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American Imperialism and World War I


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Title: American Imperialism and World War I

American Imperialism and World War I
  • From Isolationism to Internationalism

Timeline of Events
  • 1867
  • French withdraw from Mexico
  • 1889
  • First Pan-American conference held
  • 1893
  • Sugar planters, aided by U.S. Marines overthrow
    Hawaiis Queen Liluokalani
  • 1895
  • Venezuela boundary dispute with Britain
  • Guglielmo Marconi invents the radio

Timeline of Events
  • 1896
  • William McKinley becomes President defeating
    William Jennings Bryan
  • 1898
  • Marie Curie discovers radium
  • U.S.S. Maine explodes and sinks
  • War with Spain
  • Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines, and Hawaii

Timeline of Events
  • 1899
  • Philippine insurrection begins
  • 1900
  • Boxer uprising in China
  • William McKinley reelected
  • John Hay institutes Open Door Policy with China

Timeline of Events
  • 1901
  • Platt amendment to Cuban constitution
  • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty with Great Britain
  • Theodore Roosevelt becomes President after
    McKinley is assassinated
  • 1903
  • Columbian senate rejects canal treaty
  • Panama revolution occurs with United States aid

Timeline of Events
  • 1904
  • Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine announced
  • 1905
  • Russo-Japanese peace treaty made at Portsmouth
  • 1908
  • William Howard Taft becomes President defeating
    William Jennings Bryan
  • Henry Ford introduces the Model T

Timeline of Events
  • 1910
  • The Mexican Revolution begins
  • 1911
  • William Howard Taft institutes Dollar Diplomacy
    with Latin American nations

Timeline of Events
  • 1912
  • Woodrow Wilson elected President defeating
    Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft
  • 1913
  • Chinas Qin Dynasty topples

Timeline of Events
  • 1914
  • Americans occupy Vera Cruz, Mexico
  • Hollywood, California becomes the center of movie
    production in the United States
  • The Panama Canal opens
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife are
  • World War I begins in Europe, August 1st

Timeline of Events
  • 1915
  • Lusitania sunk by German submarine
  • Austrian ambassador expelled from the United
  • Albert Einstein proposes his general theory of
  • Alexander Graham Bell makes the first
    transcontinental phone call

Timeline of Events
  • 1916
  • Virgin Islands purchased from Denmark
  • Wilson reelected President
  • United States offers mediation in European war
  • Battles of Verdun and Somme claim millions of

Timeline of Events
  • 1917
  • Germany declares unrestricted submarine warfare
  • Zimmerman note published, March 1st
  • Russian Revolution begins
  • Puerto Ricans becomes U.S. citizens
  • Mexico revises and adopts its constitution
  • War declared on Central Powers, April 6th

Timeline of Events
  • 1918
  • Wilson offers Fourteen Points peace program
  • United States troops help check German offensive
  • Armistice signed , November 11th
  • Eighteenth Amendment outlaws alcoholic beverages
    Prohibition begins

Timeline of Events
  • 1918
  • Wilson proposed the League of Nations
  • Congress passes the Sedition Act
  • The Bolsheviks establish a Communist regime in
  • World War I ends

Timeline of Events
  • 1919
  • Treat of Versailles signed, June 28th
  • Treaty defeated in Senate, November 19th
  • Congress approves the Nineteenth Amendment,
    granting women the right to vote
  • A worldwide influenza epidemic kills over 30

Timeline of Events
  • 1920
  • Treaty again defeated in Senate, March 19th
  • Harding (Republican) defeats Cox for President

American Expansionism
  • American wanted to expand its size and throughout
    the 19th century toward the Pacific Ocean
  • Many leaders in the U.S. felt America should
    become more imperialistic
  • Imperialism the policy in which stronger
    nations extend their economic, political, or
    military control over weaker territories

Global Competition
  • European nations establishing colonies for
  • Africa prime target of European nations by
    early 20th century only Ethiopia and Liberia
    remained independent
  • Asia competition continued especially in China
  • Japan old feudal system replaced with a strong
    central government

Global Competition
  • Factors that fueled American Imperialism
  • Desire for military strength
  • Thirst for new markets
  • Belief in cultural superiority

Desire for Military Strength
  • American leaders advised the U.S. to build up its
    military strength
  • Admiral Alfred T. Mahan (U.S. Navy) urged
    government official to build up American naval
    power in order to compete with other powerful
  • U.S. between 1883 1890 built 9 steel-hulled
  • Modern ships Oregon and Maine transformed the
    country into the worlds 3rd largest naval power

