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Life Science: Organisms

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Title: Life Science: Organisms


1
Life Science Organisms
2
Genomics
  • The genetic blueprints of all people generally
    have the same information, with approximately 99
    of one human genome sequence being identical to
    all others. That makes the 1 of places in the
    genetic code that account for human variation
    very interesting
  • Momentum Winter 2006-2007, DNA Rubic
  • Some geneticists have calculated the differences
    in human and chimpanzee DNA as just over 1, some
    at 1.6, and others at 1.8.
  • Momentum Winter 2006-2007, What we learn from
    Chimpanzees

3
Genomics
  • Organism Genome size Number of genes

Human 3.2 Gb 25,000
Rat 2.7 Gb 25,000
Mouse 2.5 Gb 24,000
Dog 2.4 Gb 19,300
Puffer fish 390 Mb 25,000
Fruit fly 165 Mb 13,600
Arabidopsis (plant) 120 Mb 25,500
C elegans 97 Mb 19,000
Slime mold 34 Mb 12,500
Yeast 12 Mb 6,300

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sequenced_euk
aryotic_genomes http//www.ornl.gov/sci/techresour
ces/Human_Genome/home.shtml
4
Biological Systems
  • http//www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html

5
Cell types
  • The human embryonic stem cells cultured have
    been observed to randomly differentiate in
    culture into a variety of different cell types,
    including (A) gut, (B) neural cells, (C) bone
    marrow cells, (D) cartilage, (E) muscle and (F)
    kidney cells.
  • www.news.wisc.edu/packages/
  • stemcells/3327.html

6
A Cell
  • http//micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html

7
  • They are all the same cells
  • They all have the same genetic material,
  • The only difference is what is turned on and what
    is silent.

8
Central Dogma http//www.accessexcellence.org/RC/
VL/GG/protein_synthesis.html
9
DNA
10
DNA
11
RNA
12
Central Dogma http//www.accessexcellence.org/RC/
VL/GG/protein_synthesis.html
13
Translation RNA to Protein
14
Proteins
15
Gene to Protein
16
Sites of Regulation
17
Sites of Regulation
DNA Chromosome packing Methylation Transcription factor binding sites Protein Post-translational modification Structural modifications, cleavage Protein-protein interactions Co-factors
RNA Capping, Poly adenylation Editing, splicing Transport from nucleus Promotors, Ribosome binding Metabolites Co-factor and substrate concentration Transport

18
  • How do we measure it?
  • presence, concentration, activation state, etc.
    of specific biological molecules.
  • How do we measure the variations?

19
DNA
  • Sequencing
  • Genomic library
  • Genome sequencing
  • PCR
  • SNPs
  • Linkage analysis

20
Life Science
http//www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/06_00/se
quence_primer.shtml
21
Life Science
http//www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/06_00/se
quence_primer.shtml
22
http//mekentosj.com/4peaks/science.html
23
Genomic Library
24
(No Transcript)
25
Genome sequencing and Display
  • http//www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/06_00/se
    quence_primer.shtml
  • BAC-to-BAC method
  • whole genome shotgun sequencing
  • UCSC Genome Browser
  • http//genome.ucsc.edu/

26
(No Transcript)
27
Life Science
28
Microarray
Probe hybridization to DNA on chips Probes bind
to unique features on chips Flourescent labels
highlight bound probes
http//www.affymetrix.com
29
RNAi RNA silencing
http//fig.cox.miami.edu/cmallery/150/gene/how_si
RNA_works.htm
30
Life Science
31
Proteomics Mass Spectrometry
http//www.proteomesoftware.com/Proteome_software_
ed_mass_spec.html
32
Proteomics Mass Spectrometryhttp//www.academy
savant.com/cmsp.htm
33
Yeast 2 hybrid used to measure protein-protein
interactions.
34
Life Science
  • Flow of information

35
Life Science
  • Flow of information

36
NCBI Derivative Sequence Data (Maureen J. Donlin,
St. Louis University)
C
C
Curators
GA
GA
ATT
C
GA
GA
ATT
C
RefSeq
TATAGCCG
ACGTGC
TATAGCCG AGCTCCGATA CCGATGACAA
ATTGACTA
CGTGA
TTGACA
Labs
TTGACA
TTGACA
ACGTGC
Genome Assembly
TATAGCCG
ACGTGC
TATAGCCG
ATTGACTA
CGTGA
CGTGA
ATTGACTA
TATAGCCG
CGTGA
ATTGACTA
TTGACA
ATTGACTA
TATAGCCG
ATTGACTA
TATAGCCG
TATAGCCG
TATAGCCG
TATAGCCG
ATT
C
GenBank
GA
UniGene
AT
GA
C
C
Algorithms
ATT
C
C
GA
GA
ATT
GA
GA
ATT
C
C
GA
ATT
GA
GA
ATT
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