Democracy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Democracy and its discontent – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 19 May 2020
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Title: Democracy

  • and its discontent

Or is it not?
  • Democracy, CITIZENSHIP Education

But before we begin
  • 1) Define what democracy is 2) Why we need it
    3) What kind of democracy is Morocco and 4) Is
    democracy compatible with Sharia or Islam(ic
  • Be divided into two groups Be in the group you
    dont believe in.

To recap Three kinds of citizenship
  • The personally responsible citizen She or he who
    acts responsibly in his/her community by, for
    example, picking up litter, giving blood,
    recycling, obeying laws, and staying out of debt
    (Westheimer Kahne, 2004, p. 3). The role of
    education here is to teach how to become a

  • The participatory citizen One who actively
    participates in the civic affairs and social life
    of the local community at local, state and
    national levels. The role of education here is to
    teach about how government and community based
    organizations work and how to be informed in
    changing, for example, school policy.

  • The justice oriented citizen One who is informed
    on the structural nature of injustice and the
    interplay of social, economic, and political
    forces. The role of education here is teach
    social change and that charity and volunteerism
    are not ends in themselves, but we need to effect
    systemic change, in the root of a problem. When
    I give food to the poor, they call me a saint.
    When I ask why the poor have no food, they call
    me a communist (Bishop Dom Helder Camara)

Democratic Theories
  • Renascent liberal democracy (John Dewey)
  • Strong democracy (Benjamin Barber)
  • Deliberative democracy (Iris Young)
  • Radical democracy (Laclau Mouffe)

What is democracy?
  • Greek demos (people) kratia (rule, power,
  • Conceived in the city-state of Athens as a
    reaction to a concentration and abuse of power by
    the rulers and as the rule of the people - (for
    and by the people - Lincoln).
  • People actually meant wealthy men
  • Not until the Enlightenment (17th/18th Century)
    do we have our current notion of democracy a
    constitution, election, separation of powers,
    rights and responsibilities (legal, personal and
    political), and separation of church and state

Simply put Democracy is
  • the political orientation/philosophy of those
    who advocate a government by the people or by
    their elected representatives
  • a political system in which the supreme power
    lies in a body of citizens who can elect people
    to represent them
  • majority rule the doctrine that the numerical
    majority of an organized group can make decisions
    binding on the whole group The challenge of
    democracy is its minority.

Of course, it is the worst form of government
  • No one pretends that democracy is perfect or
    all-wise. Indeed, it has been said that democracy
    is the worst form of government except all those
    other forms that have been tried from time to

So, democracy is built against
  • Monarchy Government by a single ruler
    (king/queen, emperor)
  • Aristocracy Government by noblemen (hereditary)
  • Oligarchy Government by few persons
  • Theocracy "Government by God" (in reality this
    means government by religious leaders)
  • Dictatorship Government by people, that have
    seized power by force (e.g., military

Renascent liberal democracy (John Dewey)
  • Classic vs New Liberalism
  • Classic Liberalism is associated with John Locke
    and Jean-Jacques Rousseau and premised on 1)
    individual rights are natural rights, 2)
    individuals need protection from invasion and
    criminals and from others trying to take away
    their rights to free speech and to carry arms, 3)
    securing opportunities to fulfill ones own

Classic Liberalism
  • The role of the government or the state is to
    protect individuals from others and otherwise
    stay out of their lives and allow them to live as
    they freely choose.
  • One should always be suspicious of the government

Then came Dewey Renascent Liberalism
  • He critiqued the primacy of individualism by
    introducing the notion of community to it. One is
    not developed atomistically on her own.
  • For Dewey, democracy is a mode of associated
    living, where we start out as members of
    communities (and our first community is our

Our sense of self
  • So, our sense of self begins in-relation-with-othe
    rs there is no self without the other.

The government
  • The government is seen as a tool to alleviate
    suffering and help those in need
  • Using public funding, the government should pay
    for public education

Principles of Renascent Liberalism
  • 1) Democracy is an ideal always-in-the-making,
    never to be achieved, and so is community
    Democracy must begin at home, and its home is
    the neighborly community (The Public, 1954, p.
  • 2) Ultimately, individuals should have freed
    intelligence - a scientific method of reflective
  • 3) Material security is a prerequisite for
    individual freedom

  • 4) What we believe as individuals is the outcome
    of association and intercourse. Here, a society
    is individuals in their connections with one
    another (and politics is secondary to this)
  • 5) So our aim in education should be to initiate
    our young into communities by teaching them our
    language and customs

  • 6) We are not going to have democracy until all
    our institutions are run democratically (mosques,
    business, schools, family, law, government, etc.)
  • 7) Democracy needs free speech, free press, free
    assembly, and an education system that encourages
    inquiry - a scientific attitude

Strong Democracy (Benjamin Barber)
  • It is built against Liberalism, which for Barber
    lacks a theory of citizenship since it totally
    focuses on the individual
  • To be political is to have to choose, and to
    have to choose is without reference to grounds
    that are a priori.

Strong democracy is
  • politics in the participatory mode where
    conflict is resolved in the absence of an
    independent ground through a participatory
    process of ongoing, proximate self-legislation
    and the creation of a political community capable
    of transforming dependent, private individuals
    into free citizens and partial and private
    interests into public goods (Strong democracy,
    1984, p. 132).

Ultimately ..
  • Democracys central values are participation,
    citizenship, and political activity.
  • He wants direct participation, face-to-face
    community communication, volunteer programs,
    rotating lottery system for citizens to take
    their run in local political system

Deliberative Democracy (Iris Young)
  • Democracy CANNOT aim for consensus, harmony, and
    reconciliation for these lead too easily to
    domination and oppression of people not like
  • She is calling for TWO things 1) developing and
    exercising ones capacities and expressing ones
    experience, and 2) participating in determining
    ones action and the conditions of ones action

What is she calling for?
  • She wants an unoppressive city, one with a
    population large enough that people can find
    freedom in anonymity. She does not want to know
    everybody, nor does she want everybody to know
    her she wants to be able to come and go
    unnoticed (unless she chooses otherwise). She
    wants a city where people can create a coalition
    around an issue and then dissolve this coalition
    and reclaim anonymity (differentiated
    solidarity) a place that offers social
    differentiation without exclusion.

Radical democracy(Ernesto Laclau Chantal
  • It is neither communitarian nor liberal nor
    Marxist - at the intersection
  • First, individual rights shouldnt be over the
    common good here, equality and individual
    freedom should not tolerate a highly unequal
    social order
  • Second, structural relations of oppression should
    recognize that oppression and exploitation are
    deeply rooted in social relations

  • Third, capitalism should be critiqued, but class
    shouldnt be the center of analysis
  • Fourth, not all arguments are equally valid,
    hence all has to be approached as contingent,
    non-essentialist, and hence preserving the
    plurality of the social
  • Fifth, power relation is central

  • Sixth There should be an open confrontation and
    no victory is final
  • Seventh Democracy is always to come, and can
    never be.
  • So our task is to envision the creation of a
    vibrant agnostic public sphere of contestation
    (On the Political, 2005, p. 3)