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Title: Introduction to Sociology

Introduction to Sociology
Dr. Anis Alam
Anis Alam Ph.D.
  • Educated in Karachi, Lahore, Chittagong, London
    and Durham (UK).
  • Imperial College London, Durham University,
    Durham, Punjab University, Islamia College,
  • Worked at Sussex University, London University
    UK, International Center for Theoretical Physics
    Trieste Italy, Tabriz University Iran and at the
    Punjab University, Lahore.
  • Professor at LSE since 2006

Defining the discipline
  • The scientific study of human social life,
    groups and societies
  • Scope is enormous, ranging from brief
    encounters to global social processes
  • Need to go beyond features of our own lives
  • Challenge what is taken for granted

Development of Sociological Thinking
  • Facts show that things occur, and sometimes how
    they occur
  • Theories are needed to show why they occur
  • Theories involve constructing abstract
    interpretations that can be used to explain a
    wide variety of empirical situations
  • Not possible completely to separate research and

Course Description
  • This course introduces the science of Sociology
    by focusing on
  • five broad topics (1) What is Sociology? (2) The
    Individual and
  • Society, (3) Social Institutions, (4) Social
    Inequality, and
  • (5) Globalization and Social Change.
  • In the process, we'll examine important concepts,
    theories, and
  • methodologies used by sociologists working on
    both the micro
  • and macro levels. Well look at interconnections
    between social
  • institutions (i.e., the family, education, the
    economy), as well as
  • the way in which institutional change has caused
  • income inequality in the U.S. and around the
    world..  The over-
  • arching purpose of the course is to instill in
    students the
  • sociological imagination, which can then be
    used to decipher
  • current social issues and patterns of everyday

Sociological Imagination
  • The founders of sociology were some of the
    earliest individuals to employ what C. Wright
  • (a prominent mid-20th century American
    sociologist) labeled the sociological
    imagination the ability to situate personal
    troubles within an informed framework of social
    issues. Mills proposed that
  • "What people need... is a quality of mind that
    will help them to use information and to develop
    reason in order to achieve lucid summations of
    what is going on in the world and of what may be
    happening within themselves. The sociological
    imagination enables its possessor to understand

  • the larger historical scene in terms of its
    meaning for the inner life and the external
    career of a variety of individuals.
  • As Mills saw it, the sociological imagination
    could help individuals cope with the social world
    by helping them to step outside of their
    personal, self-centric view of the world. In
    employing the sociological imagination, people
    are able to see the events and social structures
    that influence behavior, attitudes, and culture.

  • What is human nature?
  • How and Why is society structured as it is?
  • How and why do societies change?

Social Theorists inspired by Scientific Revolution
  • Comte (Positivism empirically obtained
    verifiable knowledge codified in well defined
    concepts and laws)
  • Marx (History, Struggle between classes)
  • Herbert Spencer (Evolutionary Change)
  • Durkheim (Social Facts-Norms, Institutions -
    Functionalism )
  • Weber (Anti-postivist IdeasReligion,
    Rationalization, markets, bureaucracy)

Early theorists (1)
  • Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
  • Coined the term sociology in age of turbulent
    post-revolutionary France
  • Believed in science of society that could reveal
  • Positivism science should be concerned only
    with observable entities that are known to our
  • Saw sociology as the end of a line of
    development most complex of all the sciences

August Comte (1798-1857)
  • Development Stages of Human Societies (European)
  • Theological- Medieval- Theology queen of all
  • Metaphysical Earth and Human cantered
    Renaissance Italy, Revival of Greek Knowledge
  • Positivist-- Scientific Revolution-Basis of
    knowledge sensory perceptions - quantifiable
    and verifiable and expressible in mathematical
    relations. ( Copernicus, Galileo, Newton Royal

Marx (1818-1883) How history is made?
  • Men make their own history, but they do not make
    it as they please they do not make it under
    self-selected circumstances, but under
    circumstances existing already, given and
    transmitted from the past. ... In the social
    production of their existence, men inevitably
    enter into definite relations, which are
    independent of their will, namely relations of
    production appropriate to a given stage in the
    development of their material forces of
    production. The totality of these relations of
    production constitutes the economic structure of
    society, the real foundation, on which arises a
    legal and political superstructure and to which
    correspond definite forms of social