Thirst for New Markets
  • Advances in technology enabled American farms and
    factories to produce more than American citizens
    could consume
  • Foreign trade was the solution to American
    over-production and the related problems of
    unemployment and economic depression

Belief in Cultural Superiority
  • Cultural factors were used to justify imperialism
  • Americans complete the philosophy of Social
    Darwinism and racial superiority of Anglo-Saxons
  • U.S. had a responsibility to spread Christianity
    and civilization to the worlds inferior

Sewards Folly
  • William H. Seward, Secretary of State under
    Lincoln and Johnson acquired Alaska for 7.2
    million from Russia
  • Often called Sewards Icebox or Sewards Folly
    because people thought it was silly to buy the
  • In 1959, Alaska became a state and for about 2
    cents per acre America acquired a land rich in
    timber, minerals (gold), oil

Sewards Folly
Sewards Folly
  • 1867 U.S. took over Midway Islands (1300 miles
    north of Hawaii)
  • Hawaiian Islands were economically important to
    the U.S.
  • Since 1790s merchants had stopped their on their
    way to China and East India
  • 1820s Yankee missionaries founded Christian
    schools and churches on the islands
  • Their children grandchildren became sugar
    planters sold their crop to the U.S.

Hawaiian Sugar
  • American sugar planters accounted for 75 of the
    islands wealth
  • Labor was imported from Japan, Portugal, and
  • By 1900, foreign immigrant laborers outnumbered
    native Hawaiians by 3 to 1
  • White planters profited from close ties with the
  • 1875 U.S. agrees to import Hawaiian sugar

Hawaiian Sugar
  • Over next 15 years, Hawaiian sugar production
    increased nine times
  • McKinley Tariff of 1890 brought an end to
    duty-free sugar
  • Hawaiian sugar planters now faced competition in
    the American market
  • American planters now wanted Hawaii to be annexed
    by the U.S.

Annexation of Hawaii
  • U.S. military and economic leaders knew the value
    of Hawaii
  • 1887 pressured Hawaii to allow the U.S. to
    build a naval base at Pearl Harbor
  • Pearl Harbor became a fueling station for
    American ships

End of a Monarchy
  • 1887 King Kalakaua was forced to amend Hawaiis
    constitution, limiting voting rights to only
    wealthy landowners
  • 1891 King Kalakaua died and Liliuokalani, his
    sister became queen
  • Queen Lil proposed removing the property-owning
    qualification for voting
  • To stop what she was trying to do, a revolution
    was organized upon the insistence of Ambassador
    John L. Stevens

End of a Monarchy
End of a Monarchy
  • Marines helped to overthrow Queen Lil and set up
    a government headed by Sanford B. Dole
  • Grover Cleveland directed that Queen Lil be
    restored to her throne
  • Dole refused to relinquish power and Cleveland
    eventually and formally recognized the Republic
    of Hawaii
  • Cleveland would not consider annexation unless a
    majority of Hawaiians favored it

End of a Monarchy
End of a Monarchy
  • 1897 William McKinley will agree to the
    annexation of Hawaii
  • 1898 August 12th Congress proclaimed Hawaii
    an American territory
  • Hawaiians were never given the choice to be
  • 1959 Hawaii became the 50th state of the U.S.

End of a Monarchy
Spanish American War
  • 1898 U.S. went to war to help Cuba win its
    independence from Spain
  • U.S. involvement in Latin American and Asia
    increased greatly as a result of the war and
    continues today

Cuba Rebels Against Spain
  • Spain losing most of its colonies by the end of
    the 19th century
  • Spains colonies
  • Philippines
  • Guam
  • Some outposts in Africa
  • Cuba
  • Puerto Rico

Cuba Rebels Against Spain
  • America had an interest in Cuba because it is 90
    miles south of Florida
  • 1854 diplomats recommended the purchase of Cuba
    to Franklin Pierce
  • Spains response was they would rather sink it
    into the ocean then sell to the U.S.
  • 1868-1878 Cubans rebelled against Spain
    Americans were sympathetic to their cause

Cuba Rebels Against Spain
  • America had an interest in Cuba because it is 90
    miles south of Florida
  • 1854 diplomats recommended the purchase of Cuba
    to Franklin Pierce
  • Spains response was they would rather sink it
    into the ocean then sell to the U.S.
  • 1868-1878 Cubans rebelled against Spain
    Americans were sympathetic to their cause

