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Welcome to the Maine Emergency Communications Course Level II

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Title: Welcome to the Maine Emergency Communications Course Level II


1
Welcome to the Maine Emergency Communications
Course Level II
  • How We Operate In An Emergency

2
Introduction
  • The Maine Emergency Communications Course Level
    II is copied and adapted from the Colorado
    Emergency Communications Course and used with
    permission from Colorado ARES.
  • The Maine Emergency Communications Course Level
    II is the next step in the evolution of the
    material collected on behalf of the ARRL for its
    ongoing education course in Emergency
    Communication. This material deviates from the
    ARRL course in that the intent here is to provide
    the student with the practical information that
    each person active in emergency communication
    needs without the "fluff" associated in other
    presentations within Emergency Communication.

3
ARES Management Structure
4
ARES Management Structure
  • The Section Emergency Coordinator (SEC), District
    Emergency Coordinator (DEC), and Emergency
    Coordinator (EC) constitute the core of the ARES
    management team. All are appointed by, or at the
    direction of, the Section Manager
  • Minimum qualifications for appointment include
    full ARRL membership and a Technician Class
    license or above.

5
ARES Management Structure
  • General Job Qualifications
  • All management team members should be experienced
    and well-trained emergency communicators
  • They should have demonstrated people management
    and leadership skills, and be able to work in a
    team environment

6
ARES Management Structure
  • General Job Qualifications
  • The ability to work under pressure for long
    periods and remain calm and objective is
    essential
  • Diplomacy in dealing with others is important, as
    management-level staff members will almost
    certainly need to deal with difficult or
    challenging people who may become more
    troublesome under stress

7
ARES Management Structure
  • The Section Emergency Coordinator
  • The Section Emergency Coordinator is an assistant
    to the Section Manager
  • This person is appointed by the SM to take care
    of all matters pertaining to emergency
    communication and the Amateur Radio Emergency
    Service (ARES) on a section-wide basis

8
ARES Management Structure
  • The Section Emergency Coordinator
  • Must have considerable time and energy to devote
    to this critical position
  • There is only one SEC appointed in each Section
    of the ARRL Field Organization

9
ARES Management Structure
  • The Section Emergency Coordinator
  • SEC Job Responsibilities
  • Recommend appointments for Emergency Coordinator
    and District Emergency Coordinator positions to
    the Section Manager
  • Determines the areas of jurisdiction of each
    appointee
  • The SEC handles the Official Emergency Station
    appointments

10
ARES Management Structure
  • The Section Emergency Coordinator
  • SEC Job Responsibilities
  • Encourage all local Amateur Radio groups to
    establish an ARES organization for their area and
    assist in their establishment
  • Advise the SM on all Section emergency policy and
    planning, including the development of a "Section
    Emergency Communication Plan
  • Work with the Section Traffic Manager to ensure
    that emergency and traffic nets in the Section
    present a united public service front

11
ARES Management Structure
  • The Section Emergency Coordinator
  • SEC Job Responsibilities
  • Work with other Section leadership officials,
    particularly with the State Government Liaison
    and the Public Information Coordinator
  • Develop or promote ARES membership drives,
    meetings, activities, training events, tests and
    documentation of procedures, within the Section
  • Collect and consolidate Emergency Coordinator (or
    District Emergency Coordinator) monthly reports.
    Submit monthly progress summaries to the SM and
    ARRL Headquarters

12
ARES Management Structure
  • The Section Emergency Coordinator
  • SEC Job Responsibilities
  • Maintain contact with other communication
    services and serve as primary liaison at the
    Section level with all agencies served in the
    public interest
  • Work with the State Government Liaison to build
    productive governmental relationships
  • Appoint Assistant Section Emergency Coordinators
    (ASEC) as needed to assist with any or all duties
    listed above

13
ARES Management Structure
  • The District Emergency Coordinator
  • The ARRL District Emergency Coordinator is an
    optional position for larger Sections, appointed
    by, or recommended for appointment by, the
    Section Emergency Coordinator
  • The DECs major function is to supervise the
    efforts of local Emergency Coordinators in their
    assigned district

