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Understanding HL Learners and Learner Variation in the Classroom

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Title: Understanding HL Learners and Learner Variation in the Classroom


1
Understanding HL Learners and Learner
Variationin the Classroom
  • STARTALK Workshop, 2014
  • NHLRC, UCLA
  • Maria M. Carreira

2
Warm up Activity
3
Five core principles
  • Know your students, both as members of a category
    of learners and as individuals.
  • Design instruction around the typical learner,
    focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.
  • Build pathways to learning for all students
    through the use of Differentiation, formative
    assessment, and learning strategies.

4
Core principles (cont.)
  • In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and
    L2 learners complimentary strengths and needs
    and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up)
    approaches as needed.
  • Design courses and programs that make
    linguistic and demographic sense. Build
    maximally homogeneous classes through
    placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the
    classroom.

5
Five core principles
  • Know your students, both as members of a category
    of learners and as individuals.
  • Design instruction around the typical learner,
    focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.
  • Build pathways to learning for all students
    through the use of Differentiation, formative
    assessment, and learning strategies.

6
Core principles (cont.)
  • In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and
    L2 learners complimentary strengths and needs
    and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up)
    approaches as needed.
  • Design courses and programs that make
    linguistic and demographic sense. Build
    maximally homogeneous classes through
    placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the
    classroom.

7
WHAT (WHO) IS A HERITAGE LANGUAGE LEARNER?
8
Definitions linguistic studies
  • Sources of information on learners

9
Third source?
10
You Keep your eye on your learner
11
Definitions
12
DefinitionsWho is a heritage language learner?
  • Narrow definitions based on proficiency
  • Broad definitions based on affiliation

13
Example of a narrow definition
  • An individual who is raised in a home where a
    non-English language is spoken, who speaks or
    merely understands the heritage language, and who
    is to some degree bilingual in English and the
    heritage language (Valdés, 2001, p. 38)

14
Example of a broad definition
  • Heritage language learners are individuals who
    have familial or ancestral ties to a particular
    language and who exert their agency in
    determining whether or not they are HLLs
    (heritage language learners) of that HL (heritage
    language) and HC (heritage culture) (Hornberger
    and Wang, 2008, p. 27)

15
Learners who fit the narrow definition also fit
the broad definition
ievleva_at_yahoo.com
ievleva_at_yahoo.com
16
Five core principles
  • Know your students, both as members of a category
    of learners and as individuals.
  • Design instruction around the typical learner,
    focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.
  • Build pathways to learning for all students
    through the use of Differentiation, formative
    assessment, and learning strategies.

17
Broad narrow definitions two orientations to
HL teaching
  • Linguistic needs (narrow definition)
  • Affective needs (broad definition)













18
Broad narrow definitions two orientations to
HL teaching
  • Linguistic needs (narrow definition)
  • Affective needs (broad definition)













19
Needs stemming from broad definition?
20
  • In high school I was one of very few Latinos. My
    friend and I were called the "Mexican kids". This
    was always funny to me because my Dad's family
    always told me I was American. In school I was
    labeled Mexican, but to the Mexicans, I am an
    American. I am part of each, but not fully
    accepted by either. In high school, I was
    considered Mexican because I spoke Spanish but I
    was considered "Pocho" by my Dad's family because
    my Spanish was not up to their standard. It's
    this weird duality in which you are stuck in the
    middle. Latinos are often told that they are not
    Americans but also that they are not connected to
    their heritage. You take pride in both cultures
    and learn to deal with the rejection. You may
    never be fully embraced by either side. That's
    why you seek out other people like yourself.
    Socializing with people who share a common
    experience helps you deal with this experience.

