evaporation
Waves Movement of water formed by wind, earthquakes, or other factors
crest top of the wave
trough bottom of the wave
Tides The periodic rise and fall of the water level in the oceans and other large bodies of water
Caused By rotation of Earth and moons revolution
Spring Tide A tide of increased range that occurs two times a month, at the new and full moon
Neap Tide A tide of minimum range that occurs during the first and third quarters of the moon
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Moon Phases and Eclipses Moon Phases and Eclipses
Phases The change in the sunlit area of one celestial body (moon) as seen from another celestial body (Earth).
Waxing The sunlit fraction that we can see is from Earth is getting larger
Waning The sunlit fraction that we can see from Earth is getting smaller
   
Eclipse An event in which the shadow on one celestial body falls on another
Solar Eclipse Occurs when the sun, moon and Earth are in line where the moon is between the sun and Earth. The moon seems to block out the sun.
Lunar Eclipse Occurs when the sun, Earth and moon are in line where the Earth is between the sun and moon. The Earth blocks most of the sun and the reflecting light gives the moon a reddish tint.
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Earths WaterThe Water Cycle Earths WaterThe Water Cycle
Water in the World 97 Salt Water (Oceans) 3 Fresh Water (Ice Caps, Underground, Rivers, Lakes)
Salinity A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
Composition of Ocean Water 55 chlorine (Cl) 30 Sodium (Na) NaCl (salt)
Desalination The process of removing salt from ocean water
Water Cycle The continuous movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean
Condensation A change from a gas to a liquid. As water vapor rises into the atmosphere, it cools and interacts with dust particles. Eventually, the water vapor turns to liquid water
Precipitation Solid or liquid water that falls to Earth. When water droplets become heavy enough, they fall back to Earths surface as precipitation. Most precipitation falls directly back to the ocean
Evaporation The physical change from a liquid to a gas. The sun heats liquid water, causing it to rise into the atmosphere as water vapor. Water evaporates directly from oceans, lakes, rivers, falling rain, plants, animals, and other sources
Transpiration The process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere
Infiltration (percolation) The movement of water through the ground
Runoff The water flow that occurs when the soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain or other sources flows over the land
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Subsurface Topography Subsurface Topography
Subsurface Topography The features of the ocean floor
Seamount A submerged mountain on the ocean floor that is at least 1,000 m high and that has a volcanic origin
Continental Shelf The gently sloping section of the continental margin located between the shoreline and the continental slope
Continental Slope The steeply inclined section of the continental margin located between the continental rise and continental shelf
Continental Rise The gently sloping section of the continental margin located between the continental slope and abyssal plain
Abyssal Plain A large, flat, almost level area of the deep-ocean basin
Mid-Ocean Ridge A long, undersea mountain chain that forms along the floor of the major oceans
Ocean Trenches A steep, long depression in the deep-sea floor that runs parallel to a chain of volcanic islands or a continental margin
Rift Valley A long, narrow valley that forms as tectonic plates separate
Pacific Ocean Location West of North America Largest ocean
   
Atlantic Ocean Location East of North America 2nd largest ocean
   
Indian Ocean Location Between Africa, Asia, and Australia 3rd largest ocean
   
Artic Ocean Location North of Europe Smallest ocean
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Abyssal plain
Mid-ocean ridge
Continental shelf
Continental slope
trench
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Waves
wavelength
crest
Wave height
Wave speed
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Stratosphere The layer of the atmosphere that is above the troposphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases. In this layer the gases are layered and do not mix much. strata- meaning layer -sphere meaning ball
Mesosphere The layer of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and the thermosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases. meso- meaning middle -sphere meaning ball
Thermosphere The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases at altitude increases. In this layer the temperatures are the highest. thermo- meaning heat -sphere meaning ball
Atmosphere and Weather Atmosphere and Weather
Atmosphere A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon
Composition 78 Nitrogen 21 Oxygen 1 Other (argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor, other gases)
Air pressure The measure of the force with which are molecules push on a surface. Air pressure increases closer to the Earths surface.
