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Performance of Labour Market in Bangladesh: Recent Changes and Policy Implications

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Title: Performance of Labour Market in Bangladesh: Recent Changes and Policy Implications


1
Performance of Labour Market in
Bangladesh Recent Changes and Policy Implications
Rushidan Islam Rahman
December 8, 2005
Paper for presentation at the workshop on Growth
and Employment, World Bank office, Dhaka
2
1.1 Objectives of the study 1.2 Notes on Data 2.
Determinants and Pattern of Unemployment
underemployment 2.1 Size of labour force and
trends of labour force participation
rate 2.2 Unemployment and underemployment, Open
unemployment 2.3 Determinants of the magnitude
of employment cross-sectional variations 3.
Quality of labour force 4. Economic Growth and
Structure of Labour Market Sector composition
of labour force 1991 to 2003 Status of
employment 5. Determinants of household
income 6. Earning from Paid Employment 6.1 Rural-u
rban wage differential 6.2 Multiple Regression on
earning from paid employment 6.3 Wage
trends 6.4 Wage rate and forms of labour contract
in agriculture 6.5 Seasonal variation of
agricultural wage 7. Gender Dimensions in an
Employment Strategy 8. Vision for sectoral
priorities policy options for short-term and
medium term
3
Table 2.1.1 LFPR in Bangladesh 1991 to 2003
Year LFPR (per cent) for age 15 above population LFPR (per cent) for age 15 above population LFPR (per cent) for age 15 above population
Year All Male Female
1990-1991 51.2 86.2 14.0
1995-1996 52.0 87.0 15.8
1999-2000 54.9 84.0 23.9
2002-2003 57.3 87.4 26.1
Source LFS (various years).
4
Table 2.1.2 LFPR by age group 1996 to 2003
Age group 2002-2003 2002-2003 2002-2003 1999-2000 1999-2000 1999-2000 1995-1996 1995-1996 1995-1996
Age group Both Sexes Male Female Both Sexes Male Female Both Sexes Male Female
15-19 57.3 47.4 26.1 41.66 55.85 23.35 41.7 61.3 18.0
20-24 49.7 58.9 38.2 47.04 74.01 26.30 43.5 78.8 15.8
25-29 53.8 84.9 26.7 54.22 91.30 27.08 50.2 93.5 16.0
30-34 58.4 97.7 27.5 60.77 95.65 26.51 55.4 98.3 15.8
35-39 62.1 99.7 27.2 63.66 98.23 25.66 59.9 98.4 18.2
40-44 64.6 99.8 28.1 66.58 97.78 26.57 62.3 99.0 17.0
45-49 65.9 99.7 25.6 66.01 97.63 23.42 60.9 98.8 14.3
50-54 64.6 99.5 22.6 60.51 95.76 18.28 57.4 98.0 14.3
55-59 62.8 99.2 19.9 62.38 93.50 18.85 57.9 96.1 14.4
60-64 61.0 97.3 17.2 48.83 81.39 11.11 55.2 88.6 11.4
65 52.6 87.8 13.4 37.39 56.56 8.99 43.7 70.2 8.4
Source LFS, various years.
5
Table 2.1.3 Growth rates of labour force and
employment 1991 to 2003 (Average annual growth
rate, )
Years Sex Labour force Employment
1991-1996 All 3.1 2.7
Male 2.7 2.3
Female 4.5 5.0
1996-2000 All 3.2 3.0
Male 1.2 1.1
Female 14.4 14.5
2000-2003 All 4.6 4.4
Male 3.9 3.4
Female 7.1 7.7
Source LFS various years.
6
Table 2.2.1 Underemployment rate by location
(rural-urban) 1996 to 2003 Underemployment rate
(per cent)
Sex Location 2002-03 1999-2000 1995-96
Male Urban 15.9 4.7 10.5
Female Urban 61.9 38.2 35.3
All Urban 26.6 12.2 17.1
Male Rural 25.2 8.1 13.7
Female Rural 76.0 57.7 49.8
All Rural 36.4 17.8 18.4
Male Urban Rural 23.0 7.4 13.0
Female Urban Rural 72.4 52.8 45.5
All Urban Rural 34.0 16.6 17.6
Source LFS various years.
