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An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

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Chapter 52 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere


1
Chapter 52
  • An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

2
Ecology-the study of the interactions between
organisms and their environment
  • Populationgroup of individuals of the same
    species in a particular geographical area
  • Communityassemblage of populations of different
    species
  • Ecosystemall abiotic factors and the community
    of species in an area
  • Biospherethe sum of all the planets ecosystems

3
Ecology provides a scientific context for
evaluating environmental issues
  • Rachel Carson, 1962, Silent Spring
  • Precautionary principle-should guide decisions in
    which not all answers are known.

4
Components of the environment
  • abioticnonliving chemical physical
    factors temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks
    and soil, periodic disturbances
  • bioticliving factors predation, disease,
    famine, competition

5
Factors affecting distribution of organisms
  • Behavior and habitat selection- ovipositing
    insects often choose only certain host plants-may
    limit their distribution.
  • Environmental conditions may change too rapidly
    due to human interventions.
  • Biotic factors
  • Abiotic factors-temperature and moisture are
    major climatic factors

6
Global climate patterns
  • Seasons

Precipitation Winds
7
Biomes-the major types of ecosystems
  • Aquatic -occupy the largest part of the
    biosphere.
  • Terrestrial

8
Lake stratification turnover
  • Thermal stratification vertical temperature
    layering
  • Biannual mixing spring and autumn
  • Seasonal Turnover changing water temperature
    profiles brings oxygenated water from the
    surface to the bottom and nutrient rich water
    form the bottom to the surface

9
Aquatic biomes
  • Vertical stratification
  • photic zone photosynthetic light
  • aphotic zone little light
    thermocline narrow stratum of rapid temperature
    change
  • benthic zone bottom substrate
  • Benthos community of organisms at the bottom
    substrate
  • Detritus dead organic matter food for benthic
    organisms

10
Freshwater biomes
  • Lake classification oligotrophic deep,
    nutrient poor
  • eutrophic shallow, high nutrient
    content mesotrophic moderate productivity
  • Wetland area covered with water
  • Estuary area where freshwater merges with ocean

11
Freshwater biomes
  • Littoral zone shallow, well-lit waters close to
    shore may contain rooted and floating aquatic
    plants.
  • Limnetic zone well-lit, open water farther from
    shore contains phytoplankton
  • Profundal zone deep, aphotic waters microbes
    decompose detritus

12
Marine biomes
  • Intertidal zone area where land meets water
  • Neritic zone shallow regions over continental
    shelves
  • Oceanic zone very deep water past the
    continental shelves
  • Pelagic zone open water of any depth
  • Benthic zone seafloor bottom
  • Abyssal zone benthic region in deep oceans

13
Terrestrial biomes
  • Tropical forests equator most complex constant
    temperature and rainfall canopy
  • Savanna tropical grassland with scattered trees
    occasional fire and drought large herbivores
  • Desert sparse rainfall (lt30cm/yr)
  • Chaparral spiny evergreens at midlatitudes along
    coasts
  • Temperate grassland all grasses seasonal
    drought, occasional fires large mammals
  • Temperate deciduous forest midlatitude regions
    broad-leaf deciduous trees
  • Coniferous forest cone-bearing trees
  • Tundra permafrost very little precipitation
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