In the social production of their existence, men
inevitably enter into definite relations, which
are independent of their will, namely relations
of production appropriate to a given stage in the
development of their material forces of
production. The totality of these relations of
production constitutes the economic structure of
society, the real foundation, on which arises a
legal and political superstructure and to which
correspond definite forms of social
The mode of production of material life
conditions the general process of social,
political and intellectual life. It is not the
consciousness of men that determines their
existence, but their social existence that
determines their consciousness.
(No Transcript)
The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly
revolutionizing the instruments of production,
and thereby the relations of production, and with
them the whole relations of society. Conservation
of the old modes of production in unaltered form,
was, on the contrary, the first condition of
existence for all earlier industrial classes.
Constant revolutionizing of production,
uninterrupted disturbance of all social
conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation
distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier
All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their
train of ancient and venerable prejudices and
opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones
become antiquated before they can ossify. All
that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is
profaned, and man is at last compelled to face
with sober senses his, real conditions of life,
and his relations with his kind.
The bourgeoisie, historically, has played a most
revolutionary part. The bourgeoisie, wherever it
has got the upper hand, has put an end to all
feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It has
pitilessly torn asunder the motley feudal ties
that bound man to his natural superiors, and
has left remaining no other nexus between man and
man than naked self-interest, than callous cash
payment. It has drowned the most heavenly
ecstasies of religious fervour, of chivalrous
enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the
icy water of egotistical calculation. It has
resolved personal worth into exchange value, and
in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered
freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable
freedom Free Trade. In one word, for
exploitation, veiled by religious and political
illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless,
direct, brutal exploitation.
The bourgeoisie has stripped of its halo every
occupation hitherto honoured and looked up to
with reverent awe. It has converted the
physician, the lawyer, the priest, the poet, the
man of science, into its paid wage labourers. The
bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its
sentimental veil, and has reduced the family
relation to a mere money relation... It has been
the first to show what mans activity can bring
about. It has accomplished wonders far surpassing
Egyptian pyramids, Roman aqueducts, and Gothic
cathedrals it has conducted expeditions that put
in the shade all former Exoduses of nations and
crusades. .
French Revolution
  • The French Revolution (1789)
  • Paris Commune Communist Manifesto (1848)
  • The October Revolution (Russia - 1917)
  • The Chinese Revolution (1949)
  • The Cuban Revolution (1958)
  • The Vietnamese Revolution (1975)
  • All had a vision of a exploitation free, just,
    equitable, egalitarian future that persists even
    when the revolutions have not fully lived up to
    the ideals.

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) (Evolutionary
  • Committed to economic individualism and the free
  • Defining principle struggle for existence,
    survival-survival of the fittest leading to
    justification for imperialism, colonialism,
    domination of strong over the weak.
  • Period marked by great social upheavals- wars of
    conquests, land enclosures, urbanization
    Revolutions in Germany, France (Paris Commune)

Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
  • Social Facts as things Durkheim argued that
    society must be studied in terms of social facts,
    that are a category of facts with distinct
    characteristics, consisting of ways of acting,
    thinking, and feeling external to the individual
    and have their own existence reality outside the
    lives and perceptions of individual people they
    exercise a power of coercion on individual from
    outright punishment to social rejection in the
    case of unacceptable behaviour, to simple
    misunderstanding in the case of misuse of
    language to control him. E.g.,Social
    Institutions and Social forms (family, social
    solidarity, religion etc., ( Durkheim, The Rules
    of Sociological Method, 1895).

Social Fact
  • "A social fact is every way of acting, fixed or
    not, capable of exercising on the individual an
    external constraint or again, every way of
    acting which is general throughout a given
    society, while at the same time existing in its
    own right independent of its individual

Social Solidarity
  • Mechanical solidarity prevalent in
    pre-industrial societies. Individualism is
    minimized and the individual is subsumed within
    the collectivity
  • Organic Solidarity Characteristic of large
    scale, modern, industrial / urban societies. Is
    generated by the extensive division of labour
    within industrial societies, which tends to
    produce differences rather than similarities.
    Strong bonds of mutual interdependence generate
    organic solidarity.
  • Important studies The Divison of Labour in
    Society, 1893
  • Suicide A Study in Sociology, 1897

Suicide (1897) Social Integration Social
  • Egoistic suicides are the result of a weakening
    of the bonds that normally integrate individuals
    into the collectivity in other words a breakdown
    or decrease of social integration. Durkheim
    refers to this type of suicide as the result of
    "excessive individuation", meaning that the
    individual becomes increasingly detached from
    other members of his community.
  • Altruistic suicides occur in societies with high
    integration, where individual needs are seen as
    less important than the society's needs as a
    whole. They thus occur on the opposite
    integration scale as egoistic suicide.

  • Anomic suicides are the product of moral
    deregulation and a lack of definition of
    legitimate aspirations through a restraining
    social ethic, which could impose meaning and
    order on the individual conscience. This is
    symptomatic of a failure of economic development
    and division of labour to produce Durkheim's
    organic solidarity.
  • Fatalistic suicides occur in overly oppressive
    societies, causing people to prefer to die than
    to carry on living within their society. This is
    an extremely rare reason for people to take their
    own lives, but a good example would be within a
    prison people prefer to die than live in a
    prison with constant abuse and excessive
    regulation that prohibits them from pursuing
    their desires.
  • These four types of suicide are based on the
    degrees of imbalance of two social forces social
    integration and moral regulation.

