The Sociological and Demographic Traditions in Life Course Research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Sociological and Demographic Traditions in Life Course Research PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6876bf-NzQ4Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Sociological and Demographic Traditions in Life Course Research

Description:

The Sociological and Demographic Traditions in Life Course Research Aart C. Liefbroer Register data Advantages: Information on the complete population Accurate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:21
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 9 January 2020
Slides: 48
Provided by: liefbroer
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Sociological and Demographic Traditions in Life Course Research


1
The Sociological and Demographic Traditions in
Life Course Research
Aart C. Liefbroer
2
Outline
  • What is the key difference between the
    sociological and demographic traditions?
  • The Sociological Tradition Important
    sociological questions in studying the life
    course
  • The Demographic Tradition Important approaches
    in studying demographic life courses

3
Life course sociology or demography?
  • Life course is one of the most interdisciplinary
    fields in social science
  • Two types of foci
  • Domain specific, e.g. demography, health
  • Specific lens on all domains of the life course,
    e.g. psychology, sociology
  • What is specific to the sociological lens?
  • Sociology looks at life courses not as expression
    of an unfolding personality but as regularities
    produced by institutions and structural
    opportunities (Diewald Mayer, 2009)

4
Life course sociology or demography?
  • Life course is one of the most interdisciplinary
    fields in social science
  • Two types of foci
  • Domain specific, e.g. demography, health
  • Specific lens on all domains of the life course,
    e.g. psychology, sociology
  • What is specific to the demographic approach?
  • Focus on demographic events (birth, death,
    migration, household change)
  • Focus on methodological toolkit
  • Focus on macro-level outcomes

5
What is life course sociology?
  • Most famous view is that of Glen Elder
  • Four key principles of life course research
  • Human agency
  • Timing of life (individual time)
  • Linked lives (social time)
  • Location in time and space (historical time)

6
What is life course sociology?
Scope of analysis Scope of analysis
Level of analysis Macro-sociological Micro-sociological
Structural
Cultural
Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989)
7
What is life course sociology?
Scope of analysis Scope of analysis
Level of analysis Macro-sociological Micro-sociological
Structural The life course as an actual sequence of status/role configurations
Cultural
Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989)
8
What is life course sociology?
Scope of analysis Scope of analysis
Level of analysis Macro-sociological Micro-sociological
Structural Institutionalization of the life course as a set of rules institutionalized status/role configurations The life course as an actual sequence of status/role configurations
Cultural
Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989)
9
What is life course sociology?
Scope of analysis Scope of analysis
Level of analysis Macro-sociological Micro-sociological
Structural Institutionalization of the life course as a set of rules institutionalized status/role configurations The life course as an actual sequence of status/role configurations
Cultural Individual representations of the biography biographical perspectives and strategies
Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989)
10
What is life course sociology?
Scope of analysis Scope of analysis
Level of analysis Macro-sociological Micro-sociological
Structural Institutionalization of the life course as a set of rules institutionalized status/role configurations The life course as an actual sequence of status/role configurations
Cultural Collective representations and ideologies of the biography Individual representations of the biography biographical perspectives and strategies
Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989) Source Buchmann (1989)
11
What is life course sociology?
Rules Policies
Life course as lived
Life course as perceived
Scripts norms
12
What is life course sociology?
Issue 1 How do institutional arrangements
influence individual life courses?
Rules Policies
Life course as lived
Life course as perceived
Scripts norms
13
What is life course sociology?
Issue 1 How do institutional arrangements
influence individual life courses?

Rules Policies
Life course as lived

Life course as perceived
Scripts norms
Institutionalization
14
How do policies structure the life course?
  • Leisering (2003) on Government and the Life
    Course
  • Three core fields (or sets of programs) of social
    policy
  • Education
  • Old-age pensions
  • Systems of risk management social assistance,
    social insurance health, unemployment,
    accident, personal social services
  • Three modes of operation of the welfare state in
    shaping the life course
  • Structuration / differentiation
  • Integration
  • Normative modeling

15
How do policies structure the life course?
  • Structuration / differentiation
  • Education and old age pensions differentiate the
    life course into three stages, thereby
    structuring the life course
  • Integration
  • Establishing connections between the different
    life stages
  • Policies act as bridges over lifes
    discontinuities and mend the life course
  • Normative modeling
  • Policies convey norms about appropriate
    behaviour, e.g. by putting a premium on normal
    life courses

16
How do policies influence the life course?
17
What is life course sociology?
Issue 2 How do norms and scripts influence
individual life courses?
Rules Policies
Life course as lived
Life course as perceived
Scripts norms
18
How do norms and scripts influence the life
course?
  • Shared expectations about appropriate life
    course behaviour, e.g. occurrence, timing,
    sequencing and combination of events
  • Two types of views, shared expectations as norms
    or as scripts
  • Norms expectations backed up by sanctions if the
    norms are violated
  • Scripts expectations internalized by individuals
    (sanctions are not necessary)