14
ARES Management Structure
  • The District Emergency Coordinator
  • DEC Job Responsibilities
  • Recommend EC appointments to the SEC
  • Coordinate the training, organization, and
    participation of ECs in their district.
  • This includes the coordination of mutual aid
    between ARES units within the district
  • Make regional decisions, in consultation with his
    ECs, regarding the allocation of available
    Amateurs and equipment during an emergency

15
ARES Management Structure
  • The District Emergency Coordinator
  • DEC Job Responsibilities
  • Coordinate local emergency plans to liaise with
    any District-level nets
  • Serve as backup for local areas that have no EC
    and maintain contact with governmental and other
    agencies within the District
  • Coordinate the reporting and documentation of
    ARES activities within the district

16
ARES Management Structure
  • The District Emergency Coordinator
  • DEC Job Responsibilities
  • Set a good example through dedication,
    reliability and job performance
  • Know the locale including the role of all
    government and volunteer agencies that could be
    involved in an emergency

17
ARES Management Structure
  • The Emergency Coordinator (EC)
  • The ARRL Emergency Coordinator is the key team
    leader in ARES on the county or similar level
  • Working with the SEC and DEC, the EC prepares
    for, and manages overall communication activities
    during disasters

18
ARES Management Structure
  • The Emergency Coordinator (EC)
  • Organizational duties of the EC
  • Appoint assistant ECs (AEC) for specific towns,
    cities, or tasks
  • Maintain a current roster of team members
    denoting the skills, equipment and availability
    of each
  • Develop a notification system for drills and
    emergencies, with backup methods

19
ARES Management Structure
  • The Emergency Coordinator (EC)
  • Organizational duties of the EC
  • Issue and cancel ARES identification cards
  • Recommend Official Emergency Station (OES)
    candidates for appointment
  • Develop an emergency communication planning
    committee of all local agencies that would be
    involved in a disaster
  • Provide served agencies with contact information
    to allow for activation, and for general
    communication between the agency and ARES

20
ARES Management Structure
  • The Emergency Coordinator (EC)
  • Organizational duties of the EC
  • Submit regular reports to the SEC and DEC
    covering ARES news, achievements, events,
    problems and contacts with served agencies
  • Provide prompt "after-action" reports to affected
    agencies as well as to the SEC and DEC following
    incidents and drills

21
ARES Management Structure
  • The Emergency Coordinator (EC)
  • Planning
  • The EC is responsible for developing all ARES
    emergency communication plans for his area. He
    works with representatives of served agencies,
    the SEC or DEC, NTS, and his volunteers to see
    that a plan is developed that will allow the
    group to respond efficiently and effectively when
    an emergency occurs

22
ARES Management Structure
  • The Emergency Coordinator (EC)
  • Recruiting and Training
  • One of the EC's most critical jobs is recruiting
    and training a team of effective emergency
    communicators
  • Training begins with a comprehensive course such
    as this one, but must also include
  • Classroom sessions and workshops to develop
    specific skills needed to make the plans work
  • Realistic drills and simulations
  • Regular training nets for traffic handling and
    net procedures

23
ARES Management Structure
  • The Emergency Coordinator (EC)
  • Emergency Operations
  • In time of disaster, the EC coordinates the
    response efforts of his team. He continually
    evaluates the communication needs of the served
    agencies and responds quickly to new challenges
  • The EC is responsible for all the volunteers who
    serve in his organization and their interactions
    with other agencies and the public
  • He must deal with any interpersonal or public
    relations issues that come up, either personally
    or through a qualified assistant

24
ARES Management Structure
  • The Emergency Coordinator (EC)
  • Emergency Operations
  • The EC also works with other non-ARES
    communication provider-groups to establish both
    (a) mutual respect and understanding and (b) a
    coordination mechanism to foster an efficient and
    effective overall communication response