Layers of the atmosphere Troposphere, Stratosphere, mesosphere, Thermosphere
Troposphere The lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature decreases at a constant rate as altitude increases. tropo- meaning turning or change -sphere meaning ball (surrounding)
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Atmospheric Heating The Earth and its atmosphere are heated by processes of radiation, thermal conduction, and convection.
Radiation That transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves. Energy from the sun is absorbed by the atmosphere, land, and water and changed into thermal energy. 50 is absorbed by Earths surface, 25 is reflected by clouds and air, 20 is absorbed by ozone, clouds, and atmospheric gases, and 5 is reflected by Earths surface.
Thermal Conduction The transfer of energy as heat through a material
Convection The movement of matter due to differences in density the transfer of energy due to the movement of matter circulation
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Greenhouse Effect The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases absorb and reradiate thermal energy.
Global Warming A gradual increase in average global temperature
Wind The movement of air caused by differences in air pressure
Coriolis Effect The apparent curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to the Earths rotation
Global Winds Polar easterlies-prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60o and 90o latitude in both hemispheres Westerlies-prevailing winds that blow from weat to east between 30o and 60o latitude in both hemispheres Trade winds-prevailing winds that blow northeast from 30o north latitude to the equator and that blow southeast from 30o south latitude to the equator Doldrums-area between Northern and Southern hemispheres where there is very little wind because the warm, rising air created an area of low pressure Horse latitudes-area of weak winds with sinking dry air that is about 30o to 60o south latitude. Jet streams-a narrow belt of strong winds that blow in the upper troposphere
Local Winds Sea and land breezes Mountain breezes, valley breezes
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radiation
pressure
mesosphere
atmosphere
nitrogen
troposphere
oxygen
thermosphere
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Air Masses Air Masses
Air Mass A large body of air where temperature and moisture content are constant throughout
Maritime (m) Forms over water wet
Continental (c) Forms over land dry
Polar (P) Forms over the polar regions cold
Tropical (T) Develops over the Tropics warm
Cold Air Masses affecting North America Continental polar (cP) Maritime polar (mP) Cold Air Masses affecting North America Continental polar (cP) Maritime polar (mP)
Warm Air Masses affecting North America Maritime tropical (mT) Continental tropical (cT) Warm Air Masses affecting North America Maritime tropical (mT) Continental tropical (cT)
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Fronts The boundary between air masses of different densities and usually different temperatures
Cold Front Forms where cold air moves under warm air, which is less dense, and pushes the warm air up. Usually move quickly and cause thunderstorms, heavy rain or snow. Cooler air usually follows.
Warm Front Forms where warm air moves over cold, denser air. The warm air gradually replaces the cold air. Generally brings drizzly rain followed by clear and warm weather.
Occluded Front Forms when a warm air mass is caught between two colder air masses. The coldest air mass pushes up the warm up air mass and moves forward and meets the other cold air mass. Has cool temperatures and large amount of rain and snow.
Stationary Front Forms when a cold air mass meets a warm air mass but does not have enough force to lift it. They remain separated and brings many days of cloudy, wet weather.
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Clouds Clouds
Humidity The amount of water vapor in the air
Relative Humidity The ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the amount of water vapor needed to reach saturation at a given temperature
Factors affecting relative humidity -Amount of water vapor -Temperature  
Measuring relative humidity Psychrometer which consists of a wet and dry bulb. Use a chart that shows differences in bulb readings to find relative humidity.
Condensation The change of state from a gas to a liquid
Cloud A collection of small water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air, which forms when the air is cooled and condensation occurs
Cumulus Cloud A fluffy white cloud with a flat bottom that is formed with warm air rises. This type of cloud generally indicates fair weather but when large in size, cause thunderstorms (cumulonimbus cloud).
Stratus Clouds A type of cloud that forms in layers that cover large areas and often block out sun. Fog is a type of status cloud that forms near the ground.
Cirrus Clouds Thin, feathery, white clouds found at high altitudes that are formed when the wind is strong.