7
Table 2.2.2 Underemployment Rate in Bangladesh
1989 to 1996
Underemployment rate () 1989 1990-91 1995-96
Bangladesh
Total 43.4 42.8 34.6
Male 15.4 15.7 12.4
Female 83.0 85.3 70.7
Urban
Total 21.6 29.7 19.6
Male 6.7 18.9 10.0
Female 63.6 65.6 44.4
Rural
Total 46.1 45.6 37.9
Male 16.8 14.8 13.1
Female 84.4 87.2 74.6
Note Based on extended definition because
data by usual definition is not
available. Source BBS LFS 1999-2000.
8
Table 2.2.3 Extent of underemployment by sector
2002-03 1999-2000 underemployment rate (per
cent)
Sector 2002-03 1999-2000
Agriculture 45.5 20.0
Mining 9.8 25.0
Manufacturing 25.9 17.1
Electricity, etc. 1.0 7.1
Construction 18.8 7.7
Trade etc. 18.0 9.5
Transport etc. 11.5 4.3
Fin. Service 11.8 2.7
Other service 31.4 12.1
Source LFS various years.
9
Table 2.2.4 Extent of underemployment by status
of employment 2002-03 1999-2000 underemployment
rate (per cent)
Status 2002-03 1999-2000
Regular employees 11.3 5.5
Irregular employee/day labourer 24.9 8.0
Employer 26.5 23.3
Self-employed 28.9 15.0
Unpaid family worker 73.4 54.2
Others 28.4 -
Source LFS various years.
10
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11
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12
Table 2.3.5 Determinants of hours of self
employment (2003) Dependent Variable Log of
weekly working hours for self-employed (2003)
Independent Coefficients Value of t Significance
(Constant) 3.173 111.3 .000
Workers age .005 4.233 .000
Square of workers age .000 -7.756 .000
Workers education .000 -.629 .529
Sex of workers dummy .382 27.385 .000
Formal dummy .016 1.684 .092
Mining dummy .503 6.531 .000
Manufacturing dummy .138 9.331 .000
Electricity dummy .391 .643 .520
Construction dummy .129 5.490 .000
Trade dummy .193 24.992 .000
Transport Communication dummy .194 17.507 .000
Finance dummy .082 2.050 .040
Service dummy .026 2.021 .043
No. of malefemale workers 15 -.010 -3.326 .001
No. of non workers .010 2.645 .008
Ratio of female worker .066 4.063 .000
Land ownership .000 .643 .520
Area dummy (0Urban, 1Rural) -.086 -11.53 .000
Whether head, dummy (head1) .126 10.962 .000
Whether received any training (dummy) .018 1.269 .205
Sample size Value of F Adjusted R square 19731 226.29 0.19 - .000
Source Estimated from LFS.
13
Table 2.3.6 Determinants of hours of employment
of paid workforce (2003) Dependent Variable Log
of weekly working hours for paid workforce (2003)
Independent Coefficients Value of t Significance
(Constant) 3.331 113.4 .000
Workers age .006 4.670 .000
Square of workers age .000 -5.889 .000
Workers education -.002 -2.029 .043
Sex of workers dummy .228 17.279 .000
Regular salaried employee (dummy) .103 10.687 .000
Formal dummy .091 9.835 .000
Mining dummy .131 2.107 .035
Manufacturing dummy .089 7.785 .000
Electricity dummy -.055 -1.346 .178
Construction dummy .073 5.739 .000
Trade dummy .138 9.260 .000
Transport Communication dummy .120 8.725 .000
Finance dummy -.051 -1.953 .051
Service dummy -.073 -6.185 .000
No. of malefemale workers 15 -.005 -1.291 .197
No. of non workers .015 3.846 .000
Ratio of female worker .054 3.207 .001
Land ownership .001 .519 .604
Area dummy (0Urban, 1Rural) -.036 -4.823 .000
Whether head, dummy (head1) .041 3.680 .000
Public (dummy) .039 3.117 .002
Whether received any training (dummy) .030 2.792 .005
N Value of F Adjusted R square 15098 93.81 0.12 - .000
Source Estimated from LFS.