25
ARES Staff and Support Positions
  • ARES Staff Positions
  • Within the ARES organization are a number of
    optional positions appointed by the Section
    Manager to assist ARES leaders in various ways
    with day-to-day activities, or to reduce the
    "span of control" in large organizations

26
ARES Staff and Support Positions
  • Span of Control
  • A Key Concept for ARES Organizations
  • While the titles and general responsibilities of
    ARES management team members are similar from
    Section to Section, the number of District
    Emergency Coordinators (DECs), Emergency
    Coordinators (ECs) and their assistants will
    depend on the size and scope of the emergency
    communication commitment in that area. To put it
    another way, the number of ARES staff members
    required to provide effective leadership and
    management depends on the number and size of
    cities and the number of served agencies within a
    given area.

27
ARES Staff and Support Positions
  • Span of Control
  • The "span of control" is defined as the number of
    people one person can effectively supervise.
    Management studies have shown that the ideal
    maximum is five, but that up to seven can be
    managed effectively

28
ARES Staff and Support Positions
  • Span of Control
  • Accordingly
  • A DEC should have between five and seven ECs in
    his district
  • An EC should have no more than five to seven AECs
  • An ARES Team Leader should supervise no more than
    five to seven ARES members

29
ARES Staff and Support Positions
  • Assistants to Handle Specific Tasks
  • There are just too many tasks involved with the
    operation of a busy ARES organization for one
    person to handle
  • The ARRL field organization allows for other
    appointees to assist the SEC, DEC and EC
  • This provides a more conventional management
    structure that is more compatible with the
    Incident Command System (ICS)

30
ARES Staff and Support Positions
  • ASEC, ADEC, AEC Assignments
  • Functions assigned may include, but are not
    limited to, the following six major areas of
    responsibility
  • Operations
  • Administration
  • Logistics
  • Liaison
  • Training
  • Public Information

31
The Net Control Station
  • Types of Nets
  • Each net has a specific mission, or set of
    missions.
  • In a smaller emergency, all the communication
    needs may be met by one net.
  • In a larger emergency, multiple nets may be
    created to handle different needs

32
The Net Control Station
  • Types of Nets
  • Traffic Net
  • Handles formatted written messages between served
    agency locations or between other nets
  • Resource Net (ICS Logistics Nets)
  • This is the net hams arriving on scene would
    check into to receive assignments, or to be
    reassigned as needs change
  • A resource net may also be used to locate needed
    equipment, or operators with specific skills

33
The Net Control Station
  • Types of Nets
  • Tactical Nets (ICS Operations Nets)
  • It is considered the front line net employed in
    an emergency
  • Although commonly used in most emergencies, they
    are not always employed
  • Health and Welfare (HW) Net
  • These nets usually handle messages between
    concerned friends and family, and persons in the
    disaster area

34
The Net Control Station
  • Basic Net Control Station Concepts
  • Characteristics of a good NCS operator
  • Good communications skills and fluent command of
    language
  • Good voice quality
  • Good hearing capabilities
  • Good listening capabilities
  • Good ear-to-hand copying skills
  • Understands what service means
  • Has knowledge of the Incident Command System

35
The Net Control Station
  • Basic Net Control Station Concepts
  • Characteristics of a good NCS operator
  • Willing to take and carry out direct orders
  • Is a strong team player
  • Is self-assured but not overbearing
  • Decisive, with the maturity to make good judgment
    calls
  • Physically able to tolerate high stress for
    extended periods
  • Constant concern for the safety of participants
  • Organizer

36
The Net Control Station
  • Basic Net Control Station Concepts
  • Characteristics of a good NCS operator
  • Sense of humor
  • Ability to absorb new terminologies quickly
  • Decent (readable) penmanship
  • Generally neat of appearance
  • Consistently demonstrates above average operating
    techniques
  • Knowledge of band characteristics

37
The Net Control Station
  • Learning to be an NCS
  • Many of the skills used in contesting are
    applicable to NCS. Both activities involve
    coordinating several stations on the same
    frequency at the same time. The contester running
    a pile-up will try to contact as many stations as
    possible in the least amount of time. A busy NCS
    will attempt to move as much traffic as possible
    in the least amount of time