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water
hail
cumulus
humidity
weather
Air masses
cirrus
clouds
front
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Ocean currents
seasons
latitude
climate
Prevailing winds
curved
mountains
Large bodies of water
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Hurricane A severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and whose strong winds of more than 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center. Caused when a group of thunderstorms is moving over the water and wind in different directions meet and spin.
Eye Center of a hurricane
El Nino A change in the surface water temperature in the Pacific Ocean that produces a warm current
La Nina A change in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which the surface water temperature becomes unusually cool
Severe Weather Severe Weather
Thunderstorm A usually brief, heavy storm that consists of rain, strong winds, lightning, and thunder
Lightning An electric discharge that takes place between two oppositely charged surfaces, such as between a cloud and the ground, between two clouds, or between two parts of the same cloud.
Thunder The sound caused by the rapid expansion of air along an electric strike
Tornadoes A destructive, rotating column of air that has very high wind speeds, is visible as a funnel-shaped could, and touches the ground. Caused when wind moving in two directions causes a layer of air in the middle and begins to spin.
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Rotation The spin of a body on its axis. As the Earth rotates, only ½ of the Earth faces the sun. The half facing the sun is day and the half facing away is night.
Revolution The motion of a body that travels around another body in space. Earths revolution around the Sun is about 365.25 days.
Orbit The path that a body follows as it travels around another body in space
Gravity The force that pulls two objects together. The gravity between the Earth and the moon allow for the moon to orbit the earth.
Tilt of the Earth Tilt of the Earth
Weather The short-term state of the atmosphere, including temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind and visibility
Climate The average weather condition in an area over a long period of time
Suns rays Strike the earths surface at different angles because the surface of the earth is curved. More direct angle near equator and less at the poles
Seasons Differing weather during different times of the year due to the fact that the earth is tilted on its axis at 23.5o angle. The tilt affects how much solar energy an area receives at the Earth moves around the sun. Locations near the equator have less seasonal change.
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Planets Planets
Satellites A natural or artificial body that revolves around a planet
Moon Revolves planets and has not atmosphere. All planets except Mercury and Venus have moons. Earths moon is called Luna
Inner Planets Consisting of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. These inner planets are closets to the sun and are more closely spaced.
Terrestrial Planets Also known as the inner planets because their surfaces are dense and rocky.
Outer Planets Consisting of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. These outer planets are large and composed mostly of gases.
Dwarf Planet Any object that orbits the sun, is round because of its own gravity, but has not cleared its orbital path -Pluto demoted to dwarf planet in 2006, less than half the size of Mercury, made of ice and rock, moon named Charon
Comet A small body of ice, rock, and cosmic dust that follows an elliptical orbit around the sun and that gives off gas and dust in the form of a tail as it passes close to the sun
Asteroid A small, rocky object that orbits the sun, usually in a band between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
Asteroid Belt The region of the solar system that is between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter (between the inner and outer planets) in which asteroids orbit
Meteors A bright streak of light that results when a meteoroid burns up in the Earths atmosphere
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Planets
Mercury -Closest to the sun -Takes 88 Earth days to revolve one time around sun -One day on Mercury is 59 Earth Days -Distance from the sun 3.2 light-minutes (35, 983, 095 miles) -Surface features Large craters, diverse temperatures (-279 to 801F) but no atmosphere to trap the heat so it cools rapidly -Size Diameter 3,032 miles (4,879 km), smaller than Earth -Ability to support life No, not much of atmosphere and high temps.