19
What is life course sociology?
Issue 2 How do norms and scripts influence
individual life courses?
Rules Policies
Life course as lived
-
Life course as perceived
-
Scripts norms
Individualization
20
What is individualization
  • Two views
  • Individualization as a loosening of normative
    constraints on individual behaviour. Norms and
    scripts loose their hold on individuals and they
    start deciding by themselves. Individual freedom
    in living ones life is increased (Giddens, Beck)
  • Individualization as an internalization of
    normative constraints (Elias) or as a way of
    imbuing individuals with capacities and skills
    that are essential in modern societies with
    rapidly changing demands (Meyer)
  • Both views have different consequences
  • The first view emphasizes decreasing cultural and
    structural constraints
  • The second view emphasizes changing cultural and
    structural constraints

21
What is life course sociology?
Issue 3 How are lives as lived and lives as
perceived related?
Rules Policies
Life course as lived
Life course as perceived
Scripts norms
Life planning
22
Life planning
  • The idea that individuals have to plan their own
    future. This implies that they can influence
    their own behaviour and that they (constantly)
    reinterpret their life experiences
  • This view is put forward by Giddens and Beck
    Beck-Gernsheim. The latter even speak about homo
    optionis
  • This view has been criticized by researchers who
    emphasize that social background still is a very
    dominant force in shaping life courses
  • Research by Brannen Nielsen and Brooks
    Everett suggests
  • In particular middle class young adults focus on
    life planning
  • Lower classes are not very likely to focus on
    life planning they follow traditional scripts
  • Upper classes are not very likely to focus in
    life planning their superior education
    (Oxbridge) makes it unnecessary to plan

23
Life planning
  • Life planning may be influenced by ones
    capacities to plan and ones needs to plan
  • Research by Hellevik Settersten shows
  • Across European countries, young adults with more
    personal resources are more likely to plan than
    young adults with fewer personal resources
  • Young adults in countries with less favourable
    societal conditions are more likely to plan than
    young adults in countries with more favourable
    societal conditions

24
What is life course sociology?
Issue 4 How do people deal with discrepancies
between scripts and opportunities?
Rules Policies
Life course as lived
Life course as perceived
Scripts norms
Culture / Structure discrepancies
25
Culture/structure discrepancies
  • Life course culture (e.g. stress on life
    planning and freedom of choice) and life course
    structure (e.g. the life course policies that
    are available) may not fit
  • This situation of a discrepancy between societal
    goals and societal means may lead to anomie
    (Merton)
  • Five ways to deal with this discrepancies
  • Conformism (both goals and means are accepted)
  • Innovation (goals are accepted but means not)
  • Ritualism (means are accepted but goals not)
  • Retreat (both goals and means are not accepted)
  • Rebellion (both goals and means are not accepted,
    but new ones are actively propagated)

26
What is life course sociology?
Issue 5 How do changes in life courses influence
policies and scripts?
Rules Policies
Life course as lived
Life course as perceived
Scripts norms
Duality of structure
27
Duality of structure
  • Structure influences life course behaviours and
    perceptions
  • The notion of agency implies that the opposite
    effect also occurs if people start behaving
    differently, this will lead to changing rules and
    changing scripts
  • Life course research is biased towards
    structure influencing behaviour, and little
    attention is paid to the opposite path of
    influence

28
What is life course demography?
  • The history of life course demography dates back
    at least to the 17th century.
  • John Graunts life table

29
A focus on the macro-level
  • The life table is based on the timing of
    individual events
  • But is meant to describe the evolution of a
    population
  • The same is true for another key demographic
    concept the cohort
  • A cohort is a group of individuals who have
    experienced the same event at the same time (or
    time-period)
  • Social change partly results from the succession
    of cohorts in a population (Ryder)
  • Demographers use the Lexis-diagram to study
    whether variation in rates depend on age, period
    or cohort

30
Lexis-surface (Vaupel et al., 1998)
31
Entry into marriage (Billari Liefbroer, 2010)
32
From macro to micro
  • Demographers want to describe population changes,
    but also project these changes
  • What is going to happen with births, deaths,
    migration, household formation?
  • To project, understanding the mechanisms behind
    demographic behaviours is crucial
  • This asks for the analysis of the determinants of
    micro-behaviour
  • From demography to demology?