14
Table 3.1.1 Changes in educational attainment of
male and female labour force 1996 to 2003
Level of education 2002-2003 2002-2003 2002-2003 1999-2000 (per cent) 1999-2000 (per cent) 1999-2000 (per cent) 1995-1996 (per cent) 1995-1996 (per cent) 1995-1996 (per cent) For both sex Changes between For both sex Changes between
Level of education Both sex Male Female Both sex Male Female Both sex Male Female 2003 2000 2000 1996
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 -
No education 50.1 48.0 57.6 46.6 42.1 58.7 46.6 44.3 58.8 3.5 0.0
Class I-V 16.8 17.4 14.9 24.3 25.4 20.4 23.3 26.4 19.2 -7.5 1.0
Class VI-VIII 10.8 11.0 10.1 12.0 13.1 8.0 9.2 9.6 7.0 -1.2 2.8
Class IX-X 8.6 8.9 7.6 5.5 5.8 4.3 6.4 6.9 4.9 3.1 -0.9
SSC/HSC equivalent 9.0 9.6 6.8 8.5 9.0 6.5 8.9 9.0 7.4 0.4 -0.4
Bachelors degree or above 4.6 5.0 3.0 4.1 4.6 2.0 3.6 3.8 2.8 0.5 0.5
Source LFS.
15
Table 3.1.2 Educational attainment of employed
persons by sector 2003
Sector Education (years)
Agriculture 2.80
Mining 3.83
Manufacturing 3.87
Electricity 11.51
Construction 3.39
Trade 4.92
Transport Communication 2.41
Finance 11.45
Service 7.57
Total 3.99
16
Table 3.1.3 Employed persons education by status
of employment 2003
Status of employment Education (years)
Regular salaried employee 8.08
Employer 5.31
Self employed 3.54
Irregular salaried employee/day labour 1.75
Non-salaried hh employee 3.91
Others 5.25
Total 3.99
17
Table 3.1.4 Education of employed men and women
by location 2003
Education (years)
Urban Male 5.83
Female 4.49
Rural Male 3.32
Female 2.46
All Male 4.21
Female 3.23
All 3.99
18
Table 3.4.1 Unemployment rate among labour force
by level of education and sex
Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Urban Urban Urban Rural Rural Rural
Both sexes Male Female Both sexes Male Female Both sexes Male Female
Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
Total 4.3 4.2 4.9 5.0 4.6 6.2 4.1 4.0 4.4
No education 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.2 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.6
Class I-V 3.3 3.1 4.3 3.3 2.9 4.5 3.4 3.1 4.2
Class VI-VIII 3.9 3.8 4.3 4.3 3.9 5.6 3.8 3.8 3.7
Class IX-X 5.6 5.7 5.2 6.2 6.3 6.0 5.3 5.4 4.8
SSC, HSC equivalent 7.8 7.0 11.7 8.7 7.7 12.9 7.2 6.6 10.7
Degree above 9.5 8.1 17.4 7.7 6.2 14.7 12.0 10.6 22.8
Others 9.6 8.9 15.7 9.0 5.7 31.2 10.0 11.0 0.0
Source LFS.
19
Table 4.1.1 Distribution of employment by broad
sector 1996 to 2003
Broad Sector 1996 2000 2003
Agriculture 48.8 50.7 51.8
Industry 13.5 13.1 13.7
Service 37.7 36.2 34.6
Source LFS various years.
20
Table 4.1.2 GDP growth rate during 1991 to 2003
Period Growth rate of GDP (per cent per annum)
1986-1991 3.7
1991-1996 4.4
1996-2000 5.2
2000-2003 5.2
21
Table 4.1.3 Distribution of male and female
employment by broad economic sector 1996 to 2003
Year Male Male Male Female Female Female
Year Agriculture Non-Agriculture Total Agriculture Non-Agriculture Total
1996 52.3 47.7 100.0 27.8 72.2 100.0
2000 51.8 48.2 100.0 46.9 53.1 100.0
2003 49.8 51.2 100.0 58.7 42.3 100.0
Source LFS, 2003.