Cuba Rebels Against Spain
  • Cuban revolt was not successful
  • 1886 Cuban people forced Spain to abolish
  • Americans begin investing millions in large
    sugar cane plantations on the island
  • 1895 Jose Marti a Cuban poet and journalist
    in exile in New York launched a second revolution

Jose Marti
Cuba Rebels Against Spain
  • Marti organized Cuban resistance using guerilla
    warfare and deliberately destroying American
    owned sugar mills and plantation
  • Marti was counting on American interference
    Cuba Libre!
  • Public opinion was split in the U.S.
  • Business people wanted the government to support
    Spain (protect business interests)

Cuba Rebels Against Spain
  • Other Americans wanted to support the rebel cause
  • It reminded them of Patrick Henrys Give me
    liberty or give me death speech

War Fever Escalates
  • 1896 Spain send general Valeriano Weyler to
    Cuba to restore order
  • Weyler tried to crush the rebellion
  • Herded entire population of central and western
    Cuba into concentration camps
  • About 300,000 filled the camps
  • Thousands died from hunger and disease

Valeriano Weyler
Headline Wars
  • Weylers actions fueled a newspaper circulation
    war between Hearst and Pulitzer
  • Both printed exaggerated accounts of Weylers
    brutality (poisoning wells, throwing children to
  • Yellow journalism sensation style of writing
    which exaggerates news to lure and enrage readers
  • Hearst and Pulitzer fanned war fever

Headline Wars
  • Hearst sends Frederick Remington, a painter to
    Cuba to draw sketches
  • Remington felt war was unlikely
  • Hearst supposedly replied You furnish the
    pictures and Ill furnish the war.

Frederic Remington
The De Lome Letter
  • McKinley came in office in 1897
  • Wanted to avoid war with Spain
  • Tried diplomatic means to resolve the crisis and
    at first efforts seemed to work
  • Spain recalled General Weyler, modified its
    policy toward concentration camps and offered
    Cuba limited self-government

The De Lome Letter
  • 1898 February the New York Journal published
    a private letter written by Enrique Dupuy de
    Lome, the Spanish minister to the U.S.
  • Letter criticized President McKinley, calling him
    weak and a bidder for the admiration of the
  • Spanish government was embarrassed and
    apologized, the minister resigned
  • Americans were angered by the insult

The De Lome Letter
The U.S.S. Maine Explodes
  • 1898 McKinley ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba
    to bring home American citizens in danger from
    the fighting and to protect Americans property
  • February 15, 1898 the ship exploded in Havana
    harbor killing more than 260 men
  • Not really known why the ship exploded
  • 1898 American newspapers claimed the Spanish
    had blown up the ship
  • Hearst offered 50,000 dollars for the capture of
    the Spaniards who blew up the ship

The U.S.S. Maine Explodes
The U.S.S. Maine Explodes
The U.S.S. Maine Explodes
The U.S.S. Maine Explodes
War with Spain Erupts
  • Remember the Maine became the rallying cry for
    U.S. intervention in Cuba
  • April 9, 1898 Spain agreed to all of the U.S.
    demands including 6 month cease fire
  • Even with the concessions, U.S. public wanted war
  • April 11, 1898 McKinley asked Congress for the
    authority to use force against Spain
  • April 20, 1898 Congress agreed and the U.S.
    declared war

Spanish American War Map
The War in the Philippines
  • Spanish believed the U.S. would invade Cuba
  • U.S. chose to fight in the Philippines first
  • April 30th Commodore George Dewey steamed into
    the harbor
  • May 1st gave command to open fire on the
    Spanish fleet in Manila Bay
  • 7 hours later the Spanish fleet was destroyed
    or captured
  • Victory allowed U.S. troops to land in the

The War in the Philippines
  • Dewey had the support of the Filipinos who also
    wanted freedom from Spain
  • Over next 2 months 11,000 Americans joined
    forces with Filipino rebels led by Emilio
  • August 1898 Spanish troops surrendered to U.S.