33
Micro-level approaches
  • Focus is on describing and understanding
  • Timing of events (when do they happen?)
  • Sequence of events (in what order do they
    happen?)
  • Quantum of events (how often do they happen?)
  • Two main data sources
  • Register data
  • Survey data
  • Two main approaches
  • Event-history analysis
  • Sequence analysis

34
Register data
  • Advantages
  • Information on the complete population
  • Accurate information on vital events (no recall
    error)
  • Disadvantages
  • Information is not targeted to social-science use
  • Information on a limited number of variables

35
Survey data
  • Advantages
  • Data on more relevant processes (e.g.
    cohabitation)
  • Information on a rich set of covariates
  • Disadvantages
  • Non-response bias
  • Recall error

36
Event-history analysis
  • Main goal is to examine which factors influence
    the timing of demographic events
  • Focus on causal analysis
  • Main challenge Are explanatory variables
    really exogenous or not?
  • Examples
  • Relationship between educational attainment and
    childbearing
  • Relationship between marriage and childbearing
  • Remedies
  • Use of time-varying covariates
  • Simultaneous modelling of multiple processes

37
Example from Brien et al., 1999
38
Example from Brien et al., 1999
39
Sequence analysis
  • Main goal is to examine the patterning or
    sequencing of demographic events
  • Focus on descriptive analysis

40
Example from Bras et al., 2010
41
Sequence analysis
  • Examples of sequences from age 18 to 30
  • 18 P 21 S 22 SC
  • 18 P 19 K 20 N 24 S 27 SC 29
    S
  • 18 N 22 S 23 SC 25 SCP 29 SC

42
Sequence analysis
  • Main goal is to examine the patterning or
    sequencing of demographic events
  • Focus on descriptive analysis
  • Challenges
  • How to calculate the level of similarity between
    sequences
  • How to decide on the number of different patterns
  • How to link sequences to background
    characteristics

43
Example from Bras et al., 2010
44
Example from Bras et al., 2010
45
Conclusions
  • The sociological tradition looks at the impact of
    social regularities on the life course (how do
    societies shape the life course?)
  • The demographic tradition looks at a specific set
    of phenomena (birth, death, migration, household
    shift)
  • The sociological tradition is strong in theories,
    the demographic tradition is strong in methods
  • Both traditions share a reliance on survey data

46
References
  • Beck, U., Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2002).
    Individualization. Institutionalized
    individualism and its social and political
    consequences. London Sage.
  • Billari, F. C. A. C. Liefbroer (2010) Towards a
    new pattern of transition to adulthood? Advances
    in Life Course Research, 15, 59-75.
  • Brannen, J., Nilsen, A. (2002). Young peoples
    time perspectives From youth to adulthood.
    Sociology, 36(3), 513-537.
  • Bras, H., Liefbroer, A.C., Elzinga, C.H.
    (2010). Standardization of pathways to adulthood?
    An analysis of Dutch cohorts born between 1850
    and 1900. Demography, 47 (4), 1013-1034.
  • Brien, M. J., L. A. Lillard L. J. Waite (1999)
    Interrelated Family-Building Behaviors
    Cohabitation, Marriage, and Nonmarital
    Conception. Demography, 36, 535-551Brooks, R.,
    Everett, G. (2008). The prevalence of life
    planning evidence from UK graduates. British
    Journal of Sociology of Education, 29(3),
    325-337.
  • Buchmann, M. (1989). The script of life in modern
    society Entry into adulthood in a changing
    world. Chicago University of Chicago Press.
  • Diewald, M., Mayer, K. U. (2009). The sociology
    of the life course and life span psychology
    Integrated paradigm or complementing pathways ?
    Advances in Life Course Research, 14, 5-14.
  • Elder, G.H. Jr. (1998). The life course as
    developmental theory. Child Development, 69 (1),
    1-12.
  • Furlong, A., Cartmel, F. (2007). Young people
    and social change New perspectives (2nd ed.).
    Maidenhead Open University Press.
  • Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity
    Self and society in the late modern age.
    Cambridge Polity Press.
  • Heinz, W. R., Huinink, J., Weymann, A. (Eds.).
    (2009). The life course reader. Individuals and
    societies across time. Frankfurt/Main Campus
    Verlag.

47
References (2)
  • Leisering, L. (2003). Government and the Life
    Course. In J.T. Mortimer and M.J. Shanahan
    (eds.), Handbook of the Life Course (pp.
    205-225). New York Kluwer.
  • Liefbroer, A. C., Billari, F. C. (2010).
    Bringing Norms Back In A Theoretical and
    Empirical Discussion of Their Importance for
    Understanding Demographic Behaviour. Population,
    Space Place, 16(4), 287-305.
  • Marini, M. M. (1984). Age and sequencing norms in
    the transition to adulthood. Social Forces,
    63(1), 229-244.
  • Merton, R. K. (1968). Social theory and social
    structure. 1968 enlarged edition. New York The
    Free Press.
  • Meyer, J. W. (1988). Levels of analysis. The life
    course as a cultural construction. In M. W. Riley
    B. J. Huber B. B. Hess (Eds.), Social change
    and the life course (Vol. 1, pp. 49-62). Newbury
    Park, Cal. Sage.
  • Ryder, N. B. (1965) The Cohort as a Concept in
    the Study of Social Change. American Sociological
    Review, 30, 843-861.
About PowerShow.com