  • Along with Herbert Spencer , Durkheim held that
    society is a complex system whose various parts
    work together to produce stability and
    solidarity. This is referred to as Functionalism
    . Society and Culture to be studied as
    social facts existing independent of individuals.
  • Men are shaped and influenced by their groups and
    group heritage.
  • Academic sociologys emphasis on the potency of
    society and the subordination of men to it is
    itself an historical product that contains an
    historical truth. (Berger)

Religion- Durkheims view
  • Durkheim saw totemism as the most basic form of
    religion. It
  • is in this belief system that the fundamental
  • between the sacred and the profane is most clear.
    All other
  • religions, he said, are outgrowths of this
    distinction, adding to
  • it myths, images, and traditions. The totemic
  • Durkheim believed, was the expression of the
    sacred and the
  • original focus of religious activity because it
    was the emblem
  • for a social group, the clan. Religion is thus an
    inevitable, just
  • as society is inevitable when individuals live
    together as
  • a group.

Five elementary forms of religious life -Durkheim
  • Durkheim presented five elementary forms of
  • religious life to be found in all religions, from
  • more "primitive" to Judeo/ Christian / Moslem.
  • are 1. Sacred/Profane division of the world 2.
  • in souls, spirits, mythical personalities 3.
    Belief in
  • divinity, either local or multi-local 4. a
    negative or
  • ascetic cult within the religion 5. Rites of
  • communion, imitation, commemoration or expiation.
  • He argued that these five forms were communal
  • experiences, thereby distinguishing religion from

Max Weber (1864-1920)
  • Weber was, along with his associate Georg Simmel,
    a central figure in the establishment of
    methodological antipositivism presenting
    sociology as a non-empirical field which must
    study social action through resolutely subjective
    means. He is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim
    and Karl Marx, as one of the three principal
    architects of modern social science, and has
    variously been described as the most important
    classic thinker in the social sciences.

  • The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
  • Weber showed that certaintypes of Protestantism
    notably Calvinism were supportive of rational
    pursuit of economic gain and worldly activities
    dedicated to it, seeing them as endowed with
    moral and spiritual significance. Weber argued
    that there were many reasons to look for the
    origins of modern capitalism in the religious
    ideas of the Reformation. Weber argued that
    ascetic Protestantism was one of the major
    "elective affinities" in determining the rise of
    capitalism, bureaucracy and the rational-legal
    nation-state. This theory is often viewed as a
    reversal of Marx's thesis that the economic
    "base" of society determines all other aspects of

  • In Politics as a Vocation, Weber defined the
    state as an entity which claims a "monopoly on
    the legitimate use of violence",
  • His analysis of bureaucracy in his Economy and
    Society is still central to the modern study of
  • Weber was the first to recognize several diverse
    aspects of social authority, which he
    respectively categorized according to their
    charismatic, traditional, and legal forms. His
    analysis of bureaucracy thus noted that modern
    state institutions are based on a form of
    rational-legal authority.
  • Weber's thought regarding the rationalizing and
    secularizing tendencies of modern Western society
    (sometimes described as the "Weber Thesis") has
    been a recurring theme in Western social

  • Weber presented sociology as the science of human
    social action action which he differentiated
    into traditional, affectional, value-rational and
    instrumental. Sociology is ... the science
    whose object is to interpret the meaning of
    social action and thereby give a causal
    explanation of the way in which the action
    proceeds and the effects which it produces.
  • Max Weber The Nature of Social Action 1922

  • By 'action' in this definition is meant the human
    behaviour when and to the extent that the agent
    or agents see it as subjectively meaningful ...
    the meaning to which we refer may be either (a)
    the meaning actually intended either by an
    individual agent on a particular historical
    occasion or by a number of agents on an
    approximate average in a given set of cases, or
    (b) the meaning attributed to the agent or
    agents, as types, in a pure type constructed in
    the abstract. In neither case is the 'meaning' to
    be thought of as somehow objectively 'correct' or
    'true' by some metaphysical criterion. This is
    the difference between the empirical sciences of
    action, such as sociology and history, and any
    kind of priori discipline, such as jurisprudence,
    logic, ethics, or aesthetics whose aim is to
    extract from their subject-matter 'correct' or
    'valid' meaning.

  • Weber maintained that Calvinist (and more widely,
    Protestant) religious ideas had had a major
    impact on the social innovation and development
    of the economic system of Europe and the United
    States, along with other notable factors included
    the rationalism of scientific pursuit, merging
    observation with mathematics, rational
    systematization of government administration, and
    economic enterprise.