22
Table 4.1.4 Distribution of employed persons by
industry and sex 1995-96, 1999-2000 (Per cent)
Major Industry 1995-96 1995-96 1995-96 1999-2000 1999-2000 1999-2000 2002-2003 2002-2003 2002-2003
Major Industry Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
Agri. Forestry, Fisheries 48.8 52.3 27.8 50.7 51.8 46.2 51.8 49.8 58.7
Mining quarrying 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.3 1.0 0.2 0.2 0.0
Manufacturing 10.2 7.7 25.3 9.5 7.5 17.7 9.8 7.6 17.3
Electricity, gas, water .3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1
Construction 2.9 3.1 1.5 2.8 3.2 1.3 3.5 4.2 1.0
Trade, hotel restaurant 17.2 18.5 9.8 15.8 18.2 6.3 15.1 18.6 2.5
Transport, storage communication 6.3 7.2 0.7 6.3 7.8 0.6 6.8 8.7 0.3
Finance, business services 0.6 6.6 0.3 1.0 1.2 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.2
Community and personal services And others 13.6 10.1 34.9 12.9 9.6 26.2 12.2 9.9 20.1
All 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Source LFS various years.
23
Table 4.2.1 Employed person by status of
employment, gender and locality (Per cent)
Status of employment Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Urban Urban Urban Rural Rural Rural
Status of employment Both Sexes Male Female Both Sexes Male Female Both Sexes Male Female
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Employee 13.7 13.8 13.4 23.7 24.4 21.6 10.5 10.5 10.5
Employer 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.1
Self-employed 44.8 50.6 24.5 41.2 47.1 21.6 45.9 51.6 25.5
Day labourers 20.0 22.9 9.6 15.6 17.3 10.1 21.4 24.7 9.5
Unpaid family worker 18.4 9.9 48.0 15.0 7.6 39.3 19.4 10.6 51.0
Domestic worker 0.6 0.1 2.5 1.1 0.1 4.3 0.5 0.1 1.8
Apprentice 0.9 1.0 0.6 1.3 1.3 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.4
Others 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.1
Source LFS 2003.
24
Table 4.2.2 Distribution of employed persons by
status of employment and sex 1996 to 2003 (Per
cent)
Status of employment 1995-1996 1995-1996 1995-1996 1999-2000 1999-2000 1999-2000 2002-2003 2002-2003 2002-2003
Status of employment Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
Self-employed 45.4 47.8 31.3 46.7 51.4 26.6 44.8 50.6 24.5
Employer 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.2
Employee 16.8 14.9 28.5 16.7 15.8 20.3 13.7 13.8 13.4
Unpaid family helper 12.0 11.0 18.6 12.0 6.4 34.1 18.4 9.9 48.0
Day labourer 25.3 26.0 21.2 24.3 26.1 19.0 20.0 22.9 9.6
Others 1.7 1.3 4.3
All 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Source BBS LFS, various years.
25
Table 4.2.5 Growth of labour force in employee
and day labourer category Rate of growth (per
cent per annum)
Type 1996-2000 2000-2003
Employee Male 2.8 -.9
Female 3.6 -5.9
Total 3.0 -1.6

Day labour Male 1.3 0.8
Female 9.1 -12.3
Total 2.3 -2.2
Source Calculated from LFS data.
26
Table 4.3.1 Distribution of employment by type
(formal/informal) 1996 to 2003 (per cent)
Type 2002-2003 1999-2000 1995-1996
Formal Govt. 4.23 6.11 5.83
Formal private 16.62 18.64 12.12
Informal 79.14 75.24 82.05
All 100.00 100.00 100.00
Source LFS various years.
27
Table 4.4.1 Elasticity of employment with respect
to GDP growth by Sector
Sector (1999-2000 to 2002-2003) (1999-2000 to 2002-2003)
Sector Per cent growth of GDP Elasticity of Employment (per cent)
Agri. Forestry, Fisheries 2.07 2.08
Mining quarrying 7.15 -1.08
Manufacturing 6.30 .82
Electricity, gas, water 7.68 -1.35
Construction 8.45 1.27
Trade, hotel restaurant 6.40 .44
Transport, storage communication 7.11 1.08
Finance, business services 3.89 1.43
Community and personal services And others 3.23 .56
Source LFS Note These sub-sectors contribute
an insignificant share of employment.