21
Broad narrow definitions two orientations to
HL teaching
  • Linguistic needs (narrow definition)
  • Affective needs (broad definition)








Find identity
Navigate two worlds
Connect to others (find community)
Deal with rejection

22
What else?
  • Research

23
Typical learner(from the NHLRC survey)
  • Has positive associations with his HL, but also
    some insecurities
  • Is a hyphenated American (e.g. Arab-American)
  • Wants to learn more about his roots
  • Wants to connect with other members of his/her
    community
  • Enjoys using his/her HL to help others
  • Would like to take professional advantage of
    his/her HL skills (only Spanish, Chinese, and
    Japanese speakers)

24
The typical learner benefits from his HL along
the following dimensions
  • Peer relations
  • Identity development
  • Family connections
  • Connection to the community
  • Horizon expanding experiences
  • (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)

25
The typical learner benefits from his HL along
the following dimensions
  • Peer relations
  • Identity development
  • Family connections
  • Connection to the community
  • Horizon expanding experiences
  • (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)

26
Peer relations, identity
All my life, I've been around people not of my
native heritage. To be in a class with people of
the same culture as I am feels inviting and
accepting. I am now able to speak to my
classmates in a different language whilst making
myself feel integrated in my culture
(Vietnamese) During middle school and high
school, I felt that my heritage language was not
something that I would consider a valuable skill.
I only spoke Tagalog when calling relatives back
in the Philippines during holidays and special
occasions. I only started to take pride in my
knowledge of my heritage language after coming to
UCSD and joining Filipino clubs as well as
enrolling in classes such as Advanced Filipino.
27
The typical learner benefits from his HL along
the following dimensions
  • Peer relations
  • Identity development
  • Family connections
  • Connection to the community
  • Horizon expanding experiences
  • (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)

28
Research on connections to HL culture, family
  • Immigrant children are generally best served by
    maintaining ties to their culture of origin. This
    is because immigrant cultures are the
    repositories of beliefs and attitudes that are
    conducive to success, such as respect of family
    and authority, deference for education, and
    optimism about the future. In addition, by
    holding on to their expressive culture immigrant
    children can retain a sense of identity and
    social connectedness, both of which are crucial
    to the psychological well-being of children
    (Suárez-Orozco and Suárez Orozco, 2001)

29
Family and community(Carreira Kagan, 2010)
Knowledge of my heritage language has helped me
outside of school in that I've been able to
communicate and connect with my family and the
greater Ethiopian communityKnowledge of my
heritage language has also helped me at church in
that I have been able to understand parts of and
follow along in the sermons (which are partly
held in Amharic). Perhaps the most important
thing to note about knowing my heritage language
is that it has allowed me to communicate with my
family (especially because many older relatives,
like my grandmothers, speak very little to no
English at all).
30
The typical learner benefits from his HL along
the following dimensions
  • Peer relations
  • Identity development
  • Family connections
  • Connection to the community
  • Horizon expanding experiences
  • (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)

31
Expanding horizons(Carreira Kagan, 2010)
It has helped me understand people better, and
understand the different levels of diversity we
have in our university. It has allowed me to
understand who I am and how I relate to my school
environment. (Chinese) Its made me a more
global citizen, a more open-minded person,
more curious of the other
32
Five core principles
  • Know your students, both as members of a category
    of learners and as individuals.
  • Design instruction around the typical learner,
    focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.
  • Build pathways to learning for all students
    through the use of Differentiation, formative
    assessment, and learning strategies.

33
Activity time! Activity I, pp. 3-4
34
Latin grandmas Horsey or mousey?
Person Horse or mouse ______? Anecdote




35
Naming practices How did you get your name?

Name of a family member
Name with religious significance
Name of a famous or popular figure
Popular/trendy name
Made up name
Picked a name that works in both languages
36
Living with Spanish names in an English-speaking
society
  • Two last names or one?
  • Nicknames?
  • Two different first names?
  • Maiden name or husbands last name?
  • What do you do with difficult to pronounce names?
    Keep them as they are? Modify them? Drop and
    substitute?

37
Back to the two orientations of HL teaching
38
Broad narrow definitions two orientations to
HL teaching
  • Linguistic needs (narrow definition)
  • Affective needs (broad definition)













39
HL learners linguistic needs are a function of
  • The context of learning
  • The timing of learning
  • The amount input
  • The type of input

40
HL learner needs and strengths are a function of
  • The context of learning primarily, home
  • -gt informal, home register, perhaps
    non-standard
  • The timing of learning early years, diminished
    or discontinued upon starting school
  • -gt similar to the language of children
  • The amount input limited, relative to natives
  • -gt incomplete knowledge of the HL (missing
    features acquired later in life)
  • The type of input oral, informal, spontaneous,
  • -gt implicit knowledge of the HL