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Venus -Known as Earths twin/sister -Length of a year is 225 Earth days -Length of Year is 5,832 hours -Revolution is retrograde/clockwise (opposite of Earth) -Distance from the sun 6 light-minutes (67, 237, 910 miles) -Surface features Very high temperature of 864oF or 462C), Volcanoes on surface, reflective cloud cover -Size Diameter 7,521 miles (12,104 km), similar to size of Earth -Ability to support life No, atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide and destructive acids
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Earth -Only known planet to support life -Length of day is 23 hours, 56 minutes -Length of year is 365 days, 6 hours, 16 minutes -Only has one natural satellite (Moon) that keeps our climate steady and is 238,855 miles from Earth -Distance from the sun 8.3 light minutes (92,955,820 miles) -Surface features Water, air, weather, land -Size Diameter 7,926 miles (12,765 km) -Ability to support life Yes, mostly covered in water and healthy air
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Mars -Known as the Red planet -Length of year is 687 Earth days (1 year, 322 days) -Length of day is 24 hours, 37 minutes -Two moons (Phobos and Deimos) -Distance from the sun 12.7 light-minutes (141,633,260 miles) -Surface features Rocky surface, volcanoes, shifting tectonic plates, dust storms, polar ice caps, temperature range from -125 to 23F, low air pressure -Size Diameter 4,222 miles (6,794 km), smaller than Earth -Ability to support life No, temperature is too cold, low air pressure that water boils away
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Jupiter -Largest planet in our solar system -See beautiful colors due to small amounts of organic compounds -Length of year is 4,331 Earth days (11 years, 313 days) -Length of the days is 9 hours, 56 minutes -63 moons4 largest are Europa, lo, Callisto, Ganymede -Distance from the sun 43.3 light-minutes (483,682,810 miles) -Surface features Made mostly of hydrogen and helium like the sun, average temperature -234F -Size Diameter 88,846 miles (142,984 km), larger than Earth -Ability to support life No because of the atmosphere
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Saturn -Second largest planet -Most prominent rings (but all gas giants have rings) made of icy particles -Length of year is 10,759 Earth days (29 years, 155 days) -Length of the day is 10 hours, 39 minutes -52 moons(Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Titan) -Distance from the sun 1.3 light-hours -Surface features Made of mostly hydrogen and helium, fast winds and rising heat cause yellow/gold banding, average temp -288F -Size Diameter 74,898 miles (120,536 km), larger than Earth, 764 times the volume of Earth and 95 times more massive -Ability to support life No because of the atmosphere
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Uranus -Tilted on its axis maybe caused from being hit by massive object -Length of year is 30,687 Earth days (83 years, 273 days) -Length of day is 17 hours, 15 minutes - Revolution is retrograde/clockwise (opposite of Earth) -27 Moons5 major moons (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Oberon, Titania) -Distance from the sun 2.7 light-hours (1,783,939,400 miles) -Surface features Atmosphere made up of hydrogen and methane causing bright blue color, average temperature -357F -Size Diameter 31,764 miles (51,118 km), larger than Earth -Ability to support life No because of the atmosphere
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Neptune -Outermost planet -Length of year is 60,190 Earth days (163 years, 263 days) -Length of day is 16 hours, 7 minutes -13 moons(Nereid, Triton) -Distance from the sun 4.2 light-hours (2,795,084,800 miles) -Surface features Hurricane like storms, belts of clouds, blue in color from methane gas, average temperature -353F -Size Diameter 30,776 miles (49, 528 km), larger than Earth -Ability to support life No because of atmosphere
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Hubble Telescope A large telescope in space that astronomers use to study the solar system.
Star A collection of gases held together by gravity. The closest star to Earth is the sun.
Inertia An objects resistance in speed or direction until outside force acts on the object.
Gravity The force that attracts plants, stars, etc. and is responsible for keeping objects in orbit. Ex. Earth around the sun, moon around Earth, etc. Gravity is the force that governs the motion of the solar system.
Elliptical The shape of an elongated circle/oval. The shape of our solar system
Revolution The motion of a body that travels around another body in space one complete trip along an orbit
Universe and Solar System Universe and Solar System
Heliocentric sun-centered theory in which the sun is the center of the solar system and the Earth and other planets revolve around the sun
Geocentric Earth-centered theory in which the Earth is the center of the solar system and the sun and other planets revolve around the Earth (old theory)
Big Bang Theory The theory that states that the universe began with a tremendous explosion (gases under pressure) 13.7 billion years ago
Universe A vast area of loosely repeated structures. Contains our galaxy The Milky Way
Galaxy A collection of stars, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
Milky Way The galaxy that contains out solar system which contains Earth
Solar System The collection of planets, stars, etc. that contains our planet Earth.
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