28
Table 5.2.1 Determinants of Household
Income Dependent Variable Log of monthly average
household income (2003)
Explanatory Variables Coefficients Value of t Significance
(Constant) 6.801 179.9 .000
Age of household head .030 22.524 .000
Square of age of household head -.000 -20.58 .000
Education of hh head .011 9.972 .000
Member education score (Age 15) .014 41.701 .000
Sex (1Male, 0Female) dummy .167 8.087 .000
Whether wage employment -.224 -28.17 .000
Regular salaried employee (dummy) -.032 -2.488 .013
Formal dummy .124 12.979 .000
Public (dummy) .187 11.083 .000
Mining dummy .106 1.632 .103
Manufacturing dummy .094 7.017 .000
Electricity dummy .086 1.364 .173
Construction dummy .247 15.551 .000
Trade dummy .096 10.890 .000
Transport Communication dummy .030 2.631 .009
Finance dummy .204 7.303 .000
Service dummy -.043 -3.337 .001
No. of malefemale workers 15 .147 34.611 .000
Ratio of female worker -.273 -16.75 .000
Whether employer .238 5.406 .000
Land ownership .014 17.846 .000
Whether received any training (dummy) .111 8.853 .000
Area dummy (0Urban, 1Rural) -.163 -21.65 .000
Value of F 996.22 - .000
Adjusted R Square 0.48 -
Sample size 24539 -
Source Estimated from BBS LFS.
29
Table 6.1.1 Wage Rate in Urban and Rural Areas by
Sex and Sector 2002-2003
Sector Code Sex Urban Rural Urban X 100 Rural
Agriculture Male 68.43 53.84 1.27
Female 51.26 29.84 1.29
Total 67.74 52.46 1.29
Mining Male 138.51 118.73 1.17
Manufacturing Male 110.06 86.34 1.27
Female 55.36 51.28 1.08
Total 90.34 75.20 1.20
Electricity Male 186.12 146.84 1.27
Female 154.44 - -
Total 181.46 - -
Construction Male 89.40 77.83 1.15
Female 47.29 54.08 0.87
Total 86.45 75.94 1.14
Trade Male 90.30 73.62 1.23
Female 50.60 37.33 1.36
Total 88.43 72.75 1.22
Transport Communication Male 113.07 90.75 1.25
Female 101.21 92.89 1.09
Total 112.79 90.66 1.24
Finance Male 246.75 149.08 1.65
Female 181.45 - -
Total 241.18 149.08 1.65
Service Male 162.75 119.26 1.36
Female 86.02 55.98 1.54
Total 139.13 98.16 1.42
Total Male 123.96 73.95 1.68
Female 73.81 49.47 1.49
Total 113.60 70.39 1.61
Source Calculated from BBS LFS 2003 data.
The wage rates for all urban and rural are based
on weighted average.
30
Table 6.1.2 Wage rates in urban and rural areas
by sector 1999-2000
Sector Wage rate (Tk./day) Wage rate (Tk./day) Urban Ratio (---------) rural
Sector Rural Urban
Agriculture 55.89 62.24 1.11
Mining 36.61 99.76 2.72
Manufacturing 58.62 81.06 1.38
Electricity 138.10 132.45 0.96
Construction 81.87 109.82 1.34
Trade 67.21 87.44 1.30
Transport Comm. 88.92 110.50 1.24
Fin. Services 127.54 207.81 1.63
Comm. personal services 89.73 111.87 1.25
All 64.22 101.52 1.58
Source Calculated from LFS data. The wage
rates for all urban and rural are based on
weighted average.