38
The Net Control Station
  • NCS techniques include
  • When asking for reports or soliciting traffic,
    listen!
  • Take down as many calls as you can identify
    before you acknowledge anyone!
  • Acknowledge all stations that you heard then,
    yield the frequency to a single station
  • The net-name/function and the NCS call sign,
    should be announced several times at the
    beginning of the net and every eight to ten
    minutes during the net

39
The Net Control Station
  • NCS techniques include
  • Acknowledging check-ins, list the call signs as
    letters (not phonetically)
  • Do Not make editorial comments about the traffic
    or information being passed unless it will speed
    or enhance the information flow
  • Be as concise as possible

40
The Net Control Station
  • NCS techniques include
  • Take frequent breaks
  • Turn over the net to your backup at least every
    two hours and rest
  • Speak in first person
  • It is "recognizing KD1ZZZ, not the NCS would like
    to recognize ......"

41
The Net Control Station
  • The ability to remain cool, calm and collected
    will buy you more than anything else. There is no
    doubt that being an NCS is a high-pressure
    assignment and it is easy to become frustrated or
    angry. If you have a frustrating problem, ask for
    help from other members of the net. Knowing when
    to delegate is the mark of a good leader

42
The Net Control Station
  • Net Discipline
  • In many ways your job as NCS can be equated to
    that of a traffic cop for the frequency

43
The Net Control Station
  • Net Discipline
  • You can reasonably expect net members to
  • Report to the NCS promptly as they become
    available.
  • Ask clearance from NCS before using the
    frequency.
  • Answer promptly when called by NCS.
  • Use tactical call signs.
  • Follow established net protocol.

44
The Net Control Station
  • Net Discipline
  • All of the above expectations are great. However
    you must remember you are dealing with volunteers
    with a vast range of knowledge and experience.
    This means you cannot order their compliance. You
    can only ask their cooperation. Probably the best
    way to enlist the cooperation of the net is to
    explain what you are doing in a calm and
    straightforward manner. This may involve
    supplying a small amount of real-time training

45
The Net Control Station
  • Net Discipline
  • The one thing you never do is dress down someone
    over the air.
  • It is better to lead by example and produces much
    better results
  • Always praise in public and criticize in private

46
The Net Control Station
  • Net Classifications
  • The two acknowledged classifications are
  • Open (Informal) Nets
  • During an open net most any type of traffic or
    communication is permitted. Conversations
    (ragchews) are permitted provided they break
    every so often to allow incident related traffic
    to flow
  • Directed Nets
  • A Directed Net is created when there are a large
    number of stations needing to use the frequency
    or the volume of traffic cannot be dealt with on
    a first-come first-served basis. The NCS will
    determine who uses the frequency and what traffic
    will be passed first. Casual conversation is
    discouraged and tactical call signs will be used
    as applicable

47
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Hints and Kinks
  • If it is a scheduled net, start on time!
  • Use a script when/where possible
  • Be friendly yet in control
  • Sound confident, even if you are not
  • Ask specific questions, give specific
    instructions
  • Do Not make editorial comments about the traffic
    or information being passed unless it will speed
    or enhance the information flow

48
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Hints and Kinks
  • Have pencil/paper ready and write down all calls
  • Read your owner's manual and understand how to
    use your microphone
  • When there is a double, try to get something
    unique from one or more of the stations. Then
    call for clarification from those stations only

49
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Hints and Kinks
  • During check-ins, recognize participants by name
    whenever possible.
  • Acknowledge check-ins and all messages
  • Be sure to frequently identify the purpose of the
    net
  • Ask for assistance if/when you need it
  • If this is an emergency net, remind listeners to
    listen and tell them where the resource net is

50
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Hints and Kinks
  • Don't be afraid to say "oops" if you get
    flustered and mumble a bit
  • Don't think on the air!
  • Keep transmissions as short as possible
  • Transmit only facts
  • Avoid becoming the source for general information
    about the event