41
Typical HL learner (from NHLRC Survey, Carreira
and Kagan, 2010)
  • Used their HL exclusively until age 5, when they
    started school
  • Has visited their country of origin once or
    twice
  • Listens to music, watches soap operas, and
    attends religious services in their HL (not much
    reading)
  • Little to no schooling in the HL
  • US born

42
These personal characteristics map onto
linguistic characteristics
43
A metaphor for thinking about HLLs linguistic
proficiency
  • A house in different stages of life

44
The foundations(Courtesy of Margot Mel)
45
A metaphor for language learning in children
  • By age 3, the foundations of language are set
  • Between ages 5-8 the structure is fortified and
    critical details are added
  • During adolescence the finishing touches are
    put in

46
The complete structure(Courtesy of Margot Mel)
47
A metaphor for language learning in children
  • By age 3, the foundations of language are set
  • Between ages 5-8 the structure/framing is
    completed -gt TYPICAL LEARNER
  • During adolescence the finishing touches are
    put in

48
The finished house(Courtesy of Margot Mel)
49
A metaphor for language learning in children
  • By age 3, the foundations of language are set
  • Between ages 5-8 the structure/framing is
    completed -gt TYPICAL LEARNER
  • During adolescence the finishing touches are
    put in

50
What does this mean for us?
  • An HL learner who spoke his HL exclusively up to
    age 3 will likely have complete HL foundations
    (e.g. canonical gender, basic aspectual
    differences, word order)
  • An HL learner who spoke his HL exclusively or
    mostly spoke it between 5-8 will have pretty much
    the complete structure but will need the
    finishing touches (fine details)

51
What does your learner look like?
  • (1) The foundations are set
  • (2) The framing is complete
  • (3) The house is complete but in need of details

52
A more complete picture
53
Factors in heritage language development
  • Order of acquisition of the languages (HL first,
    followed by Eng., both lags. at the same time)
  • Age of acquisition of English (ages birth, 3-5,
    6-10, adolescence)
  • Language use at home (only the HL, HL Eng.,
    English only)
  • Schooling in the HL
  • General exposure to the HL (e.g. time spent
    abroad, media use, demographic density of local
    HL speakers, peer interactions)

54
Parenthetically
  • Yi (2008) examines how peer networks contributes
    to literacy.
  • The subjects of her study (2 Korean adolescents)
    were avid participants in instant messaging,
    online community posting, online diary writing,
    etc. to discuss topics of personal interest with
    their peers
  • Yi argues that HL literacy should be tied to
    personal interests and peer relations.

55
Knowledge of the HL It boils down to exposure
  • Order of acquisition
  • Simultaneous bilingual lt sequential bilingual
  • Age of acquisition of English The later the
    better
  • Home use
  • Only HL lt HL English lt Overwhelmingly English
  • Schooling
  • No schooling lt schooling (a variety of types)
  • Other exposure (media, church, peers, family,
  • travel abroad, social clubs, etc.)

56
Also
  • Language-learning aptitude
  • General academic aptitude
  • Motivation

57
Mini-activity
58
Order the following in terms of likely
proficiency in the HL
  1. Sequential bilingual, attends church services in
    the HL, speaks English and HL at home
  2. Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at
    home
  3. Sequential bilingual, three years of community
    school, lives in a neighborhood with many HL
    speakers, speaks mostly the HL at home.

59
Order the following in terms of probable
proficiency in the HL
  • Sequential bilingual, attends church services in
    the HL,, speaks English and HL at home, high
    language learning aptitude, is studying the HL to
    learn about his roots and connect with friends
    and family
  • Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at
    home, has visited his HL country several times,
    wants to make professional use of the HL
  • Sequential bilingual, three years of community
    school, lives in a neighborhood with many HL
    speakers, speaks mostly the HL at home, is taking
    HL to fulfill a language requirement

60
Order the following in terms of HL learning
motivation/persistence
  • Sequential bilingual, attends church services in
    the HL,, speaks English and HL at home, high
    language learning aptitude, is studying the HL to
    learn about his roots and connect with friends
    and family
  • Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at
    home, has visited his HL country several times,
    wants to make professional use of the HL
  • Sequential bilingual, three years of community
    school, lives in a neighborhood with many HL
    speakers, speaks mostly the HL at home, is taking
    HL to fulfill a language requirement

61
Take away message
  • Its not so easy to classify HL learners for
    purposes of teaching
  • Greater proficiency does not always mean better
    from the point of view of teaching/learning
  • Variation has many dimensions (background,
    aptitude, motivations, etc.)

