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Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe


Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe By: Becca Graven Origins of the Byzantine Empire Began in 4th century when Romans set up ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

Chapter 9 Civilization in Eastern Europe
Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
  • By Becca Graven

Origins of the Byzantine Empire
  • Began in 4th century when Romans set up their
    eastern capital at Constantinople
  • Constantine constructed elegant buildings
  • Spoke Greek
  • High levels of commerce
  • Recruited armies from the middle east to protect
    against many foreign enemies

Justinians Achievements
  • Attacked by Sassanian Empire in Persia and
    Germanic invaders
  • Byzantine won
  • 533, new emperor, Justinian, tried to reconquer
    western territory
  • Wanted to restore an empire like Rome
  • Heavily influenced by wife, Theodora
  • Created a new church, the Hagia Sophia

Justinians Acheivements
  • Rebuilt Constantinople and enforcing the Roman
    legal code
  • Unified law reduced confusion and united and
    organized the empire
  • Wanted to recreate the old Roman Empire
  • With the help of a general, Blisarius, the empire
    captured some land in north Africa and Italy
  • Later, lost the territory to the Germans

Arab Pressure and Empires Defenses
  • Took over Persians and forced them into
  • Hellenistic culture
  • Arabs challenged Byzantine naval supremacy in
    eastern Mediterranean
  • Arabs won
  • Territory cut in half

Arab Pressure and Empires Defenses
  • Used Greek Fire, a mix of petroleum, quicklime,
    and sulfur
  • After Arab invasions, there were many weak

Byzantine Society and Politics
  • Similar to early China
  • Emperor was head of the church and state
  • Appointed church bishops and passed religious and
    secular laws
  • Some women held the imperial throne
  • Empress Theodora

Byzantine Society and Politics
  • Elaborate bureaucracy
  • Trained in Greek classics, philosophy and science
  • From all social classes, but mostly aristocrats
  • Specialized into various offices
  • Some were provincial governors
  • System of spies to preserve loyalty to emperor

Byzantine Society and Politics
  • Roman military system
  • Recruited troops locally
  • Recruits rewarded with grants of land
  • Slavs and Armenian Christians recruited also
  • Constantinople regulated trade and controlled
    food prices

Byzantine Society and Politics
  • Large peasant class supplied goods and provided
    the majority of tax revenues
  • Trading network with Asia, Russia, Scandinavia,
    India and the Arabs
  • Silk production expanded
  • Large merchant class never gained significant
    political power

Byzantine Society and Politics
  • Traditions of Hellenism
  • Distinct Byzantine style of art and architecture
  • Icon paintings, or paintings of saints and other
    religious figures

Split Between Eastern and Western Christianity
  • Western Christianity was headed by the pope in
  • Different rituals in the Western church when they
    translated the Greek bible into Latin
  • State control over Eastern Christianity
  • Eastern priests could marry

Empires Decline
  • Happened shortly after the split between the
    Western and Eastern churches
  • Turkish invaders pressed on the eastern borders
  • Seljuks(Turkish troops) seized the Asiatic
  • Cut off tax revenues and food

Empires Decline
  • Lost the battle of Manzikert in 1071
  • Creation of new, independent Slavic kingdoms in
    the Balkans
  • Italian cities surpassed Constantinople
  • A Western Crusade attacked and conquered
  • It was later restored

Empires Decline
  • 1453, the Turkish sultan attacked Constantinople
  • Constantinople fell in two months
  • 1461, Turks conquered rest of Byzantine

East Central Borderlands
  • Roman Catholicism and Latin alphabet prevailed in
    Czech area, Hungary, and Poland
  • Area north of the Balkans was organized into
    regional monarchies
  • Poland, Bohemia, and Lithuania surpassed most
    western kingdoms in territory

East Central Borderlands
  • Active area for trade and industry
  • Advanced ironworking
  • Influx of Jews migrating from Middle East and
    western Europe
  • Most in Poland
  • Jews were resented by Christian majority

Emergence of Kievan Rus
  • Slavic people moved into Russia and eastern
    Europe during the Roman Empire
  • Used iron
  • Extended agriculture
  • Animistic religion

Emergence of the Kievan Rus
  • Scandinavian traders set up a government in the
    city of Kiev
  • Renamed Kievan Rus
  • First prince was Rurik, a native of Denmark (855)
  • Prosperous trading center
  • Prince Vladimir ruled from 980-1015
  • Converted to Christianity
  • Forced others to convert
  • This became the Russian Orthodox Church

Emergence of the Kievan Rus
  • Decentralized government
  • Yaroslav, the last Kievan prince
  • Issued legal codification
  • Built many churches
  • Translated religious literature from Greek to

Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus
  • Borrowed from Byzantium
  • With no bureaucracy or education system
  • Polygamy ended due to Christianity
  • Cyrillic alphabet used in literature
  • Described religious and royal events

Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus
  • Icon paintings and religious manuscripts
  • Domed churches
  • Peasants were fairly free farmers
  • Aristocrat landlord class, called boyars

Kievan Decline
  • Decline started in 12th century
  • Rival princes set up regional governments
  • People from Asia invaded
  • Decline of Byzantium reduced trade
  • Invaded by Mongols, called Tatars

End of an Era in Eastern Europe
  • Weaker than Western Europe in power, economy, and
  • Invaded by Tatars