51
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Hints and Kinks
  • When necessary, use standard ITU phonetics
  • There is no such thing as "common spelling"
  • Speak in first person
  • For voice nets, use plain English
  • Avoid codes and jargon
  • Its part of the ICS principles
  • If the net has been quiet for more than ten
    minutes, check on operator status

52
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Questions (Before a Net Begins)
  • Emergency Nets
  • Is the NCS location away from the Command Post?
  • The noise and commotion at CP degrades your
    ability to run a good net and the noise you
    generate only adds to the confusion there
  • Do you have the best performing antenna for the
    conditions?
  • A "rubber duck" is not adequate unless you can
    see the repeater antenna. That does not mean see
    the mountain the repeater is on, it means see the
    antenna.
  • For HF, polarization of your antennas will affect
    your signal to others

53
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Questions (Before a Net Begins)
  • Emergency Nets
  • Are you running off battery power?
  • Do you have at least an hours of charge on the
    battery?
  • Are you using a headset with noise canceling
    microphone?
  • Even from home the background noise will affect
    how well you can hear and be heard
  • Do you have pencil/pen, paper and forms
    sufficient to run the net for a full shift?

54
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Questions (Before a Net Begins)
  • Emergency Nets
  • For VHF/UHF Do you know the characteristics of
    the repeater system you are on?
  • Do you have a runner, liaison or logging person
    to support you?
  • Do you have a designated relief operator?

55
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Questions (Before a Net Begins)
  • Scheduled Nets
  • Is the NCS location away from the event
    operations?
  • Do you have the best performing antenna for the
    conditions?
  • Are you running off battery power?
  • Are you using a headset with noise canceling
    microphone?
  • Do you have pencil/pen and paper sufficient to
    run the net for the full net?

56
The Net Control Station
  • NCS Questions (Before a Net Begins)
  • Scheduled Nets
  • For VHF/UHF Do you know the characteristics of
    the repeater system you are on?
  • Do you have a runner, liaison or logging person
    to support you?
  • Only weekly and daily nets are exempt
  • Do you have a designated relief operator?
  • Only weekly and daily nets are exempt

57
The Net Control Station
  • Contingency plans
  • Contingency Plan n. a plan for possible,
    unforeseen or accidental occurrence
  • How does this relate to Emergency Communication?
  • As you begin your planning for emergency
    operation, be sure you have redundancy of
    equipment and back up people available when ever
    possible

58
The Net Control Station
  • Handovers
  • During the course of every event that lasts over
    two hours (and most of the others) you will have
    need to turn over operation of one or more of the
    locations in the net to a relief operator. As
    NCS it is in the best interest of the net and
    your sanity to do likewise with the net to
    another NCS operator at least every two hours

59
The Net Control Station
  • Handovers
  • To facilitate this change of operators the new
    operator will need
  • List or note of outstanding messages to/from the
    location
  • Log of traffic to/from the location
  • Status of open queries
  • Local and remote contacts for the location
    (served agency and others as necessary)
  • Any other information the outgoing operator feels
    necessary

60
The Net Control Station
  • Handling an irate participant
  • This is one of the toughest problems you will
    face. If handled incorrectly, it can cause net
    participants to 'take sides' and erode the morale
    and effectiveness of your net. People can get
    their feelings hurt over very little, especially
    when they are tired and in unusually stressful
    circumstances.

61
The Net Control Station
  • Handling an irate participant
  • Your first reactions need to be
  • Slow up. Don't respond instantly. Take a deep
    breath.
  • Do a quick review of what you know about this
    person.