  • Weber outlines a description, of rationalization
    (of which bureaucratization is a part) as a shift
    from a value-oriented organization and action
    (traditional authority and charismatic authority)
    to a goal-oriented organization and action
    (legal-rational authority).
  • Weber identifies bureaucracy with rationality,
    and the process of rationalization with
    mechanism, depersonalization and oppressive
    routine. (C. Wright Mills in The man and His
    Work, From Max Weber)
  • The result, according to Weber, is a "polar night
    of icy darkness", in which increasing
    rationalization of human life traps individuals
    in an "iron cage" of rule-based, rational control

  • What Weber depicted was not only the
    secularization of Western culture, but also and
    especially the development of modern societies
    from the viewpoint of rationalization. The new
    structures of society were marked by the
    differentiation of the two functionally
    intermeshing systems that had taken shape around
    the organizational cores of the capitalist
    enterprise and the bureaucratic state apparatus.
    Weber understood this process as the
    institituionalization of purposive-rational
    economic and administrative action. To the degree
    that everyday life was affected by this cultural
    and societal rationalization, traditional forms
    of life - which in the early modern period were
    differentated primarily according to one's trade
    - were dissolved.
  • Jürgen Habermas Modernity's Consciousness of

Asking and Answering Sociological Questions
Girls education? The Sociologists line of Questioning
Factual questions What happened?
Comparative questions Did this happen everywhere?
Developmental questions Has this happened overtime?
Theoretical questions What underlies the phenomenon?
Research Process
  • Define a problem- Select a topic
  • Review the literature Familiarize yourself with
    existing research on the topic.
  • Formulate a hypothesis What do you want to
    test? What are your variables and their
  • Select a research design. Choose one or more of
    research methods experiment, survey,
    observation, use of existing resources.
  • Carry out the research- Collect your data, record
  • Interpret your results- Work out the implications
    of the data you collect.
  • Report your research findings- What is the
    significance? Ow do they relate to previous

Four of the main research methods
Research Method Strengths Limitations
Fieldwork Usually generates richer and more in-depth information. Ethnography can provide a broader understanding of social process. Can only be used to study small groups or communities. Findings may only apply to the groups or communities studied. Not easy to generalize.
Surveys Make possible the efficient collection of date on large number of individuals. Allows for precise comparisons to be made between the answers of the respondents The material may be superficial. Where a questionnaire is highly standardized, important differences between respondents viewpoints may be glossed over
Experiments The influence of a specific variables can be controlled by the investigator. Are repeatable Many aspects of social life can not be brought in the laboratory. The responses of the subjects may be altered by the experimental situation itself
Documentary research Can provide sources for in-depth material as well as data on large numbers, depending on the type of documents studied. Is often employed for historical research Researcher is dependent on the existing resources, that may be partial/subjective. The sources may be difficult to interpret in terms of how far they represent the real situation
Diversity Of Beliefs
  • Christianity 2.1 billion, Islam 1.5
    1.1 billion
  • Hinduism 900 million, Chinese traditional
    religion 394 million, Buddhism 376 million,
    primal-indigenous 300 million, African
    Traditional Diasporic 100 million, Sikhism 23
    million, Juche 19 million, Spiritism 15
    million, Judaism 14 million, Baha'i 7 million,
    Jainism 4.2 million, Shinto 4 million, Cao Dai
    4 million,, Zoroastrianism 2.6 million,
    Tenrikyo 2 million, Neo-Paganism 1 million ,
    Unitarian-Universalism 800 thousand
    ,Rastafarianism 600 thousand , Scientology 500

Diversity of Spoken Languages
Americas 949
Asia 2,034
Africa 1995
Pacific 1341
Europe 209
United Nations
  • In 2004 the world has 192 independent, sovereign
    nations categorized as such under the umbrella of
  • Of these only a few are really populous
    countries like China, India (over a billion
    each) USA and Indonesia (over 200 million each)
    Brazil, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Nigeria,
    Japan and Mexico (100-200 population million)
    eleven have between 50-100 million (Germany,
    France, UK, Italy, Vietnam, Philippine, Thailand,
    Ethiopia, Iran, Egypt and DPR Congo).

World Most Populous
Country 2008 population 2050 Population (E)
World 6,676,120,288 9.084(billion)
China 1,330,044,605 1.470(billion)
India 1,147,995,898 1.619(billion)
USA 303,824,646 403(million)
Indonesia 237,512,355 337 (million)
Brazil 191,908,598 206(million)
Pakistan 167,762,040 267(million)
Bangladesh 153,546,901 205(million)
Russia Nigeria Japan Top ten Countries Rest of the world 140,702,09 138,283,240 127,288,419 3,938,868,796 2,737,251,492 118(million) 205(million) 101(million) 5.034 (b) 4.049 (b)
(No Transcript)
Global Food Production
  • The worlds farmers reaped a record 2.316 billion
    tons of grain in 2007. Despite this jump of 95
    million tons, or about 4 percent, over the
    previous year, commodity analysts estimate that
    voracious global demand will consume all of this
    increase and prevent governments from
    replenishing cereal stocks that are at their
    lowest level in 30 years.
  • The global grain harvest has nearly tripled since
    1961, during a time when world population
    doubled.3 As a result, the amount of grain
    produced per person grew from 285 kilograms in
    1961 to a peak of 376 kilograms in 1986. In
    recent decades, as the growth in grain production
    has matched population growth, per capita
    production has hovered around 350 kilograms.
  • China, India, and the United States alone account
    for 46 percent of global grain production
    Europe, including the former Soviet states, grows
    another 21 percent.