31
Table 6.2.1 Determinants of wage 2003 Dependent
Variable Log of daily Wage for paid workers
(2003)
Independent Coefficients Value of t Significance
(Constant) 2.831 64.828 .000
Workers age .040 21.423 .000
Square of workers age .000 -20.66 .000
Workers education .034 28.592 .000
Sex of workers dummy .415 22.328 .000
Whether wage labour, dummy (1yes) -.212 -15.56 .000
Formal dummy .105 8.067 .000
Public (dummy) .318 17.999 .000
Mining dummy .153 1.749 .080
Manufacturing dummy .167 10.392 .000
Electricity dummy .098 1.684 .092
Construction dummy .325 18.216 .000
Trade dummy .016 .761 .447
Transport Communication dummy .252 13.033 .000
Finance dummy .298 8.116 .000
Service dummy .019 1.125 .260
No. of malefemale workers 15 -.020 -4.097 .000
No. of non workers .063 11.471 .000
Ratio of female worker .006 .268 .789
Land ownership .006 4.190 .000
Area dummy (1Rural) -.107 -10.13 .000
Whether head, dummy (1yes) .101 6.373 .000
Whether received any training (dummy) .127 8.368 .000
N Value of F Adjusted R square 15034 574.59 0.46 - .000
Source Estimated from Table 6.2.1.
32
Table 6.3.1 Nominal and real wage indices by
sector 1991 to 2004
Year Nominal Indices Nominal Indices Nominal Indices Nominal Indices Real Wage Indices Real Wage Indices Real Wage Indices
General Manufacturing industry Construction Agriculture General Manufacturing industry Construction
1990-1991 1482 1575 1487 1321 107 114 107
1991-1992 1553 1641 1512 1421 107 113 104
1992-1993 1638 1724 1579 1523 113 119 109
1993-1994 1709 1828 1598 1593 114 121 106
1994-1995 1786 1947 1613 1653 111 121 100
1995-1996 1900 2064 1754 1738 114 123 105
1996-1997 1989 2161 1848 1804 120 130 111
1997-1998 2141 2395 1990 1870 122 137 114
1998-1999 2259 2522 2163 1950 118 131 113
1999-2000 2390 2702 2286 2037 121 137 116
2000-2001 2489 2832 2356 2141 125 142 118
2001-2002 2637 3035 2444 2262 130 150 121
2002-2003 2926 3501 2624 2443 142 169 127
2003-2004 3079 3705 2669 2582 146 175 126
Note (Uses industrial workers CPI). Source
Economic Survey 2001, Monthly Statistical
Bulletin (various issues), BBS.
33
Table 6.3.2 Average annual Growth Rate of Real
Wage Indices (per cent per year)
Period Agriculture (B. Sen 2004) General Manufacturing Construction
1991-1996 Negative 1.6 2.2 0.2
1996-2000 9.8 1.5 2.8 2.6
2000-2003 2.9 5.2 6.9 2.2
Source Col. 3 to 5 calculated from Table 6.3.1
of the present paper.
34
Table 6.3.3 Changes of nominal wage in cotton
textile sector as compared to changes of CPI
1994 to 2002
Year Nominal wage rate (taka/day) change of CPI change of nominal wage
1994 56.9 - -
1995 62.9 8.9 10.5
1996 67.6 6.6 7.5
1997 69.2 2.5 2.4
1998 76.1 7.0 10.0
1999 76.1 8.9 0.0
2000 85.5 3.9 12.3
2001 85.5 1.5 0.0
2002 85.5 2.2 0.0
Source BBS Statistical Yearbook, various years.
35
Table 6.3.4 Comparison of wage rates in
Bangladesh with other South Asian Countries
Country (col. 1) Wage Wage
Country (col. 1) Agriculture US per year (col. 2) RMG US per hour (col. 3)
Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka 360 245 264 416 - 0.15 0.35 0.30 - 0.45
Source Col. 2 (World Bank 2003), Col. 3
Financial Express, Dhaka, 15 June 1995
36
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Table 8.2.1 Womens role in agriculture and
manufacturing sector
Year Sector Womens share in paid employment (per cent) Womens share (per cent) in total employment
2002-03 Agriculture 5.6 26.3
Manufacturing 34.9 39.3
Total 19.9 22.2
1999-2000 Agriculture 13.7 19.1
Manufacturing 27.5 37.9
Total 17.1 20.2
Source Calculated for LFS data.
40
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