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SMOKING CESSATION IN A GROUP OF FOUNDRY WORKERS AGED 40

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Title: SMOKING CESSATION IN A GROUP OF FOUNDRY WORKERS AGED 40


1
SMOKING CESSATION IN A GROUP OF FOUNDRY WORKERS
AGED 40
  • Elena-Ana Pauncu, PhD, MD, University of Medicine
    and Pharmacy Victor Babes Discipline of
    Occupational Health, Timisoara, Romania
  • Professor Dr. Dorin Bardac, Medical Faculty
    V.Papilian, Sibiu, Romania
  • Dr. Mihaela Stoia, Department of Public Health,
    Sibiu, Romania
  • Dr. Mihaela Haratau, Public Health Specialist,
    Romtens Foundation, Bucharest, Romania

2
Healthy LifeHealthy citiesHealthy
workplaces
3
Aim
  • To present some results of a smoking cessation
    program developed in an enterprise, particularly
    in a foundry factory from Timisoara, Romania.

4
ROMANIA
5
ROMANIA (01.07.2003)
  • Population 21,733,556
  • Surface 238,391 km2

Total Urban Rural
M 48.8 48 49.7
F 51.2 52 50.3
6
TIMIS (01.07.2003)
Population 661,171 (Timisoara 308,019) Surface 8,697 km2
Total M F
U 53.4 52.5 54.2
R 46.6 47.5 45.8
7
Medium duration of life, Timis county
Period Both sexes Male Female
1990-1992 68,99 65,32 72,82
1995-1997 68,65 64,65 72,90
1998-2000 70,44 66,93 73,97
1999-2001 71,05 67,36 74,77
2000-2002 71,20 67,49 74,91
2001-2003 71,21 67,70 74,70
8
Action Level
  • The workplace, a foundry factory (medium size
    enterprise) in Timisoara (Timis county / Romania)

9
Setting
  • The project took place in a foundry section of a
    metallurgic factory
  • Duration 1 year ( 1 year optional)
  • A local research was performed among the workers
    (questionnaire)
  • The employees working in the factory were divided
    in two groups, according to their age (the age
    limit was 40 years).

10
Tools / Methods
  • Questionnaire regarding the smoking habits
    applied to 186 workers.
  • Health education sessions (performed by
    Pneumologist Public Health specialist)
  • Smoking cessation counseling using the
    Counseling Medical Office established within the
    Pneumology Hospital very close to the enterprise)
  • Health status evaluation of the workers included
    in the study (medical examination and comparison
    of the data before and after the implementation
    of the program)
  • Tobacco Control Policy elaboration and
    implementation

11
Why in a foundry ?
  • Smoking habits (high prevalence, around 65 )
  • Nutrition habits (high cholesterol values)
  • Concurrence of professional exposure and
    unhealthy lifestyle

12
Occupational exposure of workers
  • Silica dust
  • Climate
  • Fumes
  • PAHs
  • Formaldehydes
  • Physical effort
  • Metal dust (iron, steel, non-ferrous, etc.)
  • Cigarette smoking

13

The chromatogram of the resin extract from
foundry (continuous line) compared with a
standard mixture of PAHs and other compounds
(interrupted line). Column C8 (Octyl), elution
80 MeOH, detection at 254 nm (B - benzene, T -
toluene, N - naphthalene, X - xylene, A
-anthracene, F - fluorantene, P - pirene and C -
crisen)

14
Comparison between the chromatograms of the
foundry dust extract from the filter, in two
different days

15
Questionnaire Research -Characteristics of
Studied Groupsno persons with silicosis, same
gender male
PARAMETER G1 (n112) Age 40 - 58 G2 (n74) Age 18 - 39
Average age 47.125 ? 10.125 28.014 ? 9.721
Seniority at work 24.857 ? 9.688 9.107 ? 9.751
Seniority at work in the actual workplace 15.036 ? 8.223 6.034 ? 9.121
16
Questionnaire Research - Company Smoking Profile
PARAMETER G1 (n112) G1 (n112) G2 (n74) G2 (n74)
Smokers 73 65.17 48 64.86
Ex-smokers (before starting the study) 10 8.90 4 5.40
Non-smokers (do include the ex-smokers) 39 34.82 26 35.14
Average consum of cigarettes / day 15.305 ? 7.350 15.305 ? 7.350 16.175 ? 7.993 16.175 ? 7.993
Limit of cigarette consuming, per day 1 - 40 1 - 40 1 - 40 1 - 40
Average duration of smoking 15.207 ? 9.677 15.207 ? 9.677 4.304 ? 8.763 4.304 ? 8.763
Starting smoking at 18.624 ? 8.203 18.624 ? 8.203 17.728 ? 7.988 17.728 ? 7.988
17
Respiratory symptoms
18
Pulmonary function tests results
19
Respiratory pathology
20
Elaboration / Implementation of a Tobacco Control
Policy
  • Steps (entire process took 1 year and was
    coordinated by the Safety Officer)
  • Establish a working group (Safety Officer,
    Occupational Health Physician, Human Resources
    Manager)
  • Get support from the management
  • Review existing regulations / initiatives
  • Develop the Policy
  • Reviewing the Policy with the management
  • Agreeing the Policy with the workforce
    (continuous process) more informing them rather
    than getting their feed-back
  • Announcing the Policy
  • Implementing the Policy (it is young 1 year
    almost)

21
Results
  • Initially, the percent of smokers was similar,
    65.
  • The adherence to the program was good, in both
    groups. Only 3 of participants dropped out
    after one or two months of the program.
  • The respiratory complains in the group aged 40
    and older (G1) were more frequent, compared to
    those in the second group,(G2), younger than 40
    years.

22
Results
PARAMETER G1 (n73) G2 (n48)
Initial participants 73 48
Dropped out 2 1
Participants after 2 months 71 47
Number of smokers whom visited the Counseling Office (all smokers) 73 48
Non-smokers after one month of program implementation 12 6
Reduced smoking after 6 months 11 12
Non-smokers after 1 year including those from the (1st month) 12 7 62
23
Results
  • The actual results are satisfactory
  • 12 persons in the G1 older group and
  • 6 persons in the younger group G2 became
    non-smokers after one month of program
    implementation, and
  • another 23 persons had a good response after six
    months of implementation.

24
Motivation of adherence at the cessation program
  • Impossibility to solve himself the problem
  • Need of saving money/personal reasons
  • Health related problems
  • Family attitude

25
Motivation to continuing smoking
  • Immediate consequences of cessation / withdrawal
    syndrome
  • The attitude of smokers environment impact
  • Imperious need to smoke
  • Automatism related reasons
  • Personality

26
Evaluation
  • The results regarding the motivation for
    continuing smoking showed very diverse and
    interesting individual approaches.
  • The smoke free workplace policy played had an
    important role in changing the reaction of
    workers towards non-smoking into a positive one.

27
THANK YOUSALUTE FROM ROMANIA
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