Fossil Fuels
  • World coal consumption reached a record 3,090
    million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2006
  • Global oil consumption reached 3.9 billion tons
    in 2006.
  • Global passenger car production in 2007 rose to
    52.1 million units from 49.1 million the previous
    year. In addition, production of "light trucks"
    ran to 18.9 million, up from 17.9 million in
    2006, for a combined total of 74.1 million.

Global vehicle Production 2007
  • Global passenger car production in 2007 rose to
    52.1 million units from 49.1 million the previous
    year. In addition, production of "light trucks"
    ran to 18.9 million, up from 17.9 million in
    2006, for a combined total of 74.1 million.
    Global Insight projects 2008 total production to
    reach 75.8 million. Including unused production
    capacity, the world's auto companies are capable
    of churning out some 84 million vehicles per
    year. PricewaterhouseCoopers projects that by
    2015 worldwide capacity to grow to 97 million
    units. The world's fleet of passenger vehicles is
    now an estimated 622 million, up from 500 million
    in 2000 and a mere 53 million in 1950.

  • First Wave - Agrarian
  • Second wave Industrial
  • Third wave Post Industrial,
  • Knowledge based
  • (Alvin Toffler- Third Wave)
  • Almost all countries are multi-wave

Transition from Agrarian to Industrial to
post-industrial knowledge economy

Technology Economy Society Pol. System Family
Stone, bone tools   Hoe, metal tools       Machines Primitive communist  Hunters gatherers Rural community based- agrarian/artisan/handicrafts  Urban city based industrial Primitive communist Rural community based  Urban city based Kings (absolutism)   democracy (Liberal, social) Joint (family, clan)    Joint (family, clan, tribe)   nuclear
Population, total births, and years lived
Demographic Index 10,000BC 0 1750 1950 1990
Population (million) 6 252 771 2530 5292
Annual growth () --------------- Doubling time (years) 0.008 8369 0.037 1854 0.064 1083 0.596 116 1.845 38
Births (billions) 9.29 33.6 22.64 10.42 4.79
Life Expectancy 20 22 27 35 55
Newly Industrializing Countries
  • South Korea ,Taiwan, Singapore, Hong-Kong
  • Transition Economies (Former COMECON member
  • Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Baltic Sates
    (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Balkan States
    (Bulgaria, Rumania,
  • Former Yugoslavia Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia,
    Serbia, Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro
  • Former USSR states Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova,
    Caucasus States (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan),
    CAS (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan,
    Turkmenistan), Mongolia

Developing World
  • Latin America Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay,
    Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador,
    Surinam, Bolivia,Venezuala, Mexico, Central
    American Countries (Panama, Costa Rica,
    Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Caribbean
    Countries (Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Barbados,
  • Colonized by Spanish Portuguese (1492 onwards)
    later joined by Dutch, British and French in late
    16th C. Region gained independence in 1820s, some
    parts later in late 19th and early 20th Century
    Bolivarian Revolution (mid 19th C, Jose Marti
    early 20th C)

The Contours of World Development
  • One could say that most human beings in
    practically every corner of the world led nasty,
    brutish, and short lives, at least until the last
    quarter of the nineteenth century. Only then did
    people in some of the western European countries
    and in the United State and Canada forge ahead of
    people in other continents.
  • A K Bagchi ( Perilous Passage Mankind and the
    Global Ascendancy of Capital, OUP, 2005

The Contours of World Development Over the past
millennium, world population rose 22-fold. Per
capita income increased 13-fold, world GDP nearly
300-fold. This contrasts sharply with the
preceding millennium, when world population grew
by only a sixth, and there was no advance in per
capita income. From the year 1000 to 1820 the
advance in per capita income was a slow crawl-
the world average rose about 50 per cent. Most of
the growth went to accommodate a four-fo!d
increase in population. Since 1820, world
development has been much more dynamic. Per
capita income rose more than eightfold,
population more than fivefold.
Per capita income growth is not the only
indicator of welfare. Over the long run, there
has been a dramatic increase in life expectation.
In the year 1000, the average infant could expect
to live about 24 years. A third would die in the
first year of life, hunger and epidemic disease
would ravage the survivors. There was an almost
imperceptible rise up to 1820, mainly in Western
Europe. Most of the improvement has occurred
since then.
Population, Income, HDI
Country Population (million) 2007 GNI, Trillion (ppp) 2007 GNI/ Capita (ppp) 2007 HDI 2006 (Rank)
China 1320 7.083 5,370 0.762,(94)
India 1123 3.078 2,740 0.609,(132)
Pakistan 162 0.417 2,570 0.562,(139)
Japan 128 4.420 34,600 0.956, (8)
USA 302 11.8 40100 0.950 (15)
Composition of GDP and RD/GDP ratio for
selected countries, by sector 2006 or most
recent year
How the Present World Came About
  • In 1913, 83 of the globe was under the colonial
  • Dominant Power Britain Rising powers Germany,
    USA, Japan
  • The 1917 Russian Revolution First challenge to