The War in the Philippines
The War in the Philippines
The War in the Caribbean
  • Hostilities began with the blockade of Cuba
  • Admiral William T. Sampson sealed up the Spanish
    fleet in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba
  • U.S. able to show superiority of its naval forces
  • Army small professional force with a larger
    inexperienced and ill-prepared volunteer force
  • About 125,000 Americans had volunteered to fight

The War in the Caribbean
  • Training camps for new soldiers lacked supplies
    and effective leaders
  • Not enough modern guns to go around and officers
    were more interested in their time serving during
    the Civil War than training the volunteers

Rough Riders
  • June 1898 American forces land in Cuba heading
    towards Santiago
  • Army 17,000 men including 4 African-American
  • Rough Riders volunteer cavalry under the
    command of Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt
  • July 1st Rough Riders and 2 African-American
    regiments charge up Kettle Hill
  • Victory cleared the way for infantry to attack
    San Juan Hill

Rough Riders
  • July 3rd Spanish fleet tries to escape
  • Naval battle occurs and ends in the destruction
    of the Spanish fleet
  • July 25th America invades Puerto Rico

Rough Riders
Treaty of Paris
  • August 12th U.S. and Spain sign an armistice
  • Secretary of State, John Hay called it a
    splendid little war
  • Actual fighting lasted only 16 weeks
  • December 10th U.S. and Spain met in Paris to
    agree on a treaty
  • Spain turned over Cuba, Guam and Puerto Rico to
    the U.S.
  • U.S. bought the Philippines for 20 million

Debate over the Treaty
  • Treaty caused a huge debate in Congress
  • Main argument whether the U.S. had the right to
    annex the Philippines
  • Real issue imperialism
  • McKinley needed to justify imperialism there
    was nothing left for us to do but take them all
    the Philippine Islands, and to educate the
    Filipinos, and uplift and Christianize them
  • Philippines had been Christian for centuries

Debate over the Treaty
  • Prominent Americans presented a variety of
    arguments political, moral, and economic
  • Some felt the treaty violated the D of I by
    denying self-government to the newly acquired
  • Booker T. Washington U.S. should settle race
    relation problems at home before take on social
    problems elsewhere
  • Samuel Gompers feared Filipino immigrants would
    compete for American jobs

Debate over the Treaty
  • February 6, 1899 annexation question settled
    Senate approved the Treaty of Paris
  • U.S. empire
  • included Cuba,
  • Guam, Puerto
  • Rico, and the
  • Philippines

Acquiring New Lands
  • Puerto Rico
  • Not all wanted independence
  • Some wanted statehood, other some local
  • Military Rule
  • U.S. forces under General Nelson A Miles occupied
    the island
  • Miles assured the people that Americans would
    protect them
  • U.S. military would control Puerto Rico until
    Congress made changes

Acquiring New Lands
  • Return to Civil Government
  • Puerto Rico strategically important to U.S.
  • Helped in maintaining U.S. presence in the
    Caribbean and for protecting a future canal
    Americans hoped to build across the Isthmus of
  • 1900 Foraker Act ended military rule and set
    up a civilian government
  • Act gave the president of the U.S. power to
    appoint a governor and members of the upper house
    of its legislature
  • Puerto Ricans could only elect the lower house

Acquiring New Lands
  • 1901 Insular Cases U.S. Supreme Court ruled
    that the Constitution did not automatically apply
    to people in acquired territories
  • Congress retained the right to extend U.S.
  • 1917 granted the right to Puerto Ricans
  • 1917 gave them the right to elect both houses
    of their legislature

Acquiring New Lands
Acquiring New Lands
  • Cuba and the United States
  • U.S. recognized Cubas independence from Spain in
  • U.S. passed Teller Amendment which stated the
    U.S. had no intention of taking over Cuba
  • Treaty of Paris guaranteed Cuba its independence
  • American Soldiers
  • Jose Marti thought U.S. would become another
  • Under American occupation, U.S. left in office
    the leaders who had served Spain
  • Those who protested they were imprisoned or

Teller Amendment
Acquiring New Lands
  • American military government
  • provided food and clothing for thousands of
  • Helped farmers put land into cultivation
  • Organized elementary schools
  • Improved sanitation
  • Improved medical research
  • Helped eliminate yellow fever

Platt Amendment
  • 1900 Cuba wrote a constitution for an
    independent government
  • Constitution did not specify the relationship
    between the U.S. and Cuba
  • 1901 U.S. insisted on the Platt Amendment
  • Cuba could not make treaties that would limit its
    independence or permit a foreign power to take
    control of any part of its territory
  • U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Cuba
  • Cuba was not to go into debt
  • U.S. could buy or lease land on the island for
    naval stations and refueling stations