62
Take away message
  • Its not so easy to classify HL learners for
    purposes of teaching
  • Greater proficiency does not always mean better
    from the point of view of teaching/learning
  • Variation has many dimensions
  • Design the curriculum with the typical HL
    learner in mind (roughly), build in pathways for
    all learners

63
Now we have a plan for the typical learner
  • Linguistic needs (narrow definition)
  • Socio-affective needs (broad definition)

Topics
Grammatical features acquired after age 5 aspect, mood, subordination, perfective tenses
Skills acquired in school reading, writing, register
Vocabulary


Topics that respond to the need to
Build self-understanding and connect with roots
Connect with friends and family in the US.
Make professional and social use of the HL
Horizon expanding experiences
64
Activity time again! Activity II, p. 4
65
Are we done?
66
Five core principles
  • Know your students, both as members of a category
    of learners and as individuals.
  • Design instruction around the typical learner,
    focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.
  • Build pathways to learning for all students
    through the use of Differentiation, formative
    assessment, and learning strategies.

67
Traditionally, language teaching has been what
centered
  • What centered curriculum centered
  • Teachers start at the front of the curriculum

68
The what-centered view with L2 learners
69
The curriculum-centered classroom
70
But what if
71
And...
72
The curriculum-centered approach in a mixed class
(HL l2 learners)
73
The curriculum-centered approach with HL learners
(An HL class all HLLs)
74
Classes with HL learners are always heterogeneous
  • Specialized HL classes
  • Mixed classes (HL L2)
  • Effective teaching in both of these contexts
    requires dealing with issues of learner
    variation.

75
To respond to variation Focus on the who
  • The learner

76
Who centered teaching
77
Five core principles
  • Know your students, both as members of a category
    of learners and as individuals.
  • Design instruction around the typical learner,
    focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.
  • Build pathways to learning for all students
    through the use of Differentiation, formative
    assessment, and learning strategies.

78
Keep your eye on your learners
79
Why do we need learner-centered teaching?
  • HL learners differ from each other and from L2
    learners with regard to key pedagogical issues
  • - linguistic ability (in the HL and in English)
  • - language aptitude
  • - academic skills
  • - affective needs
  • - goals for their HL

80
The institutional context introduces additional
variation
  • One-track program L2 and HL learners together
    (mixed classes)
  • Dual-track program Separate classes for L2 and
  • and HL learners (HL classes)
  • Type 1 Only one HL course (most
  • common)
  • Type 2 Two levels of HL instruction

81
For nowHL classes
82
A fitting metaphor for HL teaching
83
What not to do
84
Dont
  • Ignore diversity (i.e. exclude learners who dont
    fit the model)
  • I did not give particular consideration to
    HL--they are usually a very small segment of
    the class. (The programs survey)

85
Dont
  • Enforce the paradigm/status quo at all cost
    (i.e. force all learners to conform to the
    curriculum)
  • (Name of book) does not address the needs of HL
    but it does a good job at the beginning level
    where the majority of our students take the (name
    of language) as a general language requirement
    and where we have less HL (15) than at more
    advanced levels.