18th Century Turning Point - Birth of the Modern
  • Industrial Revolution 1760s
  • New Source of Energy- mineral coal
  • New Technology- Steam Engine, Spinning jenny,
  • New material-steel
  • New way of thinking- Rationalism, Empiricism,
  • Colonization of the old world East India Company
    starts its colonization drive in South Asia,
    takes over Bengal in 1757
  • Trading companies from Holland, France, Spain
  • USA declares independence 1783, French Revolution
    1789- Rights, Citizen, Liberty, Equality,

19th Century
  • The Industrial Revolution and its spread to
    Europe and North America
  • Rise of the nation State (Germany, Italy)
  • Decline of the Ottoman Empire
  • Rise of New Sciences Social Sciences
  • New Technologies steam engine, steel, wireless,
    telegraph, telephone, internal combustion engine,
    electricity, electrical, chemical and automotive
  • The First wave of globalization scramble for
    colonies (1870-1913)

Rise of the Bourgeoisie
  • Social Transformation of Europe and North
  • Nation states (Germany, Italy )
  • Spread of Representative Governments
  • Two models of capitalist development Statist
    (France, Germany and most Western Europe)
    Anglo-Saxon (UK USA) Minimum state intervention
    in economy

Rise of the Capitalist Powers The Evolution of
the Developmental State
  • Merchant Capital
  • Venice Genoa16th C
  • Holland 17th 18th Century
  • Industrial Capital
  • 19th Century -Britain later joined by France,
    Germany, USA
  • 20th Century- USSR, Japan
  • Mid-20th C China, Korea, Singapore

The World At Present To critique the dominant
economic system of the twentieth century would
seem a fools errand, given the unprecedented
comfort, convenience, and opportunity delivered
by the world economy over the past 100 years.
Global economic output surged some 18-fold
between 1900 and 2000 (and reached 66 trillion
in 2006). Life expectancy leaped aheadin the
United States, from 47 to nearly 76 yearsas
killer diseases such as pneumonia and
tuberculosis were largely tamed. And labor-saving
machines from tractors to backhoes virtually
eliminated toil in wealthy countries, while cars,
aircraft, computers, and cell phones opened up
stimulating work and lifestyle options. The
wonders of the system appear self-evident.
Problems Yet for all its successes, other signals
suggest that the conventional economic system is
in serious trouble and in need of
transformation. Consider the following side
effects of modern economic activity that made
headlines in the past 18 months Atmospheric
carbon dioxide levels are at their highest level
in 650,000 years, the average temperature of
Earth is heading for levels not experienced for
millions of years, and the Arctic Ocean could be
ice free during the summer as early as 2020.
Head Lines continue--- Nearly one in six
species of European mammals is threatened with
extinction, and all currently fished marine
species could collapse by 2050. The number of
oxygen-depleted dead zones in the worlds oceans
has increased from 149 to 200 in the past two
years, threatening fish stocks. Urban air
pollution causes 2 million premature deaths each
year, mostly in developing countries. The
decline of bees, bats, and other vital
pollinators across North America is jeopardizing
agricultural crops and ecosystems. The notion
of an approaching peak in the worlds production
of oil, the most important primary source of
energy, has gone from an alarming speculation to
essentially conventional wisdom the mainstream
World Energy Council recently predicted that the
peak would arrive within 15 years.
Consequences These and other environmental
consequences of the push for economic growth
threaten the stability of the global economy. Add
to this list the social impacts of modern
economic life2.5 billion people living on 2 a
day or less and, among the wealthy, the rapid
advance of obesity and related diseases and the
need to rethink the purpose and functioning of
modern economies is clear. World Economic Forum
found that many of the 23 diverse risks were
nonexistent at the global level a quarter-century
ago. These include environmental risks such as
climate change and the strain on freshwater
supplies social risks, including the spread of
new infectious diseases in developing countries
and chronic diseases in industrial nations and
risks associated with innovations like
nanotechnology. Beyond being new and serious,
what is most striking is that half of the 23 are
economic in nature or driven by the activities of
modern economies. In other words, national
economies, and the global economy of which they
are a part, are becoming their own worst enemies.
An Outdated Economic Blueprint The world is very
different, physically and philosophically, from
the one that Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and other
early economists knewdifferent in ways that make
key features of conventional economics
dysfunctional for the twenty-first century.
Humanitys relationship to the natural world, the
understanding of the sources of wealth and the
purpose of economies, and the evolution of
markets, governments, and individuals as economic
actorsall these dimensions of economic activity
have changed so much over the last 200 years that
they signal the close of one economic era and the
need for a new economic beginning. In Smith and
Ricardos time, nature was perceived as a huge
and seemingly inexhaustible resource global
population was roughly 1 billionone seventh the
size of todaysand extractive and production
technologies were far less powerful and
environmentally invasive. A societys
environmental impact was relatively small and
local, and resources like oceans, forests, and
the atmosphere appeared to be essentially
infinite. Continue--------
At the same time, humanitys perception of itself
was changing, at least in the West. The
discoveries of Enlightenment-era scientists
suggested that the universe operated according to
an unchanging set of physical laws whose
unmasking could help humans understand and take
control of the physical world. After eons of
helpless suffering from the effects of plagues,
famines, storms, and other wildcards of nature,
this growing sense of human prowessalong with a
seemingly inexhaustible resource
endowmentencouraged the conviction that
humanitys story could now be written largely
independent of nature. Continue-------
This radically new worldview became entrenched
within economics, and even late in the twentieth
century most economic textbooks gave little
attention to natures capacity to absorb wastes
or to the valuable economic role of natures
servicesnatural functions from crop pollination
to climate regulation. But the assumed
independence of economic activity from nature,
always illusory, is simply no longer credible.
Global population has expanded more than six-fold
since1800 and the gross world product more than
58-fold since 1820 (the first year for which
nineteenth-century data are available). As a
result, humanitys impact on the planetits
ecological footprintexceeds Earths capacity
to support the human race sustainably, according
to the Global Footprint Network.
  • Half World's People to Live in Cities by 2007 -
  • UNITED NATIONS - Half the world's population will
    live in cities in two years, a huge jump from the
    30 percent residing in urban areas in 1950, UN
    demographers reported.
  • Some 3.2 billion of the world's 6.5 billion
    people live in cities today, and the number will
    climb to 5 billion -- an estimated 61 percent of
    the global population -- by 2030, the UN
    Commission on Population and Development said in
    a report.
  • The number of very large urban areas was also
    rising, the commission said. Twenty cities now
    have 10 million or more inhabitants, compared
    with just four -- Tokyo, New York-Newark,
    Shanghai and Mexico City in 1975 and just two --
    New York-Newark and Tokyo -in 1950.