Platt Amendment
  • U.S. refused to withdraw its troops without the
    passage of the Platt Amendment
  • Cubans were outraged by the amendment and
    protested but the U.S. stood firm
  • 1903 Platt Amendment was ratified and remained
    in effect for 31 years
  • Cuba became a U.S. protectorate

Platt Amendment
U.S. Business Interests
  • U.S. had strong business interests in Cuba
  • Americans had invested in sugar, tobacco and
    mining industries, railroads and public utilities
  • Many business people wanted the U.S. to annex
    Cuba and make it a territory
  • U.S. would intervene time and again in the
    affairs of other nations in the Western Hemisphere

Filipinos Rebel
  • Filipinos were angry because the Treaty of Paris
    called for the annexation of the Philippines
  • Emilio Aguinaldo believed the U.S. had promised
  • Filipinos vowed to fight because of the terms of
    the treaty

Emilio Aguinaldo
Philippine-American War
  • February 1899 Aguinaldo led the Filipinos in a
  • U.S. imposed its authority on a colony that was
    fighting for freedom
  • Aguinaldo used guerilla tactics so U.S. forced
    Filipinos to live in designated areas
  • Poor sanitation, starvation, and disease killed
  • U.S. was committing the same atrocities as Spain
    did to Cuba

Philippine-American War
  • American soldiers (whites) felt the Filipinos
    were inferior
  • 70,000 U.S. troops sent to the Philippines were
    African American
  • African American newspapers believed that by
    being there, African Americans were helping to
    spread racial prejudice
  • Some African Americans deserted to the Filipino
    side and developed bonds of friendship with them
  • War lasted 3 years, took 20,000 Filipino lives,
    4,000 American lives and cost 400 million

Philippine-American War
Aftermath of the War
  • After the revolt was suppressed, the U.S. set up
    a government like that it had put in place in
    Puerto Rico
  • U.S. appointed a governor who appointed the upper
  • Filipinos elected the lower house
  • Philippines gradually move toward independence
    under American rule
  • July 4, 1946 became an independent republic

Foreign Influence in China
  • U.S. imperialism in the Philippines gave it a way
    into Asia
  • China was a potential market for American
  • Presented American investors with new
    opportunities for large-scale railroad
  • China sick man of Asia because of war and
    foreign intervention

Foreign Influence in China
  • France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, and Russia
    had established settlements along the coast of
  • Countries carved out spheres of influence
    areas where each nation claimed special rights
    and economic privileges

Foreign Influence in China
Open Door Policy
  • U.S. feared that China would be carved up and
    American traders would be shut out
  • John Hay in 1899 issued a series of policies
    called the Open Door notes
  • Notes were letters addressed to leaders of
    imperialist nations proposing that the nations
    share their trading rights with the U.S.
  • Meant no single nation would have a monopoly on
    trade with any part of China
  • Other powers reluctantly accepted the policy

Open Door Policy
The Boxer Rebellion
  • China kept its freedom
  • Large cities were dominated by Europeans
  • Chinese resented the foreign influence and
    established secret societies to rid the country
    of foreign devils
  • Most famous group Boxers because they
    practiced martial arts
  • Boxers killed thousands of missionaries, other
    foreigners Chinese who had converted to

The Boxer Rebellion
  • August 1900 British, German, French, and
    Japanese troops joined 2,000 American soldiers in
    a march on the Chinese capital
  • Boxer Rebellion was put down by the international
  • Thousands of Chinese died during the fighting

The Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion
Protecting American Rights
  • U.S. feared Europeans would try to takeover more
    of China after the rebellion was put down
  • John Hay issued a second series of Open Door
    notes announcing the U.S. would safeguard for
    the world the principle of equal and impartial
    trade with all parts of the Chinese Empire
  • Policy paved the way for greater American
    influence in Asia

Protecting American Rights
  • Open Door policy 3 deeply held beliefs
  • Americans believed that the growth of the U.S.
    economy depended on exports
  • U.S. had a right to intervene abroad to keep
    foreign markets open
  • U.S. feared that the closing of an area to
    American products, citizens, or ideas threatened
    U.S. survival
  • Beliefs became the bedrock of American foreign

Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains
  • 1900 William McKinley was elected to a 2nd term
    as president
  • Reelection confirmed that a majority of Americans
    favored his policies
  • Anti-Imperialist League came into being
  • Members included Grover Cleveland, Andrew
    Carnegie, Jane Addams, Mark Twain and many others
  • All agreed the U.S. was wrong to rule other
    people without their consent
  • U.S. under Theodore Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson
    would continue to exert its power

America as a World Power
  • Teddy Roosevelt and the World
  • Became president with the assassination of
    William McKinley
  • Did not want European powers to control the
    worlds political economic destiny
  • 1905 mediated a peace treaty between Russia and

Russo- Japanese War
  • 1904 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia declared war on
  • Russia and Japan imperialist powers competing
    for Korea
  • Japan struck first with a surprise attack on the
    Russian Pacific fleet and destroyed it
  • Also destroyed a second fleet sent as a
  • Japan secured Korea and Manchuria after a series
    of land battles
  • Japan running out of men and money

Russo- Japanese War
  • Japanese officials approached Roosevelt in secret
  • Asked him to mediate peace negotiations
  • 1905 Russian and Japanese met in Portsmouth, NH
  • First meeting on presidential yacht
  • Japanese wanted Sakhalin Island and money from
  • Russians refused
  • Through Roosevelts negotiations , Japan got ½
    the island and no money

Russo- Japanese War
  • Japanese were given Russian interests in Korea
    and Manchuria
  • Treaty of Portsmouth helped Roosevelt to win the
    Nobel Peace Prize in 1906
  • U.S. and Japan expanded their interest in East
  • 2 nations continued to talk

Russo- Japanese War
Russo- Japanese War
Russo- Japanese War
Panama Canal
  • U.S needed a canal cutting across Central America
  • Would reduce travel time for commercial and
    military ships
  • U.S. and Great Britain in 1850 agreed to share
    rights to such a canal
  • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901 gave the U.S.
    exclusive rights to build and control a canal
    through Central America
  • 2 possible routes (1) Nicaragua and (2) Panama (a
    province of Colombia)

Panama Canal
  • Late 1800s a French company had tried to build a
    canal and gave up after 10 years
  • Sent an agent, Philippe Bunau-Varilla to D.C. to
    get the U.S. to buy its claim
  • 1903 U.S. bought the claim for 40 million
  • U.S. asked Colombia for permission to finish
    building the canal but negotiations broke down
  • Bunau-Varilla organized a rebellion and Panama
    declared its independence on November 3, 1903 in
    the presence of 12 U.S. warships

Panama Canal
Panama Canal
  • November 18, 1903 U.S. and Panama signed a
  • U.S. would pay Panama 10 million plus an annual
    rent of 250,000 for an area across Panama the
    Canal Zone
  • Payment began in 1913
  • Canal ranks as one of the worlds greatest
    engineering feats
  • Builders fought diseases, and soft volcanic soil
  • 1904 work began on the canal with the clearing
    of brush and draining of swamps

Panama Canal
Panama Canal
Panama Canal
Panama Canal
  • 1913 height of construction
  • 43,400 workers
  • ¾ were blacks from the British West Indies
  • 5,600 workers died from accidents or disease
  • Total cost to U.S. 380 million
  • August 15, 1914 canal open for business
  • 1,000 merchant ships passed through the 1st year
  • U.S. Latin American relations damaged by
    American support of the Panama rebellion
  • 1921 Congress paid Colombia 21 million for the
    loss of its territory

The Roosevelt Corollary
  • Late 19th century Latin American nations
    borrowing huge sums of money from European banks
  • U.S. feared if they defaulted that Europeans
    would intervene
  • Roosevelt wanted U.S. to be the dominant power in
    the Caribbean and Central America
  • Speak softly and carry a big stick African

The Roosevelt Corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary
  • December 1904 Roosevelt Corollary was added to
    the Monroe Doctrine
  • Warned that disorder in Latin American might
    force the United States to the exercise of an
    international police power
  • U.S. would not use force to protects its economic
    interest in Latin America

The Roosevelt Corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary
Dollar Diplomacy
  • United States exercised police power on several
  • 1911 Nicaragua rebellion left the country close
    to bankruptcy
  • Taft arranged for American bankers to loan
    Nicaragua the money to pay its debts
  • Nicaragua gave American bankers the right to
    collect its customs duties to repay the debt
  • Nicaragua also allowed U.S. bankers to gain
    control of the railroad system and national bank