62
The Net Control Station
  • Handling an irate participant
  • DO THE NEXT THREE STEPS ALL IN ONE STATEMENT
  • Acknowledge the problem
  • Empathize with them
  • Ask them to suggest a simple yet reasonable
    solution

63
The Net Control Station
  • Handling malicious interference
  • The best way to handle them is to ignore them
  • Usually they are trying to attract attention
  • Plan by having alternate frequencies announced at
    the pre event briefing
  • Change frequencies under a pre-announced set of
    conditions
  • Do not announce the change on the primary
    frequency

64
Serving Served Agencies
  • Meeting the communications needs of "served"
    agencies is a challenging, and often daunting
    proposition in today's complex disaster/emergency
    relief arena. The proliferation of emergency
    relief organizations and their increasingly
    sophisticated needs, all competing for that
    scarce resource--the volunteer--is enough to make
    the member of any amateur emergency organizations
    head spin

65
Serving Served Agencies
  • What to Do?
  • For want of better titles, we will label the two
    approaches Traditional and Emergency Management

66
Serving Served Agencies
  • Traditional - potential served agencies are
    solicited by the EC. When enough are found,
    agreements are made and the ARES unit tries to
    serve them during emergencies
  • Emergency Management (EM). The ARES unit attaches
    itself to the local Emergency Management unit.
    During emergencies, the head of Emergency
    Management tells the EC where communications
    support is most needed. The EC makes all
    assignments to meet those needs.

67
Serving Served Agencies
  • GENERAL PRINCIPLES
  • What things are necessary when serving agencies
    no matter what approach you take? There are some
    underlying principles
  • Everyone must know exactly with whom they are
    dealing
  • Everyone must know what to expect
  • Do not exceed your abilities

68
Personal Preparedness
  • Response Kits
  • It is becoming very common for amateurs to
    respond to major calamities far from their
    residences and normal base of operations. In such
    responses, there is no fall-back to the comforts
    of home until one's participation is complete.
    While the Salvation Army, Red Cross and local
    residents will readily supply emergency workers
    (including amateurs) with some hygienic
    necessities, the wait for these to arrive can
    often be uncomfortable. A small backpack-sized
    response kit always at the ready and carried
    along when responding will make a big difference
    in terms of the responder's comfort

69
Personal Preparedness
  • Personal Survival Kit
  • Disaster preparedness experts advocate a 72-hour
    supply of food, water and medicine, on the theory
    (proven correct) that it may take up to three
    days to transport such essentials into a stricken
    area
  • This should include all personal items you would
    need for the period
  • Your personal survival kit should be close at
    hand at all times

70
Severe Weather Communications and SKYWARN
  • Skywarn Nets
  • Skywarn Nets are established at the request of
    the local National Weather Service office
  • Information going to the National Weather Service
    from Skywarn nets normally need to be specific in
    nature
  • Training on Skywarn can usually be had through
    weather spotter classes given by the National
    Weather Service

71
Severe Weather Communications and SKYWARN
  • During the summer or thunderstorm season, hams
    should report
  • Tornadoes, funnels or wall clouds.
  • Hail
  • Damaging winds, usually 50 miles per hour or
    greater
  • Flash flooding
  • Heavy rains, with a sustained rate of 1 inch per
    hour or more

72
Severe Weather Communications and SKYWARN
  • During the winter or snow season, hams should
    report
  • High winds
  • Heavy, drifting snow
  • Freezing precipitation
  • Sleet
  • New snow accumulation of 2 or more inches per
    hour

73
Severe Weather Communications and SKYWARN
  • Here's a four-step method to describe the weather
    you spot
  • What Tornadoes, funnels, heavy rain and so on
  • Where Direction and distance from a known
    location
  • When Time of observation
  • How Storm's direction, speed of travel, size,
    intensity and destructiveness

74
Severe Weather Communications and SKYWARN
  • This presentation only touches on the severe
    weather spotting program and Skywarn
  • It is highly recommended that all ARES members
    take a severe weather spotting program from the
    National Weather Service

75
Handling Hazardous Material Incidents
  • The term "hazardous materials" (HazMat) refers to
    any substances or materials, which if released in
    an uncontrolled manner (e.g., spilled), can be
    harmful to people, animals, crops, water systems,
    or other elements of the environment
  • One of the major problems faced by emergency
    responders, including ARES members, is
    determining which chemicals are involved and in
    what quantities