  • Five biggest cities today in population are Tokyo
    (35.3 million), Mexico City (19.2 million), New
    York-Newark (18.5 million), Bombay (18.3 million)
    and Sao Paulo (18.3 million).
  • The next 15 largest are Delhi, Calcutta, Buenos
    Aires, Jakarta, Shanghai, Dhaka, Los Angeles,
    Karachi, Rio de Janeiro, Osaka-Kobe, Cairo,
    Lagos, Beijing, metropolitan Manila and Moscow.

Production concentrates in big cities, leading
provinces, and wealthy nations. Half the worlds
production fits onto 1.5 percent of its land.
Cairo produces more than half of Egypts GDP,
using just 0.5 percent of its area. Brazils
three south-central states comprise 15 percent
of its land, but more than half its production.
North America, the European Union, and Japanwith
fewer than a billion peopleaccount for
three-quarters of the worlds wealth. But
economic concentration leaves out some
populations. In Brazil, China, and India, for
example, lagging states have poverty rates more
than twice those in dynamic states. More than
two-thirds of the developing worlds poor live in
villages. A billion people, living in the poorest
and most isolated nations, mostly in Sub-Saharan
Africa and South and Central Asia, survive on
less than 2 percent of the worlds wealth.
Foreword to WDR 2009 by Robert B. Zoellick, 6th
Nov. 2008
Urban sprawl
  • By 2015, the five largest cities will be Tokyo,
    with 36.2 million residents, Bombay with 22.6
    million, Delhi with 20.9 million, Mexico City
    with 20.6 million and Sao Paulo with 20 million.
  • Urban residence patterns vary depending on an
    area's development status. About three-quarters
    of people in more developed regions lived in
    cities, while just 43 percent lived in them in
    less developed areas.
  • Patterns also vary by region, with 75 percent of
    people in Latin America and the Caribbean living
    in cities compared with 40 percent of the people
    of Africa and Asia. UN commission

Global Warming In February 2008, two separate
scientific research articles analyzed climate
models that included deep-sea warming, and
reached the conclusion that carbon dioxide
emissions must fall to near zero by the mid
twenty-first century to prevent temperature
increases in the range of 7º Fahrenheit by 2100
(Schmittner et al., 2008 Matthews and Caldeira,
2008) Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,
2007b), indicates that a reduction of 5085 per
cent in carbon emissions by 2050 is needed to
limit the likelihood of temperature increases in
excess of 2ºC (3.6ºF), Also in the spring of
2008, the Earth Policy Institute reported that
global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the
burning of fossil fuels stood at a record 8.38
gigatons of carbon (GtC) in 2006, 20 percent
above the level in 2000. Emissions grew 3.1
percent a year between 2000 and 2006, more than
twice the rate of growth during the 1990s
(Moore, 2008).
Global Warming
  • Global warming refers to the increase in the
    average temperature of the Earth's near-surface
    air and oceans in recent decades and its
    projected continuation.
  • The global average air temperature near the
    Earth's surface rose 0.74 0.18 C (1.33
    0.32 F) during the last 100 years.