Dollar Diplomacy
  • Nicaraguans heard about the deal and revolted
    against President Adolfo Diaz
  • 2,000 marines were sent to Nicaragua to help with
    the role which was put down
  • Some marine units were stationed in Nicaragua
    until 1933
  • Taft administration followed the policy using the
    U.S government to guarantee loans to foreign
    countries by American business people
  • Was often used to justify keeping European powers
    out of the Caribbean

Dollar Diplomacy
Missionary Diplomacy
  • 1823 Monroe Doctrine warned other nations to
    stay out of the affairs of Latin American
  • 1904 Roosevelt Corollary stated the U.S. had
    the right to exercise international police power
    in the Western Hemisphere
  • 1913 Wilsons Missionary Diplomacy gave the
    Monroe Doctrine a moral tone
  • U.S. had a moral responsibility to deny
    recognition to any Latin American government it
    viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to
    U.S. interests

Missionary Diplomacy
The Mexican Revolution
  • Porfirio Diaz the military dictator of Mexico
    had rule for more than 3 decades
  • Diaz was a friend of the U.S. and encouraged
    Americans to invest in his country
  • Americans and other foreigners owned most of
    Mexicos oil wells, mines, railroads, and ranches
  • Common people were very poor
  • Rich were getting wealthier

The Mexican Revolution
  • 1911 Francisco Madera along with Mexican
    workers and peasants overthrew Diaz
  • Madero promised democratic reforms but was unable
    to satisfy all parties
  • 1913 General Victoriano Huerta took over the
    government and executed Madero
  • Wilson refused to recognize the government Huerta
    formed called it a government of butchers

Intervention in Mexico
  • Wilsons plan was watchful waiting
  • He wanted an opportunity to move against Huerta
  • April 1914 one of Huertas officers arrested a
    small group of American sailors in Tampico
  • Mexicans quickly released them and apologized
  • Wilson used the incident to intervene in Mexico
    and ordered U.S. marines to occupy Vera Cruz
  • 18 Americans and 200 Mexicans died in the

Intervention in Mexico
  • Incident put the U.S. and Mexico on the brink of
  • Argentina, Brazil and Chile stepped in to mediate
  • Huerta was to step down
  • U.S. would withdraw without paying Mexico damages
  • Mexico rejected the plan
  • U.S. refused to recognize the government of
  • Huertas government does eventually collapse
  • Venustiano Carranza, a nationalist leader, became
    president in 1915

Intervention in Mexico
  • Wilson withdrew American troops and recognized
    the government of Carranza

Rebellion in Mexico
  • Carranza did not have the support of all Mexicans
    like others before him
  • Rebels under Francisco Pancho Villa and
    Emiliano Zapata opposed Carranzas provisional
  • Zapata wanted land reform
  • It is better to die on your feet than live on
    your knees
  • Villa, a fierce nationalist, courted the U.S. for
    support and aid

Rebellion in Mexico
Rebellion in Mexico
  • After Wilson recognized Carranzas government,
    Villa threatened reprisals against the U.S.
  • January 1916 Carranza asked American engineers
    to come and operate mines in the northern part
    of Mexico
  • Villas men took the Americans off a train and
    shot them
  • March 1916 Villas men raided Columbus, NM,
    killing 17 Americans

Chasing Villa
  • Americans wanted revenge against Villa
  • Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing and
    15,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Villa dead
    or alive
  • Villa eluded Pershing for almost a year
  • Wilson called out 150,000 National Guardsmen and
    stationed them along the Mexican border
  • Mexico grew angry because of the U.S. forces in
    the country
  • June 1916 U.S. and Carranza troops clash

Chasing Villa
The End in Sight
  • Carranza demand U.S. withdrawal of troops
  • Both sides back down U.S. because of the war in
  • February 1917 Pershing was ordered to return
  • 1917 Mexico adopted a new constitution gave
    government control over oil and mineral resources
    and put strict regulations on foreign investors
  • Carranza ruled oppressively until 1920 when
    Alvaro Obregon came to power

The End in Sight
The End in Sight
  • Obregons presidency marked the end of civil war
    and the beginning of reform
  • U.S. intervention showed Americas imperialistic
    attitude in the early 20th century
  • U.S. pursued and achieved several foreign policy
  • Expanded its access to foreign markets in order
    to ensure continued growth of the domestic
  • U.S. built a modern navy to protect its interests
  • U.S. exercised its international police power to
    ensure dominance in Latin America