Devotional Unity and Coalitional Division: How Religion plays both Jekyll and Hyde to Religious Tolerance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Devotional Unity and Coalitional Division: How Religion plays both Jekyll and Hyde to Religious Tolerance

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Devotional Unity and Coalitional Division: How Religion plays both Jekyll and Hyde to Religious Tolerance Predicts intolerance Coalitional division – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Devotional Unity and Coalitional Division: How Religion plays both Jekyll and Hyde to Religious Tolerance


1
Devotional Unity and Coalitional Division How
Religion plays both Jekyll and Hyde to Religious
Tolerance
Predicts intolerance
Coalitional division
Devotional unity
Predicts tolerance
Ian Hansen
2
With thanks to
  • Ara Norenzayan
  • Jeremy Ginges
  • Sheldon Solomon
  • John Rector
  • Ilan Dar-Nimrod
  • Hakwan Lau

3
Religion is evil. Not only is it false, but it
will make you religiously intolerant and violent
                                    

                                    

4
Why religion is bad, in a nutshell
  • Incompatible religious doctrines have balkanized
    our world into separate moral communities, and
    these divisions have become a continuous source
    of human conflict.
  • Sam Harris, atheist, author of The End of Faith

5
An example of violent religiously intolerant
sentiment
  • We are at war with Islam It is not merely that
    we are at war with an otherwise peaceful religion
    that has been hijacked by extremists.  We are
    at war with precisely the vision of life that is
    prescribed to all Muslims in the Koran...

Pat Robertson, of Christian Coalition infamy
6
Oops, actually that wasnt Pat Robertson. It was
Sam Harris again
  • More wit and wisdom from Sam
  • What will we do if an Islamist regimeacquires
    long-range nuclear weaponry? In such a
    situation, the only thing likely to ensure our
    survival may be
  • a nuclear first strike of our own.

BOOM!
7
Joking aside, Pat Robertson is still scary
  • Maybe we need a very small nuke thrown off on
    Foggy Bottom to shake things up
  • --Pat Robertson, on the 700 club

8
Seekers dilemma should you adopt a religious or
non-religious worldview?
Nuked if you do
Nuked if you dont
9
What predicts intolerance?
  • Dogmatism, fundamentalism, exclusivity,
    authoritarianism--coalitional rigidity

Coalitional rigidity

When controlling for religious devotion
Religious intolerance
10
What predicts coalitional rigidity?
  • Prayer, belief in God, devotion to the divine,
    devotion to ones religious belief, intrinsic
    religiosityreligious devotion

Coalitional rigidity


When controlling for religious intolerance
Religious intolerance
Religious devotion
11
Incomprehensible Triangle
  • Religious devotion has a NEGATIVE direct
    relationship to religious intolerance, although
    indirectly positively related

Coalitional rigidity


-
Religious intolerance
Religious devotion
When controlling for coalitional rigidity
12
Re-draw the triangle?
  • Devotion and rigidity two faces of the same
    thing?
  • These inclinations are very highly correlated

Coalitional rigidity


Religious intolerance
Religious devotion
-
13
The religious package is Janus-faced with regard
to religious intolerance
Religious Tolerance
Religious intolerance
Religious devotion
Coalitional rigidity
14
Janus-faced on Scapegoating
15
Janus-faced on War and Oppression
16
Janus-faced on Anti-Pluralism
17
Janus-faced on intolerance generally
18
Janus-faced even among Mormons
Political intolerance for Multireligious people,
Hindus, Muslims, Catholics, Jews and Atheists
p lt .1 p lt .01
19
How is Janus-faced prediction possible?
  • The principle of transitivity objection
  • If A B and B C, then how can A C?
  • Answer
  • The principle of transitivity applies only to is
    exactly the same as, not independently predicts

20
What is the sound of one hand clapping?
  • Both processes complementary, but very
    differentand when examined independently of each
    other may predict very different things.

Religious devotion
Rising to all-embracing altruistic loving unity
Religion!
Coalitional rigidity
Pragmatically pushing back limits of altruistic
love to a manageable, quality- controlled ingroup
21
Devotion and rigidity as two complementary yet
opposing processes of adaptive ingroup favoritism
  • Religious devotion aids the imaginative
    expansion of the boundary of moral inclusion
  • Coalitional rigidity aids the pragmatic
    hardening of the boundary of moral exclusion

22
What about experimental evidence?
23
Terror Management evidence What makes people
hate others also makes them like God
24
But it also makes them like Buddha
Belief in Buddha among Christians
25
and Shamanic Spirits
26
And makes them more sanguine about Islam
conquering the West
Support for a Godly-Islam -will-overthrow-the- fai
thless-West essay
N
N
27
Priming God-esteem increases preference for
pacifism over warrior values
28
Priming God-esteem decreases authoritarianism and
political intolerance
29
This mirrors Ginges et al (2007)
30
Theoretical implications
  • Religion is not black and white

WRONG!
rigidity
liberalism
VS.






devotion
intolerance
tolerance
atheism
31
Think of things more in terms of complementary
colors
Intolerance
Tolerance
32
Think of things more in terms of complementary
colors
Coalitional rigidity
Liberal-mindedness
33
Think of things more in terms of complementary
colors
Religious Devotion
Irreligious non-devotion
34
Think of things more in terms of complementary
colors
Intolerance
Tolerance
35
With Janus-faced adjustment
Religious package Religious-devotion/coalitional
-rigidity
Religious tolerance and nonviolence
Religious intolerance and violence
Non-religious package Liberal-mindedness/irrelig
ious non-devotion
36
Not all divides equally likely
Mother Teresa vs. Christopher Hitchens
Texas vs. Sweden
Mohandas Gandhi vs. Winston Churchill
Common
Common
Rare
37
A very commonperhaps natural?psychological
divide
(Religious) Right
Left (Irreligious)
38
Psych tip for the Pentagon
How to get both Right and Left behind the War of
Civilizations
BOOM!
BOOM!
RIGID
devoted
ATHEIST
liberal
Pump up the Right with rigidity
Pump up the Left with atheism
39
Burning question Arent some religions and
ideologies more tolerant than others?
40
Watch the Muslims Part 1 (Malaysia)
Muslims most intolerant
41
Watch the Muslims Part 2 (10 nations)
Muslims least intolerant
42
Review
  • Does religion contribute to war, oppression and
    intolerance in the world?
  • --Likely, but it can also contributes to peace,
    freedom and tolerance
  • Do more religious religions have more potential
    for intolerance and violence?
  • --Yes, but also more potential for tolerance and
    nonviolence
  • Can religions be rank ordered by intolerance and
    support for violence?
  • --Yes, but the rank ordering is very volatile and
    can be turned on its head from one measure of
    intolerance to the next, one country to the next,
    one period of history to the next.

43
Chicken Egg issues
  • Coalitional rigidity pragmatically shadows
    pro-social religious devotion?
  • Or
  • Religious devotion gives people memorable content
    to be adaptively rigid about?

44
Pleistocene accident or proximal psychological
process?
  • Are devotion and rigidity separate processes that
    adaptively balance each other?
  • or
  • Does proximal stimulation of devotion cause
    rigidity or vice versa?

45
Sociology vs. Psychology
  • Even if religious devotion is psychologically
    related to tolerance for the individual, do
    sociological pressures ensure that rigidity will
    overshadow devotion?

46
Conclusion
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