76
Handling Hazardous Material Incidents
  • Hazardous Chemicals On The Move
  • As the primary regulatory agency concerned with
    the safe transportation of such materials in
    interstate commerce, the US Department of
    Transportation (DOT) has established several
    systems to manage HazMat materials

77
Handling Hazardous Material Incidents
  • Hazardous Chemicals On The Move
  • These include definitions of various classes of
    hazardous materials, placards and other marking
    requirements for containers and packages to aid
    in rapid identification of cargoes, and an
    international cargo commodity numbering system

78
Handling Hazardous Material Incidents
  • Hazardous Chemicals On The Move
  • The DOT requires that all freight containers,
    trucks and rail cars transporting these materials
    display placards identifying the hazard class or
    classes of the materials they are carrying. The
    placards are diamond-shaped, 10-inches on a side,
    color-coded and show an icon or graphic symbol
    depicting the hazard class (flammable, caustic,
    acid, radioactive, etc). They are displayed on
    the ends and sides of transport vehicles

79
Handling Hazardous Material Incidents
  • Hazardous Chemicals in Buildings
  • The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
    has devised a marking system to alert
    firefighters to the characteristics of hazardous
    materials stored in stationary tanks and
    facilities. This system, known as NFPA 704M, can
    also assist citizens visiting a site in
    identifying the hazard presented by the stored
    substance. Use of the system is voluntary, unless
    specified by local codes

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Handling Hazardous Material Incidents
  • Hazardous Chemicals in Buildings
  • The NFPA 704M label is diamond-shaped, and is
    divided into four parts, or quadrants. The left
    quadrant, colored blue, contains a numerical
    rating of the substance's health hazard. Ratings
    are made on a scale of 0 to 4, with a rating of 4
    indicating a danger level so severe that a very
    short exposure could cause serious injury or
    death. A zero, or no code at all in this quarter,
    means that no unusual hazard would result from
    the exposure. The top quadrant of the NFPA symbol
    contains the substance's fire hazard rating. As
    you might expect, this quadrant is red. Again,
    number codes in this quadrant range from 0 to 4,
    with 4 representing the most serious hazard. The
    NFPA label's right quadrant, colored yellow,
    indicates the substance's likelihood to explode
    or react. As with the health and fire hazard
    quadrants, ratings from 0 to 4 are used to
    indicate the degree of danger. If a 4 appears in
    this section, the chemical is extremely unstable,
    and even under normal conditions may explode or
    react violently. A zero in this quadrant
    indicates the material is considered to be stable
    even in the event of a fire. The bottom quadrant
    is white, and contains information about any
    special hazards that may apply

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Handling Hazardous Material Incidents
  • Guidelines for Handling HAZMAT Incidents
  • Be sure you are up-wind and up-hill from the
    incident site. Once you are in a safe position,
    try to identify the material
  • The four-digit number on a placard or orange
    panel.
  • The four-digit number preceded by the initials
    "UN/NA" on a shipping paper, package or drum.
  • The name of the material on the shipping papers,
    placard, or package

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Handling Hazardous Material Incidents
  • Guidelines for Handling HAZMAT Incidents
  • Call for help immediately and let the experts
    handle the situation.
  • Do not attempt to personally take any action
    beyond your report
  • Know your limitations, not just for your own
    safety, but also for the safety of others

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Handling Hazardous Material Incidents
  • Guidelines for Handling HAZMAT Incidents
  • When calling in the experts, you should consider
    including the following information
  • Identify yourself
  • Give your current location and the location of
    the incident
  • Briefly describe what you see (from a distance)
  • If gaseous cloud or liquid, give the direction
    the contaminant is flowing or moving
  • Be brief but concise

84
Final Assessment
  • Tests your understanding of the material
    presented
  • 25 multiple choice or true/false questions
  • You may refer to your manual
  • Passing grade is 70 or better
  • 4 points per question
  • Certificates will be e-mailed, mailed or delivered

85
Final Assessment
  • Print your name and call sign at the top of your
    exam
  • Circle the appropriate answer on your exam
  • Give your exam to me when you are ready
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