86
Dont
  • Create courses than are ill-conceived from a
    linguistic standpoint.

87
An HL Class Arabic 100 for HL learners
  • Arabic Diglossia
  • Modern Standard Arabic (High prestige, formal
    situations, written, known by educated speakers,
    lingua franca among Arabs from different
    countries)
  • Colloquial Arabic (Low prestige, home
    language, informal communications, not commonly
    written, mutually unintelligible regional
    dialects) (Maamouri 1998)
  • Arabic 100
  • 11 students from six Arab countries (Syria,
    Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco, Egypt)
    and 1 student from Indonesia (Muslim).
  • 2 have four or more years of education abroad,
    3 have three years of religious education in
    Arabic in the US the rest have no literacy
    skills in Arabic

88
Variation in Arabic 100
  • Between HL learners (as a function of life
    experiences)
  • Dialectal (language-specific properties)
  • Diglossic (language-specific properties)

89
An HL Class Hindi 100 for HL learners
  • India Hindi is the official language of the
    country. Individual states have their own
    official languages. 29 languages have over 1
    million speakers. Indias languages stem
    primarily from two language families Indo-Aryan
    in the north, and Dravidian in the south. Many
    languages have their own writing systems (Brass
    2005, Hasnain 2003).
  • Gambhir (2008) identifies two primary categories
    of HL learners in Hindi classes ancestral,
    associate (cognate and non-cognate)
  • Hindi 100
  • 16 students from five different language
    backgrounds
  • Hindi/Urdu (7) Gujarati (4) Punjabi (2)Telugu
    (2) Marathi (1)

90
Variation in Hindi 100
  • Dialectal
  • Cross linguistic (different languages)
  • Between learners (HL and L2)

91
The crux of the problem
  • In the Arabic and Hindi programs HL classes are
    seen as a catch all destination for all
    students that do not meet the traditional profile
    of L2 learners.
  • Arabic and Hindi 100 do not make linguistic sense.

92
A better conceived class Japanese 300 (Third
year college course)
  • 16 students (12 HL learners 4 L2 learners)
  • HL learners
  • All have intermediate-to-advanced aural skills
  • 8 had three or more years of schooling
  • 4 had one to two years of schooling
  • L2 learners All had taken four semesters of
    Japanese

93
Do
  • Program level Mitigate the problems of diversity
    through smart curriculum design and placement.
  • 1) Design courses that are tailored to the local
    student population and that make linguistic sense
    for them (orient teaching around the typical
    learner)
  • 2) Use placement to build maximally homogeneous
    classes.
  • Class level Accept and deal with diversity
    through Differentiated Teaching (DT). Build in
    pathways for all learners.

94
Five core principles
  • Know your students, both as members of a category
    of learners and as individuals.
  • Design instruction around the typical learner,
    focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.
  • Build pathways to learning for all students
    through the use of Differentiation, formative
    assessment, and learning strategies.

95
Core principles (cont.)
  • In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and
    L2 learners complimentary strengths and needs
    and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up)
    approaches as needed.
  • Design courses and programs that make
    linguistic and demographic sense. Build
    maximally homogeneous classes through
    placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the
    classroom.

96
Taking stock
97
The what centered view of teaching enforces the
paradigm at all cost
Not so good Better Best
Start at the front of the book, curriculum is fixed Start with a student-focused curriculum that targets the needs of the typical learner Start with a curriculum that targets majority needs and is flexible enough to respond to the needs of individual learners.
May work in relatively homogeneous classes, not in highly heterogeneous classes Weakness Neglects those who fall outside that group. Strength Meets the needs of all learners.
98
The who centered curriculum for the typical HL
learner ignores diversity
Not so good Better Best
Start at the front of the book, curriculum is fixed Start with a student-focused curriculum that targets the needs of the typical learner Start with a curriculum that targets majority needs and is flexible enough to respond to the needs of individual learners.
May work in relatively homogeneous classes, not in highly heterogeneous classes Weakness Neglects those who fall outside that group. Strength Meets the needs of all learners.
99
The next step
100
The differentiated way Build in pathways for all
learners
Not so good Better Best
Start at the front of the book, curriculum is fixed Start with a student-focused curriculum that targets the needs of the typical learner Start with a curriculum that targets majority needs and is flexible enough to respond to the needs of individual learners.
May work in relatively homogeneous classes, not in highly heterogeneous classes Weakness Neglects those who fall outside that group. Strength Meets the needs of all learners.
101
T/F?
  • The narrow definition focuses on linguistic
    issues
  • The what centered view of teaching is better
    suited to teaching HL learners than the who
    centered view of teaching
  • Background factors can give an indication of
    linguistic ability in HL learners

102
This is a tool of differentiation
  • Checks for understanding
  • Tiered activities

103
Tiered activities
  • Teach the same concepts and skills, but at
    different levels of complexity
  • All have common benchmarks