Global warming
  • 12 of the past 13 years were the warmest since
    records began
  • ocean temperatures have risen at least three
    kilometers beneath the surface
  • glaciers, snow cover and permafrost have
    decreased in both hemispheres
  • sea levels are rising at the rate of almost 2mm a
  • cold days, nights and frost have become rarer
    while hot days, hot nights and heat waves have
    become more frequent.

  • 'It is very likely that man-made greenhouse gas
    increases caused most of the average temperature
    increases since the mid-20th C
  • To date, these changes have caused global
    temperatures to rise by 0.6oC. The most likely
    outcome of continuing rises in greenhouses gases
    will be to make the planet a further 3C hotter by
    2100, although the report acknowledges that rises
    of 4.5C to 5C could be experienced. Ice-cap
    melting, rises in sea levels, flooding, cyclones
    and storms will be an inevitable consequence.
    (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)

Consumption as a Way of Life
  • Our enormously productive economy demands that
    we make consumption a way of life We need things
    consumed, burned up, worn out, replaced, and
    discarded at an ever-increasing rate
  • U.S. marketing analyst Victor Lebow, in 1950
  • Endless economic growth driven by unbridled
    consumption has been elevated to the state of a
    modern religion.
  • (Edward Rothstein NYT)

Compulsive worship at the alter of consumption
has brought humanity right to the edge of an
environmental abyss- depleting resources,
spreading dangerous pollutants, undermining
ecosystems, and threatening to unhinge the
planets climate balance Michael Renner
(State of the World, 2005, Ch. 5, p. 97)
Brazils Consumer Class
  • Much of Brazils explosive growth is being fueled
    by an emerging lower middle class that has grown
    to 95.4 million people. As they snap up cars,
    cell phones and new homes, this group is quickly
    becoming a prime target for marketers. The group,
    called the Clase C, earns between 600 and 2,600
    a month and, through upward mobility in a growing
    economy, has become Brazils largest consumer
    group in a population of 192 million people.
  • Claudia Penteado in Advertising Age. June 14 2010

Industrial Society
  • what we consume depends on production and is
    determined primarily by giant corporations. He
    replaced the notion of consumer sovereignty
    with producer sovereignty, -----wants are now
    shaped by the advertising done by the producing
    firms that supply the products or services. John
    Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society (Boston
    Houghton-Mifflin, 1958), chapters 10 and 11
    Economics, Peace, and Laughter (New York New
    American Library, 1971), 6087,

Air Travel
  • In 2008, the latest year with available data, the
    traveling public flew 4.28 trillion
    passenger-kilometers on airplanes, a 1.3 percent
    increase from 2007. The distance that passengers
    travel has increased every year except 1991 and
    2001 since statistics were first recorded by the
    International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
    in the 1940s. In the past two decades, the number
    of passenger-kilometers traveled more than
    doubledfrom 1.7 trillion in 1988 to 4.3 trillion
    in 2008.

  • Planned Obsolescence
  • Disposable blades (Gillette- 1895)
  • Time barred DVDs (W. Disney 2003)
  • Mass Consumption
  • To produce more than was demanded and to offer
    more than was needed
  • 12 Rich account for 61.7 of the World
  • Consumption
  • Material Requirement per person
  • USA-----80 tons
  • EU ----- 51 tons
  • Japan ---- 45 tons

Compulsive worship at the alter of consumption
has brought humanity right to the edge of an
environmental abyss- depleting resources,
spreading dangerous pollutants, undermining
ecosystems, and threatening to unhinge the
planets climate balance Michael Renner
(State of the World, Ch. 5, p. 97)
Municipal Solid Waste in USA Total Municipal
Solid Waste (MSW) generation in 2006 was 251
million tons. Organic materials continue to be
the largest component of MSW. Paper and
paperboard products account for 34 percent, with
yard trimmings and food scraps accounting for 25
percent. Plastics comprise 12 percent metals
make up 8 percent and rubber, leather, and
textiles account for 7 percent. Wood follows at 6
percent, and glass at 5 percent. Other
miscellaneous wastes made up approximately 3
percent of the MSW generated in 2006.
Growth of Cities
  • Chicago School Ecological system competing
    groups fighting for space.
  • Harvey Castells Response to the requirements
    of the development of industrial Capitalism.
  • Cities in colonial and post-colonial societies
    Centers of colonial authority and entrepots for
    extraction of surplus from the colonies
    exports/imports( Calcutta, Madras, Bombay,
    Karachi Layalpur, Montgomry as market towns in
    South Asia, centers of education and civil
    military administration (Rawalpindi, Lahore,
    Karachi )

Personality Types
  • Tonnies Loss of solidarity
  • Wirth impersonality and social distance
  • In colonies Babu, coolie, colonial culture type-
    European languages, dress and style
  • Presently Life style promoted by media- Global
    corporation promoted life style products- colas
    and burgers, jeans, mobile phones, HDTVs, MTV,
    Holywood/Bollywood movies