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Chapter 20 Global Climate Change

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Chapter 20 Global Climate Change – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 20 Global Climate Change


1
Chapter 20Global Climate Change
2
Climate Change Terminology
  • Greenhouse Gas
  • Gas that absorbs infrared radiation
  • Positive Feedback
  • Change in some condition triggers a response that
    intensifies the changed condition
  • Infrared Radiation
  • Radiation that has a wavelength that is longer
    than that of visible light, but shorter than that
    of radio waves
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • Increase of heat in a system where energy enters
    (often as light), is absorbed as heat, and
    released sometime later

3
Introduction to Climate Change
  • "Scientific evidence for warming of the climate
    system is unequivocal." - Intergovernmental Panel
    on Climate Change
  • IPCC Climate Report
  • http//ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/images/uploads/WGIIAR5-TS_
    FGDall.pdf
  • http//www.bing.com/videos/search?qclimatechange
    bbcattenboroughFORMHDRSC3viewdetailmidF865
    7BC6542C701ABE80F8657BC6542C701ABE80

4
Evidence of Climate Changehttp//climate.nasa.gov
/
  • Spring in N. hemisphere now begins 6 days earlier

5
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Sea level rise

6
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Global temperature rise

7
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Warming oceans

8
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Shrinking ice sheets

Flowing meltwater from the Greenland ice sheet
9
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Declining Arctic sea ice

10
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Glacial retreat

11
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Extreme events

12
Evidence of Climate Change
  • Ocean acidification

13
Introduction to Climate Change Mean Annual
Global Temperature 19602007

14
Causes of Climate Change
  • Greenhouse gas concentrations increasing

15
Causes of Climate Change
  • Increased concentration of CO2
  • Burning fossil fuels in cars, industry and homes
  • Deforestation
  • Burning of forests

16
Greenhouse Effect

17
Pollutants That Cool the Atmosphere
  • Atmospheric Aerosols
  • Both human and natural sources
  • Tiny particles that remain in troposphere for
    weeks or months
  • Often contain sulfur
  • Complicates models of climate change

18
Climate Models
  • Climate affected by
  • winds, clouds, ocean currents, and albedo
  • Advanced models can project future warming events
  • Models have limitations

19
Effects of Global Climate Change
  • Wildfire in California

20
Effects of Global Climate Change 1. Melting Ice
and Rising Sea Levels
  • Sea level rise caused in 2 ways
  • Thermal Expansion
  • Melting of land ice
  • Melting has positive feedback
  • Increased melting decreases ice, which decreases
    albedo leading to further warming

21
Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels

1957
1998
Glacier National Park
22
 
                                                                                                                                   
 
                                                                                                                                   
23
Impacts in Fragile Areas
  • Eskimo Inuit
  • Climate change is altering their existence
  • Wildlife displaced
  • Reduced snow cover and shorter river ice seasons
  • Thawing of permafrost (right)
  • Tuvalu- threatened by permanent flooding on their
    island

24
Effects of Global Climate Change 2. Changing
Precipitation Patterns
  • Some areas will get more water, some areas will
    have greater droughts

25
Effects of Global Climate Change 3. Effects on
Organisms
  • Zooplankton in parts of CA have decreased by 80
    since 1951
  • Effecting entire food chain
  • Decline in krill around Antarctica
  • Species have shifted their geographic range
  • Migrating birds are returning to summer homes
    earlier

26
Effects on Organisms Coral Reefs
  • Coral reefs can be bleached (right) due to
    increase in water temperature

27
Effect on Organisms Vegetation

28
4. Effects on Human Health
  • Increased number of heat-related illnesses and
    deaths

29
5. Effects on Agriculture
  • Difficult to anticipate
  • Rise in sea level will inundate farmland
  • Pests?
  • Warmer temperatures will decrease soil moisture-
    requiring more irrigation
  • Location where certain crops can be grown may
    change

30
International Implications of Climate Change
  • Developed vs. Developing countries

31
Dealing with Global Climate Change
  • Two ways to manage climate change
  • Mitigation Limiting greenhouse gas emissions to
    moderate global climate change
  • Adaptation Learning to live with environmental
    changes and societal consequences brought about
    by global climate change

32
Relationship Between Mitigation and Adaptation

33
Dealing with Global Climate Change Mitigation
  • Locate/invent alternative fuels to fossil fuels
  • Increase efficiency of cars and trucks
  • Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Plant and Maintain trees to naturally sequester
    carbon

34
Dealing with Global Climate Change Adaptation
  • Rising sea levels and coastal populations
  • Move inland
  • Construct dikes and levees
  • Adapt to shifting agricultural zones
  • NYC sewer line

35
International Efforts to Reduce Greenhouse Gas
Emission
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Legally binding
  • Provides rules on reducing greenhouse gases
  • US and Australia have not sign it - it will be
    difficult to implement without US backing

36
  • Chapter 21 Global Climate Change Climate Crisis
    Networkhttp//www.climatecrisis.net/takeaction/
  • Goddard Institute for Space Studies Surface
    Temperature Analysishttp//data.giss.nasa.gov/gis
    temp/
  • United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
    Changehttp//www.ipcc.ch/
  • US Global Change Research Programhttp//www.globa
    lchange.gov/
  • Pew Center on Global Climate Changehttp//www.pew
    climate.org/
  • World View of Global Warming - The Photographic
    Documentation of Climate Changehttp//www.worldvi
    ewofglobalwarming.org/pages/glaciers.html
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