104
Writing activity
  • Change the genre (go from short story to poem,
    song, etc.)
  • Reduce the text
  • Writing inspired by the text

105
Writing activity
  • Change the genre (go from short story to poem,
    song, etc.)
  • Reduce the text
  • Writing inspired by the text

106
Change the genre -gt Poem
  • My name means hope
  • In Spanish
  • It has too many letters
  • Sadness
  • and w a I t I n g
  • It is the number 9
  • A muddy color
  • Mexican records
  • My father plays
  • When shaving, songs
  • Like sobbing

107
Recall
  • Dragon Wings, Online workshop, Lesson 4
  • Novel -gt play

108
Writing activity
  • Change the genre (go from short story to poem,
    song, etc.)
  • Reduce the text
  • Writing inspired by the text

109
My Name 324 -gt 126 words
  • In English my name means hope. In Spanish it
    means too many letters. It means sadness, it
    means waiting. It was my great-grandmother's name
    and now it is mine. My great-grandmother. I
    would've liked to have known her, a wild, horse
    of a woman, so wild she wouldn't marry. Until my
    great-grandfather threw a sack over her head and
    carried her off. I wonder if she made the best
    with what she got or was she sorry because she
    couldn't be all the things she wanted to be.
    Esperanza. I have inherited her name, but I don't
    want to inherit her place by the window. I would
    like to baptize myself under a new name, a name
    more like the real me, the one nobody sees.

110
Writing activity
  • Change the genre (go from short story to poem,
    song, etc.)
  • Reduce the text
  • Writing inspired by the text

111
Acrostic Poem
  • Motherly
  • Appreciative
  • Resilient
  • Inventive
  • Affectionate

112
  • E
  • S
  • P
  • E
  • R
  • A
  • N
  • Z
  • A

113
  • Engaging
  • Sincere
  • Playful
  • Earnest
  • Rebellious
  • Artistic
  • Nostalgic
  • Zesty
  • Articulate

114
Writing inspired by the text
  • My grandmother is a piano sonata
  • Lavender soap
  • A rocking chair
  • A pearl necklace
  • Nilla wafers after school.

115
Activity time again! Activity III, pp. 4-5
116
Why tiered activities?
117
  • Tiered activities differentiate product i.e.
    how students demonstrate mastery of the material.
  • You can differentiate product by learner
    interest, readiness, learning style

118
What else can you differentiate?
  • Product How you demonstrate mastery of the
    material
  • Process How you gain mastery of the material
  • Pacing The rate at which you progress through
    the material
  • Content The material

119
Furthermore, you can differentiate each of these
elements by
  • Readiness level
  • Interest
  • Student choice
  • Learning style
  • Product
  • Process
  • Pacing
  • Content

120
Principles of Differentiated Teaching (DT)
  • In differentiated classrooms, teachers begin
    where students
  • are, not the front of a curriculum guide. They
    accept and build
  • upon the premise that learners differ in
    important waysIn
  • differentiated classrooms, teachers provide
    specific ways for
  • each individual to learn as deeply as possible
    and as quickly
  • and possible, without assuming one students
    roadmap for
  • learning is identical to anyone else (Tomlinson,
    20002).

121
Everyday examples of differentiation
  • Running errands
  • Driving to a destination
  • Meal preparation

122
Everyday examples of differentiation
  • Running errands -gt a to do list helps with
    pacing
  • Driving to a destination -gt Google directions
    help with process.
  • Meal preparation -gt Choice with regard to the
    components helps with product.

123
Summarizing Five core principles
  • Know your students, both as members of a category
    of learners and as individuals.
  • Design instruction around the typical learner,
    focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.
  • Build pathways to learning for all students
    through the use of Differentiation, formative
    assessment, and learning strategies.

124
Core principles (cont.)
  • In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and
    L2 learners complimentary strengths and needs
    and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up)
    approaches as needed.
  • Design courses and programs that make
    linguistic and demographic sense. Build
    maximally homogeneous classes through
    placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the
    classroom.

125
Exit Card
  • Describe an Aha! moment in this lesson

